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Genesis

Genesis front

Genesis front:intro

Introduction to Genesis

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of Genesis
  1. From the Creation to the Tower of Babel
    • The account of the creation of the heavens and the earth (1:1–4:26)
    • The account of Adam (5:1–6:8)
    • The account of Noah (6:9–11:9)
    • The account of Shem (11:10–11:26)
    • The account of Terah (11:27–11:32)
  2. The accounts of the Patriarchs
    • The account of Abraham (12:1-25:11)
    • The account of Ishmael (25:12–25:18)
    • The account of Isaac, focusing on Jacob (25:19–35:29)
    • The account of Esau (36:1–37:1)
    • The account of Jacob, focusing on Joseph (37:2–50:26)
What is Genesis about?

Genesis begins with the early years of creation. It tells about God creating heaven, earth, and the first humans. It also tells about the first time humans sinned. This caused humans to be separated from God and to eventually die. Genesis 1-11 briefly tells about other important events that occurred over many hundreds of years. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/other/death.md]])

Genesis is also about the beginning of God's people. Genesis 12-50 tells about how God remained faithful to Abraham and his descendants. Abraham's descendants became known as the Hebrews and later as the Israelites. These people would worship Yahweh and be his people.

Genesis ends with Abraham's descendants living in Egypt with the hope of returning one day to the Promised Land. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promisedland.md]])

How should the title of this book be translated?

"Genesis" means "beginning," so translators should express this idea in their title. Titles such as "The Beginning of Things" may be suitable. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Who wrote Genesis?

The writers of both the Old and New Testaments presented Moses as being very involved with writing the book of Genesis. Since ancient times, both Jews and Christians have thought that Moses wrote Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What are the covenants mentioned in Genesis?

A covenant is a formal, binding agreement between two parties that one or both parties must fulfill.

God made three covenants in Genesis. In the covenant with Adam, God promised to bless Adam and cause him to prosper. Adam was not allowed to eat fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. God promised that Adam would die if he disobeyed what he commanded.

In the covenant with Noah, God promised to never again destroy the world with a flood.

In the covenant with Abraham, God promised to make Abraham's descendants into a great nation. He also promised to protect them and to give them a land of their own.

What was God's purpose for the book of Genesis?

The book of Genesis says that God created a very good world. However, the world became cursed because human beings began to sin. But Genesis shows that God continues to have complete control over the world.

Genesis also describes the start of God's plan to bless the whole world again. This is shown when God makes a covenant with Abraham. With this covenant, God chose Abraham and his descendants to be his people. God promised to bless the world through Abraham's descendants.

What was the custom for inheritance as described by Genesis?

There are several passages in Genesis that show the customs of a father who is about to die passing on a blessing to his son. Abraham blessed his son, Isaac, and made him the ancestor of the people of Israel. However, Ishmael, Abraham's other son, did not receive that same divine blessing. Likewise, Isaac's older son Esau did not receive the blessing. Isaac's younger son, Jacob, received it instead. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/inherit.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/bless.md]])

Also, it was the custom for a man to divide among his sons his material wealth and land. All his sons received equal portions except the oldest son. The firstborn son received twice as much. His portion was called a double portion. Esau gave up his right to receive the double portion.

How does Genesis present sin and evil?

Genesis presents sin as doing things that are against God’s word and God's ways. It presents evil as the opposite of good.

Sin and evil have affected all people. This started when Adam disobeyed God in the Garden of Eden.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

What is one way in which Genesis marks the beginning of important sections?

Genesis uses one Hebrew phrase that the ULB translates as "this is the record of," "these were the events concerning," or "these were the descendants of." The information in these sections may have come from sources much older than Moses. These passages are 2:4; 5:1; 6:9; 10:1; 11:10, 27; 25:12, 19; 36:1, 9; 37:2.

If the translator wants to translate in only two ways, we recommend for most passages a phrase such as, "this is the record about" or "this is information about." Some passages will be better translated, however, as "These were the descendants of."

Why are the beginnings of some narrative sections in Genesis difficult to translate?

Often in Genesis, the author first summarizes what is about to happen. Then in the following verses, the author tells the details of what happened. Probable examples of this style occur in Gen. 1:1, 6:22, 18:1, 21:1 and 22:1.

However, in many languages, it is preferred to write summaries at the end of a narrative. In this case, translators may choose a different approach. For example, in Gen. 1:1 ("In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth"), translators may decide to translate like this: "This is about how God made the heavens and the earth in the beginning."

What is the difference between "people," "peoples," and "people groups"?

The word "people" refers to all the individuals who belong to a group, such as "the people of Israel." The word "peoples" (used in the ULB) refers to multiple groups of people. Each people group might speak their own language, have their own customs, and worships their own gods. Some different peoples in the ancient Near East were those of Israel, Egypt, Edom, Moab, and Ammon.

The expression "people groups" (used in the UDB) means the same thing as "peoples" in the ULB. The translator should use the most equivalent term that is common in the project language.

What is the relationship between individuals and peoples that have similar names?

Many individuals in Genesis eventually had large numbers of descendants who were called after their ancestor's name. For example, Cush was the name of an individual. But, "Cush" also became the name of nation that his descendants formed. They were called "Cushites." If possible, when translating these names, the translator should make the individual's name and the nation's name similar. Examples of this are "Cush" and "Cushite" or "Moab" and "Moabite." Otherwise, the translator may say, "the descendants of Cush" or "the descendants of Moab."

What do the phrases "to this day" or "of today" mean?

These phrases were used by the narrator to refer to the time when he was writing. The translator should be aware that "to this day" and "of today" refer to a time already passed. The translator might decide to say, "to this day, at the time when this is being written," or, "to this day, at the time of writing." This Hebrew phrase occurs in Gen. 19:37, 19:38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, 47:26, 48:18.

Genesis 1

Genesis 1:intro-0

Genesis 01 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter presents the first account of God creating the world. There is a pattern to this account: "God said ... God saw that it was good ... This was evening and morning, the first day." Translators should preserve this pattern in their versions.

Special concepts in this chapter
# The universe

This account of creation is told within the framework of ancient Hebrew ideas about the universe: the earth was resting with water around it and below it. Over the earth was something like a vast dome, called "an expanse between the waters" (1:6), on top of which was more water. Translators should try to keep these original images in their work, even though readers in their project language might have a completely different idea of what the universe is like.

# Evening and morning

Genesis 1 presents the ancient Hebrew idea of a day: it begins with sunset, lasts through the night and continues through the daylight hours until the next sunset. This pattern should be preserved in translation, even if readers in the project language define "day" differently.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# "God said, 'Let there be'"

This expression occurs often in this chapter. It can be difficult to translate, because God is not shown as talking to a particular person. If God is talking to a thing, it is something not yet in existence. Translators should find the most natural way in the project language to signal the idea that God spoke things into existence; he created the world and the things in it by simply commanding that they should exist.

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Genesis 1:1-2

In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth

"This is about how God made the heavens and the earth in the beginning." This statement summarizes the rest of the chapter. Some languages translate it as "A very long time ago God created the heavens and the earth." Translate it in a way that shows this actually happened and is not just a folk story.

In the beginning

This refers to the start of the world and everything in it.

the heavens and the earth

"the sky, the ground, and everything in them"

heavens

This refers here to the sky.

without form and empty

God had not yet put the world in order.

the deep

"the water" or "the deep water" or "the vast water"

the waters

"the water" or "the surface of the water"

translationWords

Genesis 1:3-5

Let there be light

This is a command. By commanding that light should exist, God made it exist. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

God saw the light, that it was good

"God considered the light and was pleased with it." "Good" here means "pleasing" or "suitable."

divided the light from the darkness

"separated the light and the darkness" or "made it light at one time and dark at another." This refers to God creating the daytime and the night time.

This was evening and morning, the first day

God did these things on the first day that the universe existed.

evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 1:6-8

Let there be an expanse ... let it divide

These are commands. By commanding that the expanse should exist and that it divide the waters, God made it exist and divide the waters. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

expanse

large empty space. The Jewish people thought of this space as being shaped like the inside of dome or the inside of a bowl that is turned upside down.

between the waters

"in the water"

God made the expanse and divided the waters

"In this way God made the expanse and divided the waters." When God spoke, it happened. This sentence explains what God did when he spoke.

It was so

"It happened like that" or "That is what happened." What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning wherever it appears.

evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:5. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

the second day

This refers to the second day that the universe existed. See how you translated "the first day" in Genesis 1:5 and decide if you should translate this the same way.

translationWords

Genesis 1:9-10

Let the waters ... be gathered

This can be translated with an active verb. This is a command. By commanding that the waters gather together, God made them gather together. AT: "Let the waters ... gather" or "Let the waters ... come together" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

let the dry land appear

The water had covered the land. Now the water would move aside and some of the land would be uncovered. This is a command. By commanding that dry land should appear, God made it appear. AT: "let dry land become visible" or "let the dry land become clear" or "let the land be uncovered" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

dry land

This refers to land that is not covered with water. It does not refer to land that is too dry for farming.

It was so

"It happened like that" or "That is what happened." What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning wherever it appears. See how you translated it in Genesis 1:7.

the dry land "earth," and

"the part that was dry 'earth,' and"

He saw that it was good

Here "it" refers to the land and the sea. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:4.

translationWords

Genesis 1:11-13

Let the earth sprout vegetation

This is a command. By commanding that vegetation should sprout on the earth, God made it sprout. AT: "Let vegetation sprout up on the earth" or "Let vegetation grow on the earth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

vegetation: plants yielding seed and fruit trees bearing fruit

"vegetation, each plant that bears seed and each tree that bears fruit" or "vegetation. Let them be plants that produce seeds and fruit trees that produce fruit." Here "vegetation" is used here as a general term that includes all plants and trees.

plants

These are kinds of vegetation that have soft stems, rather than woody stems.

fruit trees bearing fruit whose seed is in the fruit

"trees that bear fruit with seeds in them"

each according to its own kind

The seeds would produce plants and trees that would be like the ones they came from. In this way, the plants and trees would "reproduce themselves" .

It was so

"It happened like that" or "That is what happened." What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning wherever it appears. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:7.

God saw that it was good

Here "it" refers to the vegetation, plants, and trees. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:10.

evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:5. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

the third day

This refers to the third day that the universe existed. See how you translated "the first day" in Genesis 1:5 and decide if you should translate this the same way.

translationWords

Genesis 1:14-15

Let there be lights in the sky

This is a command. By commanding that lights should exist, God made them exist. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

lights in the sky

"things that shine in the sky" or "things that give light in the sky." This refers to the sun, moon, and stars.

in the sky

"in the expanse of the sky" or "in the large space of the sky"

to divide the day from the night

"to separate the day from the night." This means "to help us tell the difference between day and night." The sun means it is daytime, and the moon and stars mean it is nighttime.

let them be as signs

This is a command. By commanding that they should serve as signs, God made them serve as signs. AT: "Let them serve as signs" or "let them show" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

signs

Here this means something that reveals or points to something.

for seasons, for days and years

The sun, moon, and stars show the passing of time. This enables us to know when it is time for events that happen each week, month, or year.

seasons

times that are set aside for festivals and other things that people do

Let them be lights in the sky to give light upon the earth

This is a command. By commanding that they should light the earth, God made them light the earth. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

to give light upon the earth

"to shine light on the earth" or "to brighten the earth." The earth does not self-shine but it is lit and so reflects light.

It was so

"It happened like that" or "That is what happened." What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:7.

translationWords

Genesis 1:16-19

God made the two great lights

"In this way God made the two great lights." This sentence explains what God did when he spoke.

the two great lights

"the two large lights" or "the two bright lights." The two great lights are the sun and the moon.

to rule the day

The lights that controlled the day are spoken of as if they were a human ruler that controlled what people do. AT: "to direct the daytime as a ruler directs a group of people" or "to mark the times of the day" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

day

This refers only to the daylight hours.

the lesser light

"the smaller light" or "the dimmer light"

in the sky

"in the heavens" or "in the open space of the sky"

to divide the light from the darkness

"to separate the light from the darkness" or "to make it light at one time and dark at another." See how you translated this in Genesis 1:4.

God saw that it was good

Here "it" refers to the sun, moon, and stars. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:4.

evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:5. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

the fourth day

This refers to the fourth day that the universe existed. See how you translated "the first day" in Genesis 1:5 and decide if you should translate this the same way.

translationWords

Genesis 1:20-21

Let the waters be filled with great numbers of living creatures

This is a command. By commanding that living creatures should fill the waters, God made them exist. Some languages may have one word that refers to all kinds of fish and sea animals. AT: "Let the waters be full of many living things" or "Let many animals that swim live in the oceans" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

let birds fly

This is a command. By commanding that birds should fly, God made them fly. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

birds

"animals that fly" or "flying things"

the expanse of the sky

"the open space of the sky" or "the sky"

God created

"In this way God created"

great sea creatures

"large animals that live in the sea"

after its kind

Living things of the same "kind" are like the ones they came from. See how you translated "kind" in Genesis 1:11,12.

every winged bird

"every flying thing that has wings." If the word for birds is used, it may be more natural in some languages to simply say "every bird," since all birds have wings.

God saw that it was good

Here "it" refers to the birds and the fish. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:4.

translationWords

Genesis 1:22-23

blessed them

"blessed the animals that he had made"

Be fruitful and multiply

This is God's blessing. He told the sea animals to produce more sea animals like themselves, so that there would be many of them in the seas. The word "multiply" explains how they are to be "fruitful." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

multiply

increase greatly in number

Let birds multiply

This is a command. By commanding that birds should multiply, God made birds multiply. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

birds

"animals that fly" or "flying things." See how you translated this in Genesis 1:20.

evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:5. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

the fifth day

This refers to the fifth day that the universe existed. See how you translated "the first day" in Genesis 1:5 and decide if you should translate this the same way.

translationWords

Genesis 1:24-25

Let the earth produce living creatures

"Let the earth produce living things" or "Let many living animals live on the earth." This is a command. By commanding that the earth should produce living creatures, God made the earth produce living creatures. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

each according to its own kind

"so that each kind of animal will produce more of its own kind"

livestock, creeping things, and beasts of the earth

This shows that God created all kinds of animals. If your language has another way of grouping all the animals, you can use that, or you can use these groups.

livestock

animals that people look after

creeping things

"small animals"

beasts of the earth

"wild animals" or "dangerous animals"

It was so

"It happened like that" or "That is what happened." What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:7.

God made the beasts

"In this way God made the beasts"

He saw that it was good

Here "it" refers to the living creatures on the earth. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:4.

translationWords

Genesis 1:26-27

Let us make

The word "us" here refers to God. God was saying what he intended to do. The pronoun "us" is plural. Possible reasons for the plural use are 1) the plural form suggests that God is discussing something with the angels that make up his heavenly court or 2) the plural form foreshadows the later New Testament implications that God exists in the form of the Holy Trinity. Some translate it as "Let me make" or "I will make." If you do this, consider adding a footnote to say that the word is plural. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-pronouns/01.md]])

man

human beings

in our image, after our likeness

These two phrases mean the same thing and emphasize that God made mankind to be like him. This verse does not tell in what ways God made people to be like himself. God does not have a body, so it does not mean that people would look like God. AT: "to truly be like us" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-pronouns/01.md]])

have dominion over

"rule over" or "have authority over"

God created man ... he created him

These two sentences mean the same thing and emphasize that God created people in his own image. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]])

God created man

The way that God created man was different from the way he created everything else. Do not specify that he created man by simply speaking, as in the preceding verses.

translationWords

Genesis 1:28-29

God blessed them

The word "them" refers to the man and woman God had created.

Be fruitful, and multiply

God told the man and the woman to produce more people like themselves so that there would be many of them. The word "multiply" explains how they are to be "fruitful." See how you translated this in Genesis 1:22. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Fill the earth

Fill the earth with people.

translationWords

Genesis 1:30-31

General Information:

God continues speaking.

every bird of the heavens

"all the birds that fly in the sky"

that has the breath of life

"that breathes." This phrase emphasizes that these animals had a different kind of life than the plants. Plants do not breathe, and were to be used as food for the animals. Here "life" means physical life.

It was so

"It happened like that" or "That is what happened." What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning. See how you translated it in Genesis 1:7.

Behold, it

"This is true and important: it"

it was very good

Now when God looked at everything he had made, it was "very good. "See how you translated "it was good" in Genesis 1:10.

evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:5. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

the sixth day

This refers to the sixth day that the universe existed. See how you translated "the first day" in Genesis 1:5 and decide if you should translate this the same way.

translationWords

Genesis 2

Genesis 2:intro-0

Genesis 02 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Gen. 2:1-3 ends the first creation account, begun in the previous chapter. The second creation account, beginning in 2:4, is very different, using a more natural, story-telling style instead of following a set formula using repeated phrases. Translators should try to imitate this difference in their versions.

Special concepts in this chapter
# The second creation account in Gen. 2:4-25

Gen. 2:4-25 presents an account of creation from a different viewpoint than the one given in Gen. 1:1-2:3. This second account should be regarded as filling out the first account, not as conflicting with it.

# Yahweh, the name of God

"Yahweh," the personal name of God in the Old Testament, appears for the first time in this chapter. Translators must decide how to represent it in their versions. For 2,000 years, it has been traditional for many Christians to represent it with the term "the Lord." Indeed, it is demanded by Roman Catholics for their Bible versions to continue doing this. Of course, the disadvantage of using "the Lord" is that this is a title for God, not a personal name. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/yahweh.md]])

Translators who are not producing versions for Roman Catholics can consider transliterating the name "Yahweh," approximating the name as best as their project languages allow.

Or translators can consider using expressions for the supreme god that might exist in their project languages, such as, "The Great One," "The Ruler of All," "The One who Never Sleeps," etc. Of course, these are descriptive titles, not personal names, so they suffer from the same disadvantages that "the Lord" has.

Translators can also consider pairing a transliteration of "Yahweh" with a meaningful title for the supreme god in the project language. Whatever solution is found should be followed consistently when the name "Yahweh" occurs in the Scriptures.

# The Garden of Eden

This was not a vegetable garden or cultivated field. Instead, it was probably a large area of land with fruit trees and other plants bearing leaves, etc., that were good to eat. A river flowed out from the Garden of Eden, giving the impression that the Garden was a holy place; in the ancient Near East, temples had gardens and waterways. In Rev. 22:1-2, the throne of God in the New Jerusalem is pictured with a river flowing out from it. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/holy.md]])

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Genesis 2:1-3

the heavens

"the sky" or "the skies"

and all the living things that filled them

"and all the many living things that are in them" or "and all the crowds of living things in them"

were finished

This can be stated in active form. AT: "God had finished creating them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

On the seventh day God came to the end of his work

God did not work at all on the seventh day.

came to the end of

This is an idiom. AT: "had finished" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

he rested on the seventh day from all his work

"on that day he did not work"

God blessed the seventh day

Possible meanings are 1) God caused the seventh day to produce good result or 2) God said that the seventh day was good.

sanctified it

"set it apart" or "called it his own"

in it he rested from all his work

"on it he did not work"

translationWords

Genesis 2:4-6

General Information:

The rest of Genesis 2 tells about how God created people on the sixth day.

These were the events concerning the heavens and the earth

"This is the account of the heavens and the earth" or "This is the story about the heavens and the earth." Possible meanings are 1) it is a summary of the events described in Genesis 1:1-2:3 or 2) it introduces the events described in Genesis 2. If possible, translate this so that people can understood it either way.

they were created

"Yahweh God created them." In chapter 1 the writer always speaks of God as "God," but in chapter 2 he always speaks of God as "Yahweh God."

on the day that Yahweh God made

"when Yahweh God created." The word "day" refers to the whole time span of the creation, not to just one particular day.

Yahweh

This is the name of God that he revealed to his people in the Old Testament. See the translationWord page about Yahweh concerning how to translate this.

No bush of the field

no shrubs growing in the wild that animals might eat

no plant of the field

no leafy plants like vegetables or greens that both animals and humans can eat

to cultivate

to do everything he needed to do so that the plants would grow well

mist

Possible meanings are 1) something like dew or morning fog o 2) springs from underground streams.

the whole surface of the ground

the entire earth

translationWords

Genesis 2:7-8

formed man

"molded man" or "shaped man" or "created man"

man ... man

"a human being ... the human" or "a person ... the person" not specifically a male

his nostrils

"his nose"

breath of life

"breath that makes things live." Here "life" refers to physical life.

a garden

This could have been an orchard of fruit trees or an area with all kinds of trees.

eastward

in the east

translationWords

Genesis 2:9-10

the tree of life

"the tree that gives people life"

life

Here this means "eternal life" or life that does not end.

the tree of the knowledge of good and evil

"the tree that gives people the ability to understand both good and evil" or "the tree that makes people who eat its fruit able to know good things and bad things"

good and evil

This is a figure of speech that refers to both extremes and everything in between. AT: "everything, including both good and evil" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

in the midst of the garden

"in the middle of the garden." The two trees may not have been in the exact center of the garden.

A river went out of Eden to water the garden

The garden was in Eden. The river continued to flow outside of Eden. "A river flowed through Eden to water the garden"

translationWords

Genesis 2:11-12

Pishon

This is the only time this river is referred to in the Bible. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

the whole land of Havilah

"the whole land called Havilah." It was somewhere in the Arabian Desert. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

where there is gold

This phrase gives information about Havilah. Some languages would translate it as a separate sentence. AT: "There is gold in Havilah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-distinguish/01.md]])

There are also bdellium and the onyx stone

The word "there" is placed first in the sentence for emphasis. AT: "This is also where people can find bdellium and onyx stones"

bdellium

This resin comes from a tree and smells nice. A resin is sticky stuff that comes out of some trees and can burn. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-unknown/01.md]])

the onyx stone

"onyx stones." Onyx is a certain kind of beautiful stone. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-unknown/01.md]])

Genesis 2:13-14

Gihon

This is the only mention of this river in the Bible. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

flows throughout the whole land of Cush

The river did not cover the whole land, but wound through various parts of the land.

the whole land of Cush

"the entire land called Cush"

which flows east of Ashur

"which flows in the land east of the city of Ashur." The Tigris River flows from north to south. The phrase "which flows east of Ashur" gives information about where the Tigris River is. Some languages would translate it as a separate sentence. AT: "It flows east of Ashur" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-distinguish/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 2:15-17

the garden of Eden

"the garden that was in Eden"

to work it

"to cultivate it." This means to do everything necessary so that the plants will grow well.

to maintain it

to guard against anything bad happening in it

From every tree in the garden

"The fruit of every tree in the garden"

you

This pronoun is singular. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

you may freely eat ... you may not eat

In some languages it would be natural to first say what is not permitted and to then say what is permitted, as in the UDB.

may freely eat

"may eat without restriction"

the tree of the knowledge of good and evil

"the tree that gives people the ability to understand both good and evil" or "the tree that makes people who eat its fruit able to know good things and bad things." See how you translated this in Genesis 2:9.

you may not eat

"I will not permit you to eat" or "you must not eat"

translationWords

Genesis 2:18-20

I will make him a helper suitable for him

"I will make a helper who is just right for him"

every animal of the field and every bird of the sky

The phrases "of the field" and "of the sky" tell where the animals and birds are usually found. AT: "all kinds of animals and birds"

all the livestock

"all the animals that people look after"

there was found no helper suitable for him

This can be stated in active form. AT: "there was no companion that was right for him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 2:21-23

caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man

"caused the man to sleep intensely." A deep sleep is a time of sleeping in which a person is not easily disturbed or wakened.

With the rib ... he made a woman

"From the rib ... he formed a woman." The rib was the material God made the woman from.

This time, this one is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh

"Finally, this one's bones are like my bones, and her flesh is like my flesh." After looking among all the animals for a partner and not finding one, he finally saw someone who was like him and could be his partner. The man was probably expressing his feeling of relief and joy.

flesh

This refers to the soft parts of the body like skin and muscle.

She will be called 'woman,' because she was taken out of man

The translator may want to write a footnote saying "The Hebrew word for 'woman' sounds like the Hebrew word for 'man.'

translationWords

Genesis 2:24-25

General Information:

What follows is written by the author. The man did not say these things.

Therefore a man

"That is why a man"

a man will leave his father and his mother

"a man will stop living in his father and mother's home." This is about men in general. It does not refer to any particular man at any particular time.

they will become one flesh

This idiom speaks of sexual activity as though the bodies that are together become one body. AT: "their two bodies will become one body" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

They were both naked

The word "they" refers to the man and the woman that God had created.

naked

"not wearing clothing"

but were not ashamed

"they were not ashamed about being naked"

translationWords

Genesis 3

Genesis 3:intro-0

Genesis 03 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter continues the second creation account that began in Gen. 2:4. But a new section of this account begins in 3:1. The ULB reads, "Now the serpent was more shrewd than any other beast of the field which Yahweh God had made," because this is how the Scriptures introduce the serpent into the account. However, many languages prefer different ways to introduce new characters or things into stories, for example, "One of the wild animals made by God was the serpent" or "This is about the serpent, one of the wild animals that God had made."

Scholars typically refer to the events of this chapter as "the fall" or "the fall of man" because sin is introduced into creation. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]])

Special concepts in this chapter
# Curses

In this chapter, God curses the man, the woman, and the serpent for their sins. In general, cursing is calling down God's punishment on someone or something. In this chapter, however, it is God himself who is doing the cursing. Of course, he does not call down punishment on the man, the woman, and the serpent from someone else. Instead, he is promising that he himself will punish them. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/curse.md]])

# Serpent

Most scholars believe that the serpent is Satan, even though his name is not used in this chapter. There are other places in Scripture where the serpent is used as an image for Satan. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/satan.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]]))

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Genesis 3:1-3

Now

The writer is beginning a new part of the story.

more shrewd

"more cunning" or "smarter at getting what he wanted by telling lies"

Has God really said, 'You ... garden'?

The snake is pretending to be surprised that God has made this rule. This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. AT: "I am surprised that God said, 'You ... garden.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

You must not eat

The word "you" is plural and refers to the man and the woman. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

We may eat ... God said, 'You may not eat it

Eve told the serpent what God had permitted them to do first and then what God had told them not to do. Some languages would say what they were told not to do first and then say what they were allowed to do, as in the UDB.

We may eat

"We are allowed to eat" or "We have permission to eat"

You may not ... nor may you ... you will die

The word "you" is plural and refers to the man and the woman. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

You may not eat it

"You must not eat it" or "Do not eat it"

nor may you touch it

"and you must not touch it" or "and do not touch it"

translationWords

Genesis 3:4-6

You ... you ... your ... you

These words refer to the man and the woman and so are dual or plural. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

your eyes will be opened

"your eyes will open." This idiom means "you will become aware of things" or "you will understand new things." This meaning can be stated clearly. AT: "It will be as though your eyes were opened" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

knowing good and evil

Here "good and evil" is a figure of speech that refers to both extremes and everything in between. See how you translated "knowledge of good and evil" in Genesis 2:9. AT: "knowing everything, including both good and evil" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

it was a delight to the eyes

"the tree was delightful to look at" or "it was nice to look at" or "it was very beautiful"

that the tree was desirable to make one wise

"she wanted the tree's fruit because it could make a person wise" or "she wanted its fruit because it could make her understand what was right and wrong just as God does"

translationWords

Genesis 3:7-8

The eyes of both of them were opened

"Then their eyes opened" or "They became aware" or "They understood." See how you translated "your eyes will be opened" in Genesis 3:5.

sewed

put together, probably using vines as thread

fig leaves

If people do not know what fig leaves are like, this can be translated as "large leaves from a fig tree" or simply "large leaves."

made coverings for themselves

They did this because they were ashamed. This implicit information can be made explicit if needed as in the UDB. AT: "clothed themselves with them because they were ashamed" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

in the cool of the day

"at the time of day when a cool breeze blows"

from the presence of Yahweh God

"from Yahweh God's sight" or "so that Yahweh God would not see them" or "from Yahweh God"

translationWords

Genesis 3:9-11

Where are you?

"Why are you trying to hide from me?" God knew where the man was. When the man answered, he did not say where he was but why he was hiding.

you

In verses 9 and 11, God was speaking to the man. Languages that have a singular form of "you" would use that here. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

I heard you

"I heard the sound you were making"

Who told you

God knew the answer to this question. He asked it in order to force Adam to confess that he had disobeyed God. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Have you eaten ... from?

Again, God knew this had happened. Translate this question in a form that shows God was accusing Adam of disobedience. The sentence can be translated as a statement. AT: "You must have eaten ... from." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 3:12-13

What is this you have done?

God already knew what the woman had done. When he asked this question, he was giving her the opportunity to tell him about it, and he was expressing his disappointment with what she had done. Many languages use rhetorical questions for scolding or rebuking. If possible, use a form that expresses this disappointment. It can also be translated as a statement. AT: "You have done a terrible thing." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 3:14-15

cursed are you alone

"you alone are cursed." The word "curse" is first in Hebrew in order to emphasize the contrast between God's blessing on the animals and this curse on the serpent. This is a "curse formula," or the way that curses were expressed. By saying this curse, God made it happen.

all the livestock and all the beasts of the field

"all domestic animals and all wild animals"

It is on your stomach that you will go

"You will move along the ground on your stomach." The words "it is upon your stomach" comes first to emphasize the contrast between the way other animals would move along using their legs and the way the serpent would slither along on its stomach. This is also part of the curse formula.

it is dust that you will eat

"you will eat dust." The words "it is dust" comes first to emphasize the contrast between the plants above the ground that other animals would eat and the dirty food on the ground that the serpent would eat. This is part of the curse formula.

hostility between you and the woman

This means that the serpent and the woman would become enemies.

seed

The word "seed" refers to what a man puts into a woman to cause a baby to grow inside the woman. Like the word "offspring," it can refer to more than one person. Try to find a word that is singular but can refer to more than one person.

He will bruise ... his heel

The words "he" and "his" refer to the woman's descendant. If "seed" was translated as plural, this can be translated as "they will bruise ... their heel"; in this case, consider inserting footnotes to say that the "they" and "their" are used to translate a singular pronoun. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-pronouns/01.md]])

bruise

"crush" or "strike" or "attack"

translationWords

Genesis 3:16

I will greatly multiply your pain

"I will make your pain increase much" or "I will make your pain to be very severe"

in having children

"in giving birth to children" or "when you give birth to children"

Your desire will be for your husband

"You will have a strong desire for your husband." Possible meanings are 1) "You will want very much to be with your husband" or 2) "You will want to control your husband"

he will rule over you

"he will be your master" or "he will control you"

Genesis 3:17-19

Adam

The name Adam is the same as the Hebrew word for "man." Some translations say "Adam" and some say "the man." You may use either form as it refers to the same person.

you have listened to the voice of your wife

This is an idiom. AT: "you have obeyed what your wife said" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

have eaten from the tree

You can say what it was that they ate. AT: "have eaten the fruit of the tree" or "have eaten some of the fruit of the tree" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

You may not eat from it

"You must not eat from it" or "Do not eat its fruit"

cursed is the ground

The word "curse" comes first in the sentence to emphasize that the ground, which had been "good" (Genesis 1:10), was now under God's curse. This can be stated in active form. AT: "I am cursing the ground" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

through painful work

"by doing hard work"

you will eat from it

The word "it" refers to the ground and is a metonym for the parts of the plants, which grow in the ground, that people eat. AT: "you will eat what grows from it" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

the plants of the field

Possible meanings are 1) "the plants that you take care of in your fields" or 2) "the wild plants that grow in the open fields."

By the sweat of your face

"By doing hard work that makes your face sweat"

you will eat bread

Here the word "bread" is a synecdoche for food in general. AT: "you will eat food" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

until you return to the ground

"until you die and your body is put in the ground." In some cultures, they put the bodies of people who have died in a hole in the ground. Man's hard work does not end until the time of his death and burial.

For dust you are, and to dust you will return

"I made you from soil, so your body will become soil again." Translate both occurrences of "dust" with the same word in order to show that man begins and ends in the same condition.

translationWords

Genesis 3:20-21

The man

Some translations say "Adam."

called his wife's name Eve

"gave his wife the name Eve" or "named his wife Eve"

Eve

Translators may write a footnote saying "The name Eve sounds like the Hebrew word that means 'living.'"

all the living

The word "living" refers to people. AT: "all people" or "all living people" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-nominaladj/01.md]])

garments of skins

"clothing made out of animal skins"

translationWords

Genesis 3:22-24

the man

Possible meanings are 1) God was referring to one human, the man, or 2) God was referring to humans in general, so this would mean the man and his wife. Even if God was speaking about one person, what he said applied to both of them.

like one of us

"like us." The pronoun "us" is plural. See how you translated "Let us make" in Genesis 1:26.

knowing good and evil

Here "good and evil" is a figure of speech that refers to both extremes and everything in between. See how you translated "knowledge of good and evil" in Genesis 2:9. AT: "knowing everything, including both good and evil" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

he must not be allowed

This can be stated in active form. AT: "I will not allow him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

tree of life

"the tree that gives people life." See how you translated this in Genesis 2:9.

the ground from which he had been taken

"dirt because he had been taken from dirt." This does not refer to the particular place on the land that the God took man from.

So God drove the man out of the garden

"God forced the man to leave the garden." This refers to the event in Genesis 3:23, where it says "Yahweh God sent him out of the garden of Eden." God did not send the man out a second time.

to cultivate

This means to what is needed so that plants grow well. See how you translated this in Genesis 2:5.

in order to guard the way to the tree of life

"in order to stop people from going to the tree of life"

flaming sword

Possible meanings are 1) a sword that had flames coming from it or 2) a fire that was shaped like a sword. Languages that do not have swords could use another weapon such as a spear or arrow.

translationWords

Genesis 4

Genesis 4:intro-0

Genesis 04 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Most of the text in this chapter is prose, but 4:23-24 is poetry. If the translator should put these two verses into poetic form, or at least into elegant speech, different from the rest of the chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Vengeance

The theme of vengeance is important in this chapter. Ancient Hebrew society allowed for people to seek revenge if a relative was murdered. After Cain murdered his brother Abel, he thought that he would be helpless against this danger because he had been driven away from God's protection. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/other/avenge.md]])

The theme of vengeance continues with the words of Lamech, who had killed someone for injuring him: "I have killed a man for wounding me, a young man for bruising me. If Cain is avenged seven times as much, truly Lamech will be avenged seventy-seven times as much" (Gen. 4:23b-24).

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Genesis 4:1-2

The man

"the human being" or "Adam"

slept with

Your language may have a way of saying this politely. Some older versions say "knew." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

I have produced a man

The word for "man" typically describes an adult male, rather than a baby or child. If that would cause confusion, it could be translated as "manchild" or "boy" or "baby boy" or "son."

Cain

Translators may want to include a footnote that says "The name Cain sounds like the Hebrew word that means 'produce.' Eve named him Cain because she produced him." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Then she gave birth

We do not know how much time passed between the births of Cain and Abel. They may have been twins, or Abel may have been born after Eve became pregnant again. If possible, use an expression that does not tell how much time passed.

cultivated

This means he did everything he needed to do so that the plants would grow well. See how "cultivate" is translated in Genesis 2:5.

translationWords

Genesis 4:3-5

It came about that

This phrase is used to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using that method here.

in the course of time

Possible meanings are 1) "after some time had passed" or 2) "at the right time"

fruit of the ground

This refers to the food that came from plants he had tended. AT: "crops" or "harvest" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

some of the fat

This refers to the fatty parts of the lambs that he had killed, it was the best part of the animal. AT: "some of their fat parts" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

accepted ... did not accept

"looked favorably upon ... did not look favorably upon" or "was pleased with ... was not pleased with"

was very angry

Some languages have an idiom for anger such as "He burned" or "His anger burned."

he scowled

This means that the expression on his face showed that he was angry or jealous. Some languages have an idiom that describes what a person's face looks like when he is angry. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 4:6-7

Why are you angry and why are you scowling?

God used these rhetorical questions to tell Cain that he was wrong to be angry and scowl. They may also have been intended to give Cain an opportunity to confess that he was wrong. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

If you ... will you not be accepted?

God used this rhetorical question to remind Cain of something Cain should have already known. AT: "You know that if you do what is right, I will accept you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

But if you do not ... you must rule over it

God speaks of sin as if it were a person. AT: "But if you do not do what is right, you will desire to sin even more, and then you will do sinful things. You must refuse to obey it" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]])

sin crouches ... to control you

Here sin is spoken of as a dangerous wild animal that is waiting for the chance to attack Cain. AT: "you will become so angry that you will not be able to stop sin" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

sin

Languages that do not have a noun that means "sin" could translate this as "your desire to sin" or "the bad things you want to do."

you must rule over it

Yahweh speaks of Cain's desire to sin as if it were a person over whom Cain should rule. AT: "you must control it so you do not sin" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 4:8-9

Cain spoke to Abel his brother.

Some early translations tell explicitly what Cain said to his brother. You may want to do the same if it is present in your national version. AT: "Cain said to Abel his brother, 'Let us go into the fields.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-textvariants/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

brother

Abel was Cain's younger brother. Some languages may need to use the word for "younger brother." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

rose up against

Standing up to fight against a person is an idiom for attacking him. AT: "attacked" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Where is Abel your brother

God knew that Cain had killed Abel, but he asked Cain this question so that Cain would have to answer. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Am I my brother's keeper?

Cain used this rhetorical question so that he would not have to tell the truth. This can be translated as a statement. AT: "I am not my brother's keeper!" or "You know that taking care of my brother is not my job!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 4:10-12

What have you done?

God uses a rhetorical question to rebuke Cain. This can be translated as a statement. AT: "What you have done is terrible!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Your brother's blood is calling out to me

Abel's blood is a metonym for his death, as if it were a person calling out for God to punish Cain. AT: "Your brother's blood is like a person calling out to me to punish the person who killed him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

Now cursed are you from the ground

This can be stated in active form. AT: "I am cursing you so that you will not be able to grow food from the ground" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

which has opened its mouth to receive your brother's blood

God speaks of the earth as if it were a person who could drink Abel's blood. AT: "which is soaked with your brother's blood" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]])

from your hand

Here Cain is represented by his "hand," to emphasize that he personally had killed his brother. AT: "that spilled when you killed him" or "from you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

cultivate

This means to do everything necessary to do so that the plants would grow well. See how "cultivate" is translated in Genesis 2:5.

it will not yield to you its strength

The ground is personified as if it were a person who loses strength. AT: "the ground will not produce much food for you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]])

A fugitive and a wanderer

You can join these words together. AT: "A homeless wanderer" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-hendiadys/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 4:13-15

I will be hidden from your face

The term "your face" represents God's presence. AT: "I will not be able to speak to you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

a fugitive and a wanderer

See how you translated this in Genesis 4:12

vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold

This can be stated in active form. AT: "I will take vengeance on him seven times" or "I will punish that person seven times as severely as I am punishing you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

would not attack him

"would not kill Cain"

translationWords

Genesis 4:16-17

went out from the presence of Yahweh

Even though Yahweh is everywhere, this idiom speaks of Cain as though he went far away. AT: "went away from where Yahweh spoke to him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Nod

Translators may add a footnote saying "The word Nod means 'wandering.'"

slept with

Your language may have a way of saying this politely. Some older versions say "knew." See how you translated this in Genesis 4:1. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

He built a city

"Cain built a city"

translationWords

Genesis 4:18-19

To Enoch was born Irad

It is implied that Enoch grew up and married a woman. AT: "Enoch grew up and married and became the father of a son whom he named Irad" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Irad

the name of a man (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Adah ... Zillah

women's names (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 4:20-22

Adah ... Zillah

See how you translated these women's names in Genesis 4:19.

He was the father of those who lived in tents

Possible meanings are 1) "He was the first person to live in a tent" or 2) "He and his descendants lived in tents."

who lived in tents who have livestock

people who both live in tents and also take care of animals

He was the father of those who play the harp and pipe

Possible meanings are 1) "He was the first person to play the harp and pipe" or 2) "He and his descendants played the harp and pipe."

Tubal-Cain

the name of a man (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

the forger of tools of bronze and iron

"who made tools out of bronze and iron"

iron

a very strong metal used to make tools and weapons.

translationWords

Genesis 4:23-24

Adah ... Zillah

See how you translated these women's names in Genesis 4:19.

listen to my voice ... listen to what I say

Lamech said the same thing twice for emphasis. His voice is a synecdoche for his whole person. AT: "listen carefully to me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

a man for wounding me, a young man for bruising me

Lamech killed only one person. These two phrases means the same thing and are repeated to emphasize the certainly of his action. AT: "a young man because he hurt me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]])

If Cain is avenged seven times, then Lamech

Lamech knows that God will avenge Cain seven times. AT: "Since God will punish anyone who kills Cain seven times, Lamech" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

then Lamech will be avenged seventy-seven times

This can be stated in active form. AT: "whoever kills me, God will punish seventy-seven times" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

seventy-seven

77 (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 4:25-26

slept with

Your language may have a way of saying this politely. Some older versions say "knew." See how you translated this in Genesis 4:1. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

said, "God has given me another son

This is the reason that she named him Seth. This can be made explicit. AT: "explained, 'God has given me another child" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Seth

Translators may add a footnote that says "This name sounds like the Hebrew word that means 'has given.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

A son was born to Seth

This can be made explicit. AT: "Seth's wife bore him a son" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

to call on the name of Yahweh

This is the first time people called God by the name Yahweh. This can be made explicit. AT: "to worship God by using the name Yahweh" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 5

Genesis 5:intro-0

Genesis 05 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter provides the first of many lists of descendants in the Bible. This is not a simple list, because the author makes comments about each person. Translators should format this text in the way that is clearest in the project language. Many may choose to introduce each new person in a separate paragraph, as the ULB and UDB do.

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 5:1-2

General Information:

This is the beginning of the list of Adam's descendants.

in his own likeness

This phrase means that God made mankind to be like him. This verse does not tell in what ways God made people to be like himself. God does not have a body, so it does not mean that people would look like God. See how "after our likeness" is translated in Genesis 1:26. AT: "to truly be like us" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-pronouns/01.md]])

when they were created

This can be made active. AT: "when he created them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 5:3-5

130 ... eight hundred

Translators may write the numerals "130" and "800" or the words "one hundred thirty" and "eight hundred." (The ULB and the UDB use numerals if the number has three or more words; they use words if a number has only one or two words.) (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

he became the father of a son

"he had a son"

in his own likeness, after his image

These two phrases mean the same thing. They are used as a reminder that God made man in his own image. See how you translated similar phrases in Genesis 1:26.

Seth

See how you translated this name in Genesis 4:25.

He became the father of more sons and daughters

"He had more sons and daughters"

then he died

This phrase will be repeated throughout the chapter. Use the ordinary word for "died."

Adam lived 930 years

"Adam lived nine hundred and thirty years." People used to live a very long time. Use your ordinary word for "years." AT: "Adam lived a total of 930 years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 5:6-8

105 years

"one hundred and five years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

he became the father of Enosh

Here "father" means his actual father, not his grandfather. AT: "he had his son Enosh"

Enosh

This is the name of a person. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

807 years

"eight hundred and seven years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

and became the father of more sons and daughters

"and had more sons and daughters"

Seth lived 912 years

"Seth lived nine hundred and twelve years." Seth lived a total of 912 years. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

then he died

This phrase is repeated throughout the chapter. Use the ordinary word for "died."

translationWords

Genesis 5:9-11

General Information:

The records in Genesis 5:6-27 have the same format. Translate them according to the notes in Genesis 5:6-8. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

ninety years

"90 years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

815 years

"eight hundred and fifteen years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

905 years

"nine hundred and give years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 5:12-14

General Information:

The records in Genesis 5:6-27 have the same format. Translate them according to the notes in Genesis 5:6-8. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

seventy years

"70 years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

840 years

"eight hundred and forty years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

910 years

"nine hundred and ten years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 5:15-17

General Information:

The records in Genesis 5:6-27 have the same format. Translate them according to the notes in Genesis 5:6-8. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 5:18-20

General Information:

The records in Genesis 5:6-27 have the same format. Translate them according to the notes in Genesis 5:6-8. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 5:21-24

he became the father of Methuselah

"he had his son Methuselah"

Methuselah

This is the name of a man. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Enoch walked with God

To walk with someone is a metaphor for being in a close relationship with him. AT: "Enoch had a close relationship with God" or "Enoch lived in union with God" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

He became the father of more sons and daughters

"He had more sons and daughters"

Enoch lived 365 years

"Enoch lived three hundred and sixty-five years." Enoch lived a total of 365 years. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

then he was gone

The word "he" refers to Enoch. He was no longer on earth.

for God took him

This means that God took Enoch to be with himself (God).

translationWords

Genesis 5:25-27

General Information:

The records in Genesis 5:6-27 have the same format. Translate them according to the notes in Genesis 5:6-8. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Lamech

This Lamech is different from the Lamech in Genesis 4:18.

translationWords

Genesis 5:28-29

182 years

"one hundred and eighty-two years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

became the father of a son

"had a son"

Noah

Translators may want to add a footnote that says: "This name sounds like the Hebrew word that means 'rest.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

from our work and from the painful labor of our hands

Lamech says the same thing twice to emphasize how hard the work was. AT: "from working so hard with our hands" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 5:30-31

595 years

"five hundred and ninety-five years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Lamech lived 777 years

"Lamech lived seven hundred seventy-seven years." Lamech lived a total of 777 years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 5:32

he became the father of

"he had his sons." This does not tell us whether the sons were born on the same day or in different years.

Shem, Ham, and Japheth

These sons may not be listed in the order of their birth. There is disagreement about which one was the oldest. Avoid translating this in a way that implies that the list is in the order of their ages.

translationWords

Genesis 6

Genesis 6:intro-0

Genesis 06 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Beginning in 6:22, the author gives statements summarizing events he tells about again in the text that follows. In the next chapter, the author sometimes gives summary statements that introduce events for the first time. If these statements, and the surrounding events, are not carefully translated, readers can believe that the same events happened twice or three times instead of only one time. Translators should be careful not to give this impression.

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 6:1-3

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

daughters were born to them

This can be active. AT: "the women bore daughters" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

sons of God

Translators could add a footnote saying: "It is not clear whether this refers to heavenly beings or human beings. In either case, they were beings that God created." Some believe these words refer to angels who rebelled against God, that is, evil spirits or demons. Others think this may refer to powerful political rulers, and others think this may refer to the descendants of Seth.

My spirit

Here Yahweh is talking about himself and his spirit, which is the Spirit of God.

flesh

This means that they have physical bodies that will one day die.

They will live 120 years

"They will live one hundred and twenty years." Possible meanings are 1) the normal lifespan of people would decrease to 120 years. AT: "They will not live more than 120 years" or 2) in 120 years everyone would die. AT: "They will live only 120 years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 6:4

Giants

very tall, large people

This happened when

"The giants were born because"

sons of God

See how you translated this in Genesis 6:2.

These were the mighty men of old

"These giants were the mighty men who lived long ago" or "These children grew to become the powerful fighters who lived long ago"

mighty men

men who are courageous and victorious in battle

men of renown

"famous men"

translationWords

Genesis 6:5-6

every inclination of the thoughts of their hearts

"everything their hearts wanted to think about"

the thoughts of their hearts

The writer speaks of the heart as if it were the part of the body that thinks. Your language may use a word other than "heart" to talk about the part of people that thinks. AT: "their inner, secret thoughts" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

it grieved him to his heart

The writer speaks of the heart as if it were the part of the body that feels sadness. Your language may use a word other than "heart" to talk about the emotions. AT: "he was very, very sad about it" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 6:7-8

I will wipe away mankind ... from the surface of the earth

The writer speaks of God killing people as if God were wiping dirt off a flat surface. AT: "I will destroy mankind ... so that there will not be any people on the earth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

I will wipe away mankind whom I have created

Some languages would need to translate this as two sentences. AT: "I created mankind. I will wipe them away" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-distinguish/01.md]])

wipe away

"completely destroy." Here "wipe away" is used in a negative sense, for God is talking about destroying the people because of their sin.

Noah found favor in the eyes of Yahweh

The phrase "found favor" is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Also, the eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. AT: "Yahweh looked favorably on Noah" or "Yahweh was pleased with Noah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 6:9-10

General Information:

This begins the story of Noah, which continues into chapter 9.

These were the events concerning Noah

"This is the account of Noah"

walked with God

See how you translated this in Genesis 5:21.

Noah became the father of three sons

"Noah had three sons" or "Noah's wife had three sons"

Shem, Ham, and Japheth

Translators may add the following footnote: "The sons are not listed in the order in which they were born."

translationWords

Genesis 6:11-12

The earth

Possible meanings are 1) the people who lived on the earth or 2) "The earth itself." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

was corrupt

The people doing what is evil is spoken of as if they were food that has become rotten. AT: "was rotten" or "was completely evil" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

before God

Possible meanings are 1) "in God's sight" or 2) "in the presence of Yahweh" as in Genesis 4:16.

and it was filled with violence

The writer speaks of violence as if it were something that could be put into a container and of the earth as a container. AT: "and there were very many violent people on the earth" or "because it was full of people who did evil things to each other" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

behold

The word "behold" here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

all flesh

Possible meanings for what "all flesh" represents are 1) all human beings or 2) all physical beings, including humans and animal. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

had corrupted their way

How a person behaves is spoken of as if it were a way or road. AT: "had stopped living the way God wanted" or "had behaved in an evil way" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 6:13-15

all flesh

See how you translated these words in Genesis 6:12.

the earth is filled with violence through them

"people everywhere on earth are violent"

I will destroy them with the earth

"I will destroy both them and the earth" or "I will destroy them when I destroy the earth"

an ark

This refers to a very large box that would be able to float on water even in a very bad storm. "a large boat" or "a ship" or "a barge"

cypress wood

People do not know exactly what kind of tree this was. "wood used for building boats" or "good wood"

cover it with pitch

The reason for doing this can be made explicit. AT: "spread pitch on it" or "paint tar on it" or "cover it with pitch to make it waterproof" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

pitch

This is a thick, sticky or oily liquid that people put on the outside of a boat to stop water from going through gaps in the wood into the boat.

cubits

A cubit was a unit of measure, a little less than half a meter long. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-bdistance/01.md]])

three hundred cubits

"138 meters." You may use the Hebrew measuring units from the ULB or the metric units from the UDB or your own culture's units if you know how they compare to the metric units. You may also write a footnote that says: "Three hundred cubits is about 138 meters." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-bdistance/01.md]])

fifty cubits

"twenty-three meters" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-bdistance/01.md]])

thirty cubits

"fourteen meters" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-bdistance/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 6:16-17

a roof for the ark

This was probably a peaked or slanted roof. Its purpose was to protect everything in the ark from the rain.

cubit

A cubit was a little less than half a meter long. See how you translated this in Genesis 6:15. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-bdistance/01.md]])

a lower, a second, and a third deck

"a lower deck, a middle deck, and an upper deck" or "three decks inside"

deck

"floor" or "level"

Listen

God said this in order to emphasize that he would do what he was about to say. "Pay attention" or "Listen to what I am saying"

I am about to bring the flood of waters

In some languages it may b e better to say "to send" instead of "to bring. It is also possible to avoid the direction and say "to cause." AT: "I am about to send a flood of waters" or "I am about to cause a flood" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-go/01.md]])

all flesh

Here "flesh" represents all physical beings, including humans and animals. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

that has in it the breath of life

Here "breath" represents life. AT: "that lives" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 6:18-19

establish my covenant with you

"make a covenant between you and me"

with you

with Noah

You will come into the ark

"You will enter the ark." Some translations say "You will go into the ark."

Of every living creature of all flesh, two of every kind you must bring into the ark

"You must bring into the ark two of every kind of living creature"

creature

an animal God created

all flesh

See how you translated these words in Genesis 6:12.

translationWords

Genesis 6:20-22

after their kind

"of each different kind"

creeping thing of the ground

This refers to small animals that move on the ground .

two of every sort

This refers to two of every kind of bird and animal.

to keep them alive

"so you can keep them alive"

to you ... yourself ... you

These refer to Noah and are singular. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

food that is eaten

"food that people and animals eat"

So Noah did this. According to all that God commanded him, so he did

These two sentences mean the same thing. The second sentence explains the first and emphasizes that Noah obeyed God. These parallel sentences can be combined into one. AT: "So Noah did everything that God commanded him to do" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 7

Genesis 7:intro-0

Genesis 07 General Notes

Structure and formatting

In this chapter, the author continues his pattern of statements that summarize events already described, and of repeating events that have already happened. Again, careful translation is necessary so that readers do not think that the same events happened more than one time in the story. Special attention in this regard should be given to 7:5,10,13, and 17.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Clean animals and birds

Noah sacrificed to Yahweh some of the "clean" animals and birds that he had with him (8:20). These were animals and birds that the Hebrew people would later consider to be fit to eat and to sacrifice to God. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/clean.md]])

# Water underneath and over the earth

The flood is presented as occurring because of rain pouring out of the sky and because of seawater rising from under the earth. This is because the ancient Hebrews pictured the earth as resting on top of the sea. They also pictured the sky as containing water above the earth that poured down through windows in the sky when God allowed it to rain. Translators should not try to change this picture in order to suit what readers believe about the world. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/heaven.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 7:1-3

General Information:

The events in this chapter take place after Noah built the ark, gathered the food, and put it in the ark.

Come ... into the ark ... bring

"Enter ... into the ark ... take." Many translations read "Go ... into the ark ... take." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-go/01.md]])

you

The word "you" refers to Noah and is singular. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

your household

"your family"

righteous before me

This means that God saw Noah as righteous.

in this generation

This refers to all the people who were living at that time. AT: "among all the people who are now living"

clean animal

This was an animal that God allowed his people to eat and to sacrifice.

animals that are not clean

These were animals that God did not allow people to eat or to sacrifice.

to preserve their offspring

"so that they will have offspring that will live" or "so that, after the flood, animals will continue to live"

translationWords

Genesis 7:4-5

forty days and forty nights

This was a full forty days. It was not a total of eighty days. AT: "forty days and nights"

living

This refers to physical life.

translationWords

Genesis 7:6-7

General Information:

Verses 6-12 repeat for a second time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

came upon the earth

"happened" or "came on the earth"

because of the waters of the flood

"because of the flood that would come" or "to escape the flood water"

translationWords

Genesis 7:8-10

General Information:

Verses 6-12 repeat for a second time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

clean animals

These were animals that God allowed people to eat and to give to him as sacrifices.

unclean animals

These were animals that God did not allow people to eat or to give to him as sacrifices.

two by two

The animals entered the boat in pairs of one male and one female.

It came about that

This phrase is used here to mark an important event in the story: the start of the flood. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

after the seven days

"after seven days" or "seven days later"

the waters of the flood came upon the earth

The implicit information, "it started to rain" can be made explicit. AT: "it started to rain and the waters of the flood came upon the earth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 7:11-12

General Information:

Verses 6-12 repeat for a second time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

In the six hundredth year of Noah's life

"When Noah was 600 years old" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-ordinal/01.md]])

the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month

Since Moses wrote this book, it is possible he is referring to the second month of the Hebrew calendar. But this is uncertain. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-hebrewmonths/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-ordinal/01.md]])

on the same day

This refers to the specific day when the rain began. This phrase emphasizes how all of these major events happened quickly when the time arrived.

the fountains of the great deep burst open

"water from under the earth rushed up to the earth's surface"

the great deep

This refers to the sea that was thought to be under the earth.

the windows of heaven were opened

This refers to rain. It describes the sky as a ceiling that keeps the waters above it from falling down to the earth. When the windows, or doors, in the sky were opened, the water came down through them. AT: "the sky opened" or "the doors in the sky opened"

rain

If your language has a word for a great amount of rain, it would be appropriate here.

translationWords

Genesis 7:13-14

General Information:

Verses 13-18 repeat for a third time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

On that very same day

"On that exact day." This refers to the day that the rain started. Verses 13-16 tell what Noah did immediately before the rain began.

wild animal ... livestock ... creeping thing ... bird

These four groups are listed to show that every kind of animal was included. If your language has another way of grouping all the animals, you can use that, or you can use these groups. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:24.

creeping thing

This refers to animals that crawl on the ground, like rodents, insects, lizards, and snakes.

according to its kind

"so that each kind of animal will produce more of its own kind." See how you translated this in Genesis 1:24.

translationWords

Genesis 7:15-16

General Information:

Verses 13-18 repeat for a third time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

Two of all flesh

Here "flesh" represents animals. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

in which was the breath of life

Here "breath" represents life. AT: "that lived" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

came to Noah

The word "came" can be translated as "went." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-go/01.md]])

of all flesh

Here "flesh" represents animals. AT: "of every kind of animal" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

after them

The full meaning can be stated explicitly. AT: "after they entered the ark" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 7:17-18

General Information:

Verses 13-18 repeat for a third time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

the water increased

"the water became very deep." This happened during the forty days while the water kept coming.

lifted the ark

"it caused the ark to float"

raised it above the earth

"causes the ark to rise up high over the ground" or "he ark floated on top of the deep water"

translationWords

Genesis 7:19-20

The waters rose greatly on the earth

"The water totally overwhelmed the earth"

fifteen cubits

"six meters." See how you translated this in Genesis 6:15.

translationWords

Genesis 7:21-22

moved upon

"moved about" or "roamed"

all the living creatures that lived in great numbers upon the earth

This refers to all the animals that move around on the ground in large groups.

who breathed the breath of life through their noses

Here "noses" represent the whole animal or human. AT: "everyone that breathed" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

the breath of life

The words "breath" and "life" represent the power that causes people and animals to be alive. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

died

This refers to physical death.

translationWords

Genesis 7:23-24

So every living thing ... was wiped out

If necessary, this can be stated in active form. AT: "So every living thing ... perished" or "So the flood completely destroyed every living thing" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

They were all destroyed

This can be stated in active form. AT: "God destroyed them all" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

from the earth

"so they were no longer on the earth"

those with him

"the people and animals that were with him"

were left

"remained" or "lived" or "remained alive"

translationWords

Genesis 8

Genesis 8:intro-0

Genesis 08 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULB does this with the poetry in 8:22, which is part of what Yahweh was telling Noah.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Flood waters

The waters receded after this great flood. Because there was so much water, and it came from God, it is described in a unique way.

# The mountains of Ararat

It is unclear where Ararat was located. Many people believe it is located in the modern country of Turkey.

Links:

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Genesis 8:1-3

considered Noah

"remembered Noah" or "decided to help Noah"

ark

This refers to a very large box that would be able to float on water even in a very bad storm. See how you translated this in Genesis 6:14. AT: "a large boat" or "a ship" or "a barge"

The fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were closed

"The water stopped coming out of the ground and the rain stopped falling." This can be stated in active form. AT: "God closed the fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

fountains of the deep

"water from under the earth." See how this is translated in Genesis 7:11.

the windows of heaven were closed

This refers to the rain stopping. It describes the sky as a ceiling that keeps the waters above it from falling down to the earth. When the windows, or doors, in the sky were closed, the water stopped coming through them. See how "the windows of heaven" is translated in Genesis 7:11. AT: "the sky closed" or "the doors in the sky closed"

translationWords

Genesis 8:4-5

came to rest

"landed" or "stopped on solid ground"

in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month ... tenth month

Because Moses wrote this book, it is possible he is referring to the seventh month and tenth month of the Hebrew calendar, but this is uncertain. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-hebrewmonths/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-ordinal/01.md]])

On the first day of the month

"On the first day of the tenth month"

appeared

This can be made more explicit: "appeared above the surface of the water." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 8:6-7

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here. AT: "It happened that"

It came about ... the window of the ark which he had made

The phrase "which he had made" tells about the window. Some languages may need to make this phrase a separate sentence: "Noah had made a window in the boat. It came about after forty days that he opened the window" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-distinguish/01.md]])

raven

a black bird that eats mainly the flesh of dead animals

it flew back and forth

This means that the raven kept leaving the boat and returning.

until the waters were dried up

This can be stated in active form. AT: "until the wind dried up the waters" or "until the waters dried up" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Genesis 8:8-9

to rest her foot

"to land" or "to perch." It means to land on something in order to rest from flying.

her foot ... she returned ... and brought her

The word "dove" is feminine in the author's language. You could translate these phrases with the pronouns "its ... it ... it" or "his ... he ... him," depending on how your language refers to a dove.

he ... him

If you use masculine pronouns for the word "dove," you may need to insert Noah's name here to avoid confusion: "Noah sent out a dove," "Noah stretched forth his hand," etc.

translationWords

Genesis 8:10-12

Look

"Pay attention" or "This is important"

a freshly plucked olive leaf

"a leaf that she had just plucked from an olive tree"

plucked

"broken off"

He waited another seven days

"He again waited for seven days"

She did not return again to him

If people would not understand, you could state the reason explicitly: "She did not return again to him because she found a place to land." (See:[[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 8:13-14

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

in the six hundred and first year

"when Noah was 601 years old" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-ordinal/01.md]])

the first month, on the first day of the month

Since Moses wrote this book it is possible he is referring to the first month of the Hebrew calendar, but this is uncertain. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-hebrewmonths/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-ordinal/01.md]])

the waters were dried up from off the earth

This can be stated in active form. AT: "the waters covering the earth dried up" or "the wind dried up the waters covering the earth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

the covering of the ark

This refers to a cover that kept the rain water from going into the ark.

behold

The word "behold" tells us to pay attention to the important information that comes next.

In the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month

"On the twenty seventh day of the second month." This may refer to the second month of the Hebrew calendar, but this is uncertain. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-hebrewmonths/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-ordinal/01.md]])

the earth was dry

"the ground was completely dry"

translationWords

Genesis 8:15-17

Go out ... Take out

"Leave ... Take." Some translations read "Come out ... Bring out." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-go/01.md]])

every living creature of all flesh

"every kind of living creature." See how "all flesh" is translated in Genesis 6:12.

be fruitful, and multiply

This is an idiom. See how this is translated in Genesis 1:28. God wanted the humans and animals to reproduce, so there would be many of them. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 8:18-19

Noah went out

Some translations read "Noah came out." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-go/01.md]])

according to their families

"in groups of their own kinds"

translationWords

Genesis 8:20-22

built an altar to Yahweh

"built an altar dedicated to Yahweh" or "built an altar for worshiping Yahweh." He may have built it with stones.

clean animals ... clean birds

Here "clean" means that God allowed these animals to be used in sacrifice. Some animals were not used for sacrifices and were called "unclean."

offered burnt offerings

Noah killed the animals and then completely burned them up as an offering to God. AT: "burned the animals as offerings to Yahweh"

pleasing aroma

This refers to the good smell of the roasted meat.

said in his heart

Here the word "heart" refers to God's thoughts and emotions.

curse the ground

"do very serious harm to the earth"

because of mankind

This can be made more explicit: "because mankind is sinful." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

the intentions of their hearts is evil from childhood

"from their earliest years they tend to do evil things" or "when they are young, they want to do evil things"

the intentions of their hearts

Here the word "hearts" refers to people's thoughts, emotions, desires, and will. AT: "their tendency" or "their habit"

from childhood

This refers to an older child. AT: "from their youth"

While the earth remains

"While the earth lasts" or "As long as the earth exists"

seed time

"the season for planting"

cold and heat, summer and winter

These expressions both refer to two major weather conditions in the year. Translators may use local expressions. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

summer

the hot, dry time of the year

winter

the cool, wet or snowy time of the year

will not cease

"will not cease to exist" or "will not cease to occur." This can be expressed in a positive manner. AT: "will continue" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublenegatives/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 9

Genesis 9:intro-0

Genesis 09 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations prefer to set apart extended quotations, prayers or songs. The ULB and many other English translations set the lines of 9:6-7, which is the poetic part of the quotation, farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text. They also set apart 9:25-27, which contains two quotations.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULB does this with the poetry in 9:6 and 9:25-27.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Man's relationship to animals

There is a noticeable shift in man's relationship with the animals on the earth. Before the flood, there apparently was harmony between man and the animals. After the flood, the animals fear man and man is permitted to eat the animals, something he was not allowed to do previously. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

# Life in the blood

This chapter introduces the concept that there is life in the blood of an animal and in man. In Hebrew thought, blood represents the life present in a living thing. This is an image used throughout Scripture. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/life.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/blood.md]])

# Covenant with Noah

God made a covenant with Noah. This covenant was an unconditional promise God made to never destroy the whole world with a flood. Rainbows are a perpetual sign of this covenant. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]])

# A father's nakedness

In Noah's culture, it was unacceptable to see a father's nakedness. It was wrong for Ham to show his brothers their father's nakedness. Ham's actions were insulting or disrespectful. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# "Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth"

This is a command that God gives. He expects Noah to obey him.

Links:

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Genesis 9:1-2

Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth

This is God's blessing. He told Noah and his family to produce more humans like themselves, so that there would be many of them. The word "multiply" explains how they are to be "fruitful." See how you translated these commands in Genesis 1:28. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

The fear of you and the dread of you will be upon every living animal ... and upon all the fish of the sea

The writer speaks of fear and dread as if they were physical objects that could be upon the animals. AT: "Every living animal ... and all the fish of the sea will be dreadfully afraid of you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

The fear of you and the dread of you

The words "fear" and "dread" mean basically the same thing and emphasize how afraid the animals will be of mankind. AT: "A dreadful fear of you" or "A terrible fear of you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]])

every living animal on the earth

This is the first of the four categories of animals that the writer lists, and not a summary of the rest of the animals that he mentions next.

bird

This is a general term for things that fly. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:21.

upon everything that goes low on the ground

This includes all types of small animals. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:25.

They are given into your hand

The hand represents control. This can be made active. AT: "They are given into your control" or "I have put them under your control" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 9:3-4

General Information:

God continues speaking to Noah and his sons.

life ... blood

Translators may add a footnote such as this: "The blood is a symbol for life." They may also add a footnote that says something like this: "God was commanding people not to eat meat while the blood was still in it. They had to drain out the blood first."

translationWords

Genesis 9:5-7

General Information:

God continues speaking to Noah and his sons.

But for your blood

This contrasts man's blood with the blood of animals (Genesis 9:4).

for your blood, the life that is in your blood

It is implied that the blood is shed, or poured out, or spilled out. AT: "if anyone causes your blood to pour out" or "if anyone spills your blood" or "if anyone kills you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

life

This refers to physical life.

I will require payment

This payment refers to the death of the murderer, not to money. AT: "I will require anyone who kills you to pay"

from the hand

Here the word "hand" refers to the one who is responsible for something happening. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

From the hand of every animal I will require it

"I will require any animal that takes your life to pay"

From the hand of any man, that is, from the hand of one who has murdered his brother, I will require an accounting for the life of that man

"I will require anyone who takes the life of another person to pay"

From the hand of

This phrase refers to the person in a very personal way. AT: "From that very man" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

brother

Here "brother" is used as a general reference to relatives, such as members of the same tribe, clan, or people group.

Whoever sheds man's blood, by man will his blood be shed

The shedding of blood is a metaphor for killing someone. This means that if a person murders someone, someone else must kill the murderer. However, "blood" is very significant in this passage and should be used in the translation if possible. Translate "sheds blood" with words that indicate a major loss of blood that causes death. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

for it was in the image of God that he made man

"because God made people to be like him" or "because I made people in my own image"

be fruitful and multiply

This is God's blessing. He told Noah and his family to produce more humans like themselves, so that there would be many of them. The word "multiply" explains how they are to be "fruitful." See how you translated this in Genesis 1:28. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 9:8-10

Then God spoke to Noah and to his sons with him

God was already speaking to them. This phrase marks a change in what God was going to speak about. AT: "God continued speaking to Noah and his sons" or "Then God went on to say"

As for me

This phrase is used in English to mark the change from God talking about what Noah and his sons must do to talking about what God would do.

confirm my covenant with you

"make a covenant between you and me." See how you translated this in Genesis 6:18.

translationWords

Genesis 9:11-13

General Information:

God continues speaking to Noah and his sons.

I hereby confirm my covenant with you

"By saying this, I make my covenant with you." See how similar words are translated in Genesis 6:18.

all flesh

Possible meanings for what "all flesh" represents are 1) all human beings or 2) all physical beings, including humans and animal. See how this is translated in Genesis 6:12. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

Never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth

"There will never again be a flood that destroys the earth." There would be floods, but they would not destroy the whole earth.

sign

This means a reminder of something that was promised.

covenant ... for all future generations

The covenant applies to Noah and his family and also to all generations that follow.

translationWords

Genesis 9:14-15

General Information:

God continues speaking to Noah and his sons.

It will come about when

"Whenever." It is something that would happen many times.

the rainbow is seen

It is not clear who will see the rainbow, but because the covenant is between Yahweh and people, if you need to say who it is who will see the rainbow, it would be best to name both Yahweh and people. This can be translated in active form. AT: "people and I see the rainbow" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

rainbow

the colorful strip of light that appears in the rain when the sun shines from behind the viewer

I will call to mind my covenant

This does not mean that God would first forget. AT: "I will think about my covenant"

me and you

The word "you" is plural. God was speaking to Noah and Noah's sons.

every living creature of all flesh

"every kind of living being"

all flesh

Possible meanings for what "all flesh" represents are 1) all human beings or 2) all physical beings, including humans and animal. See how this is translated in Genesis 6:12. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 9:16-17

General Information:

God continues speaking to Noah and his sons.

in order to remember

"so that I will remember" or "so that I will think about"

between God and every living creature

God is speaking here. AT: "between me and every living creature"

every living creature of all flesh

"every kind of living being." See how you translated this in Genesis 9:15.

Then God said to Noah

God was already talking to Noah. This phrase marks the final part of what God was saying. AT: "God finished by saying to Noah" or "So God said to Noah"

translationWords

Genesis 9:18-19

General Information:

Verses 18-19 introduce the three sons of Noah, who will be an important part of the next story.

father

Ham was Canaan's true father.

translationWords

Genesis 9:20-21

farmer

person who raises plants for food

became drunk

"drank too much wine"

uncovered

The text does not specify how much of Noah's body was uncovered as he lay drunk. His sons' reactions show us that it was shameful.

translationWords

Genesis 9:22-23

his father

This refers to Noah.

translationWords

Genesis 9:24-25

General Information:

In verses 25-27 Noah pronounced a curse on Ham's son and blessings on Ham's brothers. What Noah said about them also applied to their descendants, as shown in the UDB.

General Information:

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULB does this with the poetry in Noah's curse and blessings in verses 25-27.

awoke from his wine

He awoke after drinking wine and becoming drunk. He "became sober."

his youngest son

This refers to Ham. AT: "his youngest son, Ham"

Cursed be Canaan

"I curse Canaan" or "May bad things happen to Canaan"

Canaan

This was one of Ham's sons. AT: "Ham's son Canaan"

a servant to his brothers' servants

"the lowest servant of his brothers" or "the least important servant of his brothers"

his brothers

This could refer either to Canaan's brothers or to his relatives in general.

translationWords

Genesis 9:26-27

General Information:

If you can, format these verses as they are formatted here to show your readers that this is poetry.

May Yahweh, the God of Shem, be blessed

"Praised be Yahweh, the God of Shem," or "Yahweh, the God of Shem, is worthy of praise" or "I praise Yahweh, the God of Shem"

May Canaan be his servant

"And let Canaan be Shem's servant." This includes Canaan's and Shem's descendants.

May God extend the territory of Japheth

Possible meanings are 1) "May God make Japheth's territory larger" or 2) "May God cause Japheth to have many descendants."

let him make his home in the tents of Shem

"let him leave peacefully with Shem." This includes Japheth's and Shem's descendants.

May Canaan be his servant

"Let Canaan be Japheth's servant." This includes Canaan's and Japheth's descendants.

translationWords

Genesis 9:28-29

translationWords

Genesis 10

Genesis 10:intro-0

Genesis 10 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins a genealogical record. It also records the location of ancient people groups.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Assyria and Nineveh

While these places may be located in the same area as the Assyria mentioned later in Scripture, they are not the same kingdom.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# "Sons were born to"

This is an unusual phrase meaning "were sons of." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 10:1

These were the descendants of the sons of Noah

"This is the account of Noah's sons." This sentence introduces the account of Noah's descendants in Genesis 10:1-11:9.

translationWords

Genesis 10:2-5

From these the coastland peoples separated and went into their lands

"Javan's sons and descendants separated and moved to the coastlands and islands"

coastland peoples

This refers to people who lived along the coast and on the islands.

their lands

"their homelands." These are the places that the people moved to and lived in.

every one with its own language

"Each people group spoke its own language" or "The people groups divided themselves according to their languages"

translationWords

Genesis 10:6-7

Mizraim

Mizraim is the Hebrew name for "Egypt."

translationWords

Genesis 10:8-10

conqueror

Possible meanings are 1) "mighty warrior" or 2) "mighty man" or 3) "powerful ruler."

before Yahweh

Possible meanings are 1) "in Yahweh's sight" or 2) "with Yahweh's help"

That is why it is said

This introduces a proverb. Your language may introduce proverbs and sayings in a different way. AT: "This is the reason people say" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-proverbs/01.md]])

The first centers

Possible meanings are 1) the first centers he developed or 2) the important cities.

translationWords

Genesis 10:11-14

he went to Assyria

"Nimrod went into Assyria"

Mizraim became

The list of Noah's descendants continues.

Mizraim

Mizraim was one of Ham's sons. His descendants became the people of Egypt. Mizraim is the Hebrew name for Egypt.

translationWords

Genesis 10:15-18

Jebusites ... Amorites ... Girgashites

These names refer to larger groups of people that descended from Canaan.

translationWords

Genesis 10:19-20

border

line between one person's land and another person's land

from Sidon, in the direction of Gerar, as far as Gaza

The direction south can be stated explicitly if needed. AT: "from Sidon city in the north as far south as Gaza town, which is near Gerar" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

as one goes toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboyim, as far as Lasha

The direction "east" or "inland" can be stated explicitly if needed. AT: "then east toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboyim towns, as far as Lasha" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

These were the sons of Ham

The word "these" refers to the people and people groups who were listed in verses Genesis 6-19.

by their languages

"broken up according to their different languages"

in their lands

"in their homelands"

translationWords

Genesis 10:21-23

translationWords

Genesis 10:24-25

Arphaxad

Arphaxad was one of Shem's sons.

Peleg

Translators may add a footnote note that says: "The name Peleg means 'division.'"

the earth was divided

This can be made active. AT: "the people of the earth divided themselves" or "the people of the earth separated from one another" or "God divided the people of the earth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Genesis 10:26-29

Joktan

Joktan was one of Eber's sons. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

All these

"These" here refers to the sons of Joktan.

Genesis 10:30-31

Their territory

"The land they controlled" or "The land they lived in"

These were the sons of Shem

The word "these" refers to the descendants of Shem (Genesis 10:21-29).

translationWords

Genesis 10:32

These were the clans

This refers back to all the people listed in Genesis 10:1-31.

according to

"listed by"

From these the nations separated and went over the earth

"From these clans the nations divided and spread over the earth" or "These clans divided from each other and formed the nations of the earth"

after the flood

This can be stated clearly or more explicitly. AT: "after the flood destroyed the earth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 11

Genesis 11:intro-0

Genesis 11 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter is a story traditionally referred to as the "Tower of Babel."

This chapter seeks to answer the questions: why do people speak different languages? how did people become so dispersed across the earth? God's punishment described in this chapter may also explain why the world has racial and ethnic divisions.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Age of people when they die

After the flood, people began to live shorter lives. This chapter begins to record the shortening of the average lifespan.

Important figures of speech in this chapter
# Personification

The statement "Yahweh came down to see" is a type of personification. Yahweh always knows what happens on earth. This statement indicates that Yahweh is about to bring judgment on mankind. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/judge.md]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# "Let us build ourselves a city and a tower whose top will reach to the sky"

The people were very full of pride and rebelled against God in this action. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 11:1-2

Now

This word shows that the writer is beginning a new part of the story.

the whole earth

This represents all the people on the earth. AT: "all the people on the earth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

used one language and had the same words

These two phrases mean basically the same thing and emphasize that all people spoke the same language. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]])

they journeyed

"they moved around"

in the east

Possible meanings are 1) "in the east" or 2) "from the east" or 3) "to the east." The preferred choice is "in the east" because Shinar is to the east of where scholars believe the ark came to rest.

settled

stopped moving from one place to another and began to live at one location

translationWords

Genesis 11:3-4

Come

If your language has a way of urging or commanding people to begin work, like the English "Come on!" you might use it here.

bake them thoroughly

People make bricks out of clay and heat them in a very hot oven to make them hard and strong.

tar

a thick, sticky, black liquid that comes up from the ground

mortar

This is a thick substance made of lime powder, clay, sand, and water used to make stones or bricks stick together.

let us make a name for ourselves

"let us make our reputation great"

name

reputation

we will be scattered

This can be stated in active form. AT: "we will separate from each other and live in different places" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Genesis 11:5-7

the descendants of Adam

"the people"

came down

The information about where he came down from can be made explicit: "came down from heaven." This does not tell how he came down. Use a general word meaning "came down." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

to see

"to observe" or "to look more closely"

one people with the same language

All the people were one big group and they all spoke the same language.

they are beginning to do this

Possible meanings are 1) "they have begun to do this," meaning that they have begun to build the tower but it is not finished, or 2) "this is just the first thing they have done," meaning that in future they will do greater things.

nothing that they intend to do will be impossible for them

This can be stated in positive form. AT: "anything they intend to do will be possible for them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublenegatives/01.md]])

Come

If your language has a way of urging or commanding people to begin work, like the English "Come on!" you might use it here. See how this is translated in Genesis 11:3.

let us go down

The word "us" is plural even though it refers to God. Some translate it as "let me go down" or "I will go down." If you do this, consider adding a footnote to say that the pronoun is plural. See the note on "Let us make" in Genesis 1:26. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-pronouns/01.md]])

confuse their language

This means that Yahweh would cause the people all over the earth to stop speaking the same language. AT: "mix up their language" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

so that they may not understand each other

This was the purpose of confusing their language. AT: "so that they will not be able to understand what each other is saying" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 11:8-9

from there

"from the city"

its name was called Babel, because there Yahweh confused

The name "Babel" sounds like the word that means "confused." Translators may want to add a footnote about this.

confused the language of the whole earth

It means that Yahweh caused the people all over the earth to no longer speak the same language. AT: "mixed up the language of the whole earth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 11:10-11

General Information:

The rest of this chapter lists the line of Shem's descendants down to Abram.

These were the descendants of Shem

This sentence begins the list of Shem's descendants.

flood

This is the flood from Noah's time when people had become so evil that God sent a worldwide flood to cover the earth.

became the father of Arphaxad

"had his son Arphaxad" or "his son Arphaxad was born"

Arphaxad

a man's name (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

a hundred ... two ... five hundred

Translators may write the words or the numerals "100," "2," and "500." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 11:12-13

he became the father of Shelah

"his son Shelah was born"

Shelah

man's name (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

403 years

"four hundred and three years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 11:14-15

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them in Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Genesis 11:16-17

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Genesis 11:18-19

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them in Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Genesis 11:20-21

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them in Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Genesis 11:22-23

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them in Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Genesis 11:24-26

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them in Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Abram, Nahor, and Haran

We do not know the birth order of his sons.

translationWords

Genesis 11:27-28

Now these were the descendants of Terah

This sentence introduces the account of Terah's descendants. Genesis 11:27-25:11 tells about Terah's descendants, particularly his son Abraham. AT: "This is the account of Terah's descendants" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Haran died in the presence of his father Terah

This means that Haran died while his father was still living. AT: "Haran died while his father, Terah, was with him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 11:29-30

took wives

"married wives"

Iskah

This is a female name. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Now

This word is used to introduce new information about Sarai that will become important in later chapters.

barren

This term describes a woman who is physically unable to conceive or bear a child. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 11:31-32

his

Here the word "his" refers to Terah.

Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram's wife

"his daughter-in-law Sarai, who was the wife of his son Abram"

Haran ... Haran

These are two different names and they are spelled differently in Hebrew. One refers to a person and the other refers to a city. (The "h" sound in the city's name is louder than the "h" sound in the person's name.) You might choose to spell them differently in your language to show this.

205 years

"two hundred and five years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 12

Genesis 12:intro-0

Genesis 12 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Abram

When God said, "Go from your country, and from your relatives," he established several new people groups. These groups descended from Abram.

# God's covenant with Abraham

God made a covenant with Abram. This covenant was not conditioned upon anything that Abraham needed to do, but the fulfillment of its promises is conditioned upon the actions of each generation of his descendants. It has not yet been fulfilled in its entirety. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/fulfill.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# "They will kill me"

Abram was afraid the Egyptians would see him as a foreigner and upon seeing his beautiful wife, they would try to kill him. This would free Sarai to marry someone else. Apparently, it would have been easy for them to kill a foreigner without punishment. If she was Abram's sister, they would have shown favor to him. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/favor.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 12:1-3

Now

This word is used to mark a new part of the story.

Go from your country, and from your relatives

"Go from your land, from your family"

I will make of you a great nation

Here "you" is singular and refers to Abram, but Abram represents his descendants. AT: "I will start a great nation through you" or "I will make your descendants become a great nation" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

make your name great

The word "name" represents the person's reputation. AT: "make you famous" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

you will be a blessing

The words "to other people" are understood. AT: "you will be a blessing to other people" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

whoever dishonors you I will curse

"I will curse whoever treats you in a shameful way" or "if anyone treats you as worthless, I will curse him"

Through you will all the families of the earth be blessed

This can be made active. AT: "I will bless all the families of the earth through you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Through you

"Because of you" or "Because I have blessed you"

translationWords

Genesis 12:4-5

possessions

This includes animals and non-living property.

the people that they had acquired

Possible meanings are 1) "slaves that they had accumulated" or 2) "the people whom they had gathered to be with them."

translationWords

Genesis 12:6-7

Abram passed through the land

Only Abram's name is mentioned because he was the head of the family. God had given him the command to take his family and go there. AT: "So Abram and his family went through the land" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

the land

"the land of Canaan"

the oak of Moreh

Moreh was probably the name of a place. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Yahweh, who had appeared to him

"Yahweh, because he had appeared to him"

translationWords

Genesis 12:8-9

he pitched his tent

Abram had many people with him as he traveled. People who moved from place to place lived in tents. AT: "they set up their tents"

called on the name of Yahweh

"prayed in the name of Yahweh" or "worshiped Yahweh"

Then Abram continued journeying

You may need to make explicit that he took his tent with him. "Then Abram took his tent and continued journeying." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

toward the Negev

"toward the Negev region" or "toward the south" or "south to the Negev desert"

translationWords

Genesis 12:10-13

There was a famine

The crops did not grow well that season. This can be made explicit. AT: "There was a shortage of food" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

in the land

"in the area" or "in the land where Abram was living"

went down into

Possible meanings are 1) "went further south" or 2) "went away from Canaan into." It would be best to translate this using your usual words for going from a higher place to a lower place.

they will kill me ... you alive

The reason they would kill Abram can be made explicit: "they will kill me so that they can marry you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

so that my life will be spared because of you

This can be stated in active form. AT: "so that, because of you, they will not kill me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 12:14-16

It came about that

Possible meanings are 1) This phrase is used here to mark where the action starts, and if your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here, or 2) "And that was what happened" .

The princes of Pharaoh saw her

"Pharaoh's officials saw Sarai" or "the king's officials saw her"

the woman was taken into Pharaoh's household

This can be stated in active form. AT: "Pharaoh took her into his household" or "Pharaoh had his soldiers take her into his household" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

the woman

Sarai

Pharaoh's household

Possible meanings are 1) "Pharoah's family," that is, as a wife, or 2) "Pharaoah's house" or "Pharaoh's palace," a euphemism for Pharaoh making her one of his wives. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

for her sake

"for Sarai's sake" or "because of her"

translationWords

Genesis 12:17-20

because of Sarai, Abram's wife

This can be made more explicit. AT: "because Pharaoh intended to take Sarai, Abram's wife, to be his own wife" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Pharaoh summoned Abram

"Pharaoh called Abram" or "Pharaoh ordered Abram to come to him"

What is this that you have done to me?

Pharaoh used this rhetorical question to show how angry he was about what Abram had done to him. It can also be stated as an exclamation. AT: "You have done a terrible thing to me!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Then Pharaoh gave orders to his men concerning him

"Then Pharaoh directed his officials concerning Abram"

they sent him away, along with his wife and all that he had

"the officials sent Abram away from Pharoah, with his wife and all his possessions"

translationWords

Genesis 13

Genesis 13:intro-0

Genesis 13 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Abram's faith

Since the land could not support both Lot's and Abraham's family, they each went their own way. Even though good land was not plentiful, Abraham allowed Lot to choose the better land because he trusted in God to fulfill his promises. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/trust.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/fulfill.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]])

# God's covenant with Abram

God made a covenant with Abram. This covenant was not conditioned upon anything that Abraham needed to do, but the fulfillment of its promises is conditioned upon the actions of each generation of his descendants. It has not yet been fulfilled in its entirety. This chapter continues the covenant which began in the previous chapter. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# Built an altar

Abram would have built an altar in order to offer sacrifices to Yahweh. There is an implicit understanding that building an altar was an act of worship. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 13:1-2

went up from

"left" or "departed from"

went into the Negev

The Negev was a desert region in southern Canaan, west of Egypt. This can be made explicit. AT: "went back to the Negev desert" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Abram was very rich in animals, in silver, and in gold

"Abram had many animals, much silver, and much gold"

animals

"livestock" or "cattle"

translationWords

Genesis 13:3-4

He continued on his journey

Abram and his family traveled by stages, going from place to place. This can be made explicit. AT: "They continued on their journey" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

to the place where his tent had been before

Translators may add a footnote that says "See Genesis 12:8." The time of his travel can be made explicit. AT: "to the place where he had set up his tent before he went to Egypt" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

called on the name of Yahweh

"prayed in the name of Yahweh" or "worshiped Yahweh." See how you translated this in Genesis 12:8.

translationWords

Genesis 13:5-7

Now

This word is used to show what follows is background information to help the reader understand the events that follow. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

The land was not able to support them

There was not enough grazing land and water for all their animals.

their possessions

This includes livestock, which need pasture and water.

could not stay together

"could not live together"

The Canaanites and the Perizzites were living in the land at that time

This is another reason that the land could not support them all.

translationWords

Genesis 13:8-9

Let there be no strife between you and me

"Let's not quarrel"

strife

arguments or fights

between your herdsmen and my herdsmen

"let's stop the men who take care of our animals from quarreling"

after all, we are family

"because we are family"

family

"kinsmen" or "relatives." Lot was Abraham's nephew.

Is not the whole land before you?

This rhetorical question can be translated as a positive statement. AT: "The whole land is available for you to use." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Go ahead and separate yourself from me

Abraham was speaking kindly to Lot and encouraging him to do something that would help them both. "Let's separate."

If you go to the left, then I will go to the right

Possible meanings are 1) "If you go one way, then I will go the other" or 2) "If you go to the north, I will go to the south." Abram let Lot choose the part of the land he wanted, and Abram would take what remained.

translationWords

Genesis 13:10-11

the whole plain of the Jordan

This refers to the general region of the Jordan River.

was well watered

"had much water"

like the garden of Yahweh, like the land of Egypt

"like the garden of Yahweh or like the land of Egypt." These were two different places.

the garden of Yahweh

This is another name for the garden of Eden.

garden

Use the same word for "garden" as you used in Genesis 2:8.

This was before Yahweh destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah

This anticipates something that would happen later. It is important here because it explains why Lot settled in a region that later was not fertile.

the relatives

"the kinsmen" or "the families." This refers to Lot and Abram with their households.

translationWords

Genesis 13:12-13

Abram lived

"Abram made his home" or "Abram stayed"

the land of Canaan

"the land of the Canaanites"

He set up his tents as far away as Sodom

Possible meanings are 1) "He set up his tents near Sodom" or 2) "He moved his tents around in an area that reached all the way to Sodom."

translationWords

Genesis 13:14-15

after Lot had departed from him

"after Lot left Abraham"

translationWords

Genesis 13:16-18

walk through the length and breadth of the land

"walk around all over the whole land"

Mamre

This was the name of the man who owned the oak trees. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Hebron

place name (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

an altar to Yahweh

"an altar for worshiping Yahweh"

translationWords

Genesis 14

Genesis 14:intro-0

Genesis 14 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULB does this with the poetry in 14:19-20.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Names of places

Sometimes the names of places in Scripture are referred to by the name used during the time of the writer. For example, the location referred to as Dan was not yet known by that name because Dan had not yet come to live there. Moses, the author of Genesis, would have known this location as Dan.

# Melchizedek

Melchizedek was both a priest and a king. Because of this, he parallels the roles of Jesus. Melchizedek is an important figure in the book of Hebrews. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/priest.md]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# God Most High

Melchizedek worshiped the God Most High. This is probably a reference to the true and only God who created the heavens and the earth and came to be known as Yahweh. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/heaven.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 14:1-2

General Information:

The places in Genesis 14:1-2 are all independent cities. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

in the days of

"in the time of"

they made war

"they went to war" or "they started a war" or "they prepared for war"

translationWords

Genesis 14:3-6

These latter five kings joined together

The information that their armies were with them can be made explicit. AT: "These latter five kings and their armies joined together" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Twelve years they had served

The events in verses 4-7 happened before verse 3. Your language may have a way of showing this.

they had served Kedorlaomer

They probably had to pay him taxes and serve in his army. AT: "they had been under the control of Kedorlaomer" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

they rebelled

"they refused to serve him" or "they stopped serving him"

came and attacked

They did this because the other kings rebelled.

the Rephaim ... the Zuzites ... the Emites ... the Horites

These are the names of people groups. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Ashteroth Karnaim ... Ham ... Shaveh Kiriathaim ... Seir ... El Paran

These are the names of places. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Ham

This name in Hebrew is different from the name of Noah's son, which is spelled the same way in English.

El Paran, which is near the desert

This phrase helps readers understand where El Paran was. It can be translated as a separate sentence if necessary. AT: "El Paran. El Paran is near the desert" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-distinguish/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 14:7-9

General Information:

Verses 8 and 9 repeats what was said in Genesis 14:3 and continues to tell what happened when the kings came together to fight.

they turned and came

The word "they" refers to the four foreign kings who were attacking the region of Canaan. Their names were Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer, and Tidal. AT: "they turned and went" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-go/01.md]])

the Amorites who lived in Hazezon Tamar

This phrase tells which Amorite people were defeated. There were other Amorite people who lived in other places.

the king of Bela (also called Zoar)

The city of Bela was also called Zoar. This information could also be put at the end of the sentence. "the king of Bela went out and prepared for battle. Bela is also called Zoar."

prepared for battle

"joined battle" or "drew up battle lines." Some translators may need to also say that the armies fought, as the UDB does in verse 9. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

four kings against the five

Since the five kings were listed first, some languages might prefer to translate this as "five kings against four."

translationWords

Genesis 14:10-12

Now

This word introduces background information about the valley of Siddim. Your language may have another way of introducing background information. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

was full of tar pits

"had many tar pits." These were holes in the ground that had tar in them.

tar

a thick, sticky, black liquid that comes up from the ground. See how this is translated in Genesis 11:3.

the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah

Here the kings represent themselves and their armies. AT: the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah and their armies" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

they fell in there

Possible meanings are 1) some of their soldiers fell in the tar pits or 2) the kings themselves fell in the tar pits. Since Genesis 14:17 says that the king of Sodom went to meet Abram, the first meaning is more likely correct. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

Those who were left

"Those who did not die in battle and did not fall in the pits"

the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah

The words "Sodom" and "Gomorrah" are metonyms for the people who lived in those cities. AT: "the wealth of the people of Sodom and Gomorrah" or "the property of the people of Sodom and Gomorrah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

their provisions

"their food and drink"

went their way

"they went away"

they also took Lot, Abram's brother's son, who was living in Sodom, along with all his possessions

The phrases "Abram's brother's son" and "who was living in Sodom" remind the reader of things that were written earlier about Lot. AT: "they also took Lot, along with all his possessions. Lot was Abram's brother's son and was living in Sodom at that time" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-distinguish/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 14:13-14

One who had escaped came

"A man escaped from the battle and came"

He was living

"Abram was living." This introduces background information. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

were all allies of Abram

"were treaty-partners with Abram" or "had a peace agreement with Abram"

his relative

This is a reference to Abram's nephew Lot.

318 trained men

"three hundred and eighteen trained men" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

trained men

"men who were trained to fight"

men who had been born in his house

"men who were born in Abram's household." They were children of Abram's servants.

pursued them

"chased them"

Dan

This is a city in the far north of Canaan, far from Abram's camp.

translationWords

Genesis 14:15-16

He divided his men against them at night and attacked them

This probably refers to a battle strategy. "Abram divided the men into several groups, and they attacked their enemies from various directions"

all the possessions

This refers to the things that the enemies had stolen from the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah.

his goods

"Lot's property that the enemies had stolen from Lot"

as well as the women and the other people

"as well as the women and other people that the four kings had captured"

translationWords

Genesis 14:17-18

returned

The implied information about where he was returning to can be made explicit. AT: "returned to where he was living" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Melchizedek, king of Salem

This is the first time this king is mentioned.

bread and wine

People commonly ate bread and wine. See how you translated "bread" in Genesis 3:19 and "wine" in Genesis 9:21.

translationWords

Genesis 14:19-20

He blessed him

King Melchizedek blessed Abram.

Blessed be Abram by God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth

This can be stated in active form. AT: "May God Most High, the Creator of heaven and earth, bless Abram" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

heaven

This refers to the place where God lives.

God Most High, who has given

"God Most High, because he has given." The phrase starting with "who has given" tells us something more about God Most High.

Blessed be God Most High

This is a way of praising God. See how you translated "blessed be" in Genesis 9:26.

into your hand

"into your control" or "into your power"

translationWords

Genesis 14:21-24

Give me the people

The phrase "the people" may refer to the people of Sodom that the enemies had captured. Abram rescued them when he rescued Lot.

I have lifted up my hand

This means "I have taken an oath" or "I have made a promise."

I will take nothing except what the young men have eaten

"I take from you only what my young men have already eaten." Abram was refusing to accept anything for himself, but acknowledged that the soldiers had eaten some of the supplies during the journey back to Sodom after the battle.

the share of the men that went with me

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. AT: "the share of the recovered property that belongs to the men who helped me get it back" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Aner, Eshkol, and Mamre

These are the allies of Abram (See: Genesis 14:13). Because they were Abram's allies they fought battles alongside him. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. AT: "my allies Aner, Eshkol, and Mamre" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 15

Genesis 15:intro-0

Genesis 15 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Inheritance

In the ancient Near East, a person's children inherited the property and land of their parents. Abraham doubted the fulfillment of God's covenant because he did not have any children to whom to give his land. This showed a lack of faith. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/inherit.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/fulfill.md]],[[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/faith.md]])

# Fulfilling a promise

In the ancient Near East, two people performed a similar sacrifice by dividing animals in half. It was a way to say to the other person, "may this happen to me if I do not fulfill my promise." The event recorded here indicates that God will fulfill his promise and only he is responsible for bringing it about. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/fulfill.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]])

# God's covenant with Abraham

God made a covenant with Abram. This covenant was not conditioned upon anything that Abraham needed to do, but the fulfillment of its promises is conditioned upon the actions of each generation of his descendants. This covenant has not yet been fulfilled in its entirety.

Links:

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Genesis 15:1-3

After these things

"These things" refers to when the kings fought and Abram rescued Lot.

the word of Yahweh came to Abram in a vision, saying, "Fear

The idiom "the word of Yahweh came to" is used to introduce a special message from God. AT: "Yahweh gave a message to Abram in a vision. He said, 'Fear" or "Yahweh spoke this message to Abram in a vision: 'Fear" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

shield ... reward

God used these two metaphors to tell Abram about his character and his relationship to Abram. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

I am your shield

Soldiers use a shield to protect themselves from their enemies. AT: "I will protect you like shield" or "I am your shield to protect you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

I am ... your very great reward

Possible meanings are 1) "I myself will be all that you need" or 2) "I will give you all you need."

reward

the result of a person's actions. This seems to be a metonym for the gracious blessing God would give Abram. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonomy/01.md]])

Abram said, "Since you have given me

"Abram continued speaking and said, 'Since you have given me'"

translationWords

Genesis 15:4-5

Then, behold

The word "behold" emphasizes the fact that the word of Yahweh came to Abraham again.

the word of Yahweh came to him, saying, "This

The idiom "The word of Yahweh came to" is used to introduce a special message from God. See how you translated this idiom in Genesis 15:1. AT: "Yahweh gave him a message. He said, 'This" or "Yahweh spoke this message to him: 'This" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

This man

This refers to Eliezer of Damascus.

the one who will come from your own body

"the one that you will father" or "your very own son." Abram's own son would become his heir.

number the stars

"count the stars"

So will your descendants be

Just as Abram would not be able to count all the stars, he would not be able to count all his descendants because there would be so many.

translationWords

Genesis 15:6-8

He believed Yahweh

This means he accepted and trusted what Yahweh said was true.

he counted it to him as righteousness

"Yahweh counted Abram's belief as righteousness" or "Yahweh considered Abram righteous because Abram believed him"

I am Yahweh, who brought you out of Ur

Yahweh was reminding Abraham of what he had already done so that Abraham would know that Yahweh had the power to give Abram what he promised him.

to inherit it

"to receive it" or "so that you will possess it"

how will I know

Abram was asking for more proof that Yahweh would give him the land.

translationWords

Genesis 15:9-11

the carcasses

"the dead bodies of the animals and birds"

Abram drove them away

"Abram chased the birds away." He made sure the birds did not eat the dead animals.

translationWords

Genesis 15:12-13

Abram fell sound asleep

This is an idiom. AT: "Abraham slept deeply" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

a deep and terrifying darkness

"an extreme darkness that terrified him"

overwhelmed him

"surrounded him"

strangers

people who are at home in one place but have to live in another place

will be enslaved and oppressed

This can be stated in active form. AT: "the owners of that land will enslave your descendants and oppress them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 15:14-16

General Information:

Yahweh continued to speak to Abram while Abram dreamed.

I will judge

Here "judge" is a metonym for what will happen after God makes the judgment. AT: "I will punish" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

that they will serve

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. AT: "that your descendants will serve" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

abundant possessions

This is an idiom. AT: "many possessions" or "great wealth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

you will go to your fathers

This is a polite way of saying "you will die." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

fathers

The word "fathers" is a synecdoche for all ancestors. AT: "ancestors" or "ancestral fathers" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

you will be buried in a good old age

"you will be very old when you die and your family buries your body"

In the fourth generation

Here one generation refers to a lifespan of 100 years. "After four hundred years"

they will come here again

"your descendants will come back here." Abraham's descendants would come to the land where Abram was then living, the land that Yahweh had promised to give to him.

has not yet reached its limit

"is not yet complete" or "will get much worse before I punish them"

translationWords

Genesis 15:17-21

behold

The word "behold" here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

a smoking fire pot and a flaming torch passed between the pieces

God did this to show Abram that he was making a covenant with him.

passed between the pieces

"passed through between the two rows of animal pieces"

covenant

In this covenant God promises to bless Abram, and he will continue to bless him as long as Abram follows him.

I hereby give this land

By saying this, God was giving the land to Abram's descendants. God was doing this then, but the descendants would not go into the land until many years later.

the great river, the Euphrates

"the large river, the Euphrates." These are two ways of referring to the same river.

the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites

These are the names of groups of people who lived in that land. God would allow Abraham's descendants to conquer these people and take their land. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 16

Genesis 16:intro-0

Genesis 16 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULB does this with the poetry in 16:11-12.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Plural marriage

Abram married Hagar while he was also married to Sarai. Even though Abram had his wife's permission, this was an immoral and sinful action. It also showed a lack of faith in God. Sarai quickly became jealous of Hagar. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/faith.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/jealous.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 16:1-4

Now

This word is used in English to introduce a new part of the story and background information about Sarai. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

female servant

"slave-girl." This type of slave would serve the woman of the household.

from having children

"from giving birth to children"

I will have children by her

"I will build my family through her"

Abram listened to the voice of Sarai

"Abram did what Sarai said"

she looked with contempt on her mistress

"she despised her mistress" or "she thought that she was more valuable than her mistress"

her mistress

Here this refers to Sarai. A mistress has authority over her slave. AT: "her owner" or "Sarai"

translationWords

Genesis 16:5-6

This wrong on me

"This injustice against me"

is because of you

"is your responsibility" or "is your fault"

I gave my servant woman into your embrace

Sarai used the word "embrace" here to refer to him sleeping with her. AT: "I gave you my servant so that you would sleep with her" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

I was despised in her eyes

This can be active. AT: "she hated me" or "she began to hate me" or "she thought she was better than me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Let Yahweh judge between me and you

"I want Yahweh to say whether this is my fault or your fault" or "I want Yahweh to decide which one of us is right." The phrase "to judge between" means to decide which person is right in a dispute between them.

See here

"Listen to me" or "Pay attention"

in your power

"under your authority"

Sarai dealt harshly with her

"Sarai treated Hagar very badly"

she fled from her

"Hagar fled from Sarai"

translationWords

Genesis 16:7-8

The angel of Yahweh

Possible meanings are 1) Yahweh made himself look like an angel or 2) this was one of Yahweh's angels or 3) this was a special messenger from God (some scholars think it was Jesus). Since the phrase is not well understood, it is best to simply translate it as "the angel of Yahweh" using the normal word that you use for "angel."

wilderness

The wilderness area she went to was a desert. AT: "desert"

Shur

This was the name of a place south of Canaan and east of Egypt.

my mistress

Here this refers to Sarai. A mistress has authority over her slave. See how "her mistress" is translated in Genesis 16:4. AT: "my owner"

translationWords

Genesis 16:9-10

The angel of Yahweh said to her

"The angel of Yahweh said to Hagar"

the angel of Yahweh

See the note about this phrase in Genesis 16:7.

your mistress

Sarai. See how "her mistress" is translated in Genesis 16:4.

the angel of Yahweh said to her, "I

When he said "I," he was referring to Yahweh. When translating what is in the quote, do it as the angel of Yahweh did and use the word "I" when referring to Yahweh.

I will greatly multiply your descendants

"I will give you very many descendants"

too numerous to count

"so many that no one will be able to count them"

translationWords

Genesis 16:11-12

The angel of Yahweh

See the note about this phrase in Genesis 16:7.

Behold

"Look" or "Listen" or "Pay attention"

bear a son

"give birth to a son"

you will call his name

"you will name him." The word "you" refers to Hagar.

Ishmael, because Yahweh has heard

Translators may add a footnote that says "The name 'Ishmael' means 'God has heard.'"

affliction

She has been afflicted by distress and suffering.

He will be a wild donkey of a man

This was not an insult. It may mean that Ishmael would be independent and strong like a wild donkey. AT: "He will be like a wild donkey among men" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

He will be hostile against every man

"He will be every man's enemy"

every man will be hostile to him

"everyone will be his enemy"

he will live apart from

This can also mean "he will live in hostility with."

his brothers

"his relatives" or "the other members of his family"

translationWords

Genesis 16:13-14

Yahweh who spoke to her

"Yahweh, because he spoke to her"

Do I really continue to see, ... me?

Hagar used this rhetorical question to express her amazement that she was still alive even after she met God. People expected that if they met God, they would die. Here seeing represents living. AT: "I am surprised that I am still alive, ... me." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

Therefore the well was called Beer Lahai Roi

Translators may add a footnote that says "Beer Lahai Roi means 'the well of the living one who sees me.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered

The word "behold" here draws attention to the fact that the well was in a place that the author and his readers knew. AT: "in fact, it is between Kadesh and Bered" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 16:15-16

Hagar gave birth

Hagar's return to Sarai and Abram is implict. You can make this more explicit. AT: "So Hagar went back and gave birth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

named his son, whom Hagar bore

"named his son by Hagar" or "named his and Hagar's son"

Abram was

This introduces background information about Abram's age when these things happened. Your language may have a special way to mark background information. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

bore Ishmael to Abram

This means "gave birth to Abram's son, Ishmael." The focus is on Abram having a son.

translationWords

Genesis 17

Genesis 17:intro-0

Genesis 17 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# "The father of a multitude of nations"

Abram came to have many descendants. He had so many descendants that many of his immediate descendants became large people groups and nations.

# God's covenant with Abraham

God made a covenant with Abram. This covenant was not conditioned upon anything that Abraham needed to do, but the fulfillment of its promises is conditioned upon the actions of each generation of his descendants. It has not yet been fulfilled in its entirety. It is important to note in this chapter that Isaac is the son who receives the promises associated with the covenant and not Ishmael. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/fulfill.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]])

# Circumcision

Circumcision was an unusual practice in the ancient Near East. It served to separate the Hebrew people from the rest of the world. This chapter records the beginning of this practice among Abraham and his descendants. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/circumcise.md]])

# Name change

In Scripture, a change in name always occurs at a highly significant point in a person's life. The beginning of the practice of circumcision was a significant event in the history of the Hebrew people.

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 17:1-2

When Abram was ninety-nine years old

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

God Almighty

"the all-powerful God" or "the God who has all power"

Walk before me

Walking is a metaphor for living, and "before me" or "in my presence" here is a metaphor for obedience. AT: "Live the way I want you to" or "Obey me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

Then I will confirm

"If you do this, then I will confirm"

I will confirm my covenant

"I will give my covenant" or "I will make my covenant"

covenant

In this covenant God promises to bless Abram, but he also requires Abram to obey him.

multiply you exceedingly

Here "multiply you" is an idiom that means he will give him more descendants. AT: "greatly increase the number of your descendants" or "give you very many descendants" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 17:3-6

Abram bowed low with his face to the ground

"Abram threw himself face down on the ground" or "Abraham immediately lay down with his face to the ground." He did this to show that he respected God and would obey him.

As for me

God used this phrase to introduce what he would do for Abram as part of his covenant with Abram.

behold, my covenant is with you

The word "behold" here says that what comes next is certain: "my covenant is certainly with you."

the father of a multitude of nations

"the father of a great number of nations" or "the one after whom many nations name themselves"

Abraham

Translators may add the following footnote: The name "Abram" means "exalted father" and the name "Abraham" sounds like "father of a multitude."

I will make you exceedingly fruitful

"I will cause you to have very many descendants"

I will make nations of you

"I will cause your descendants to become nations"

kings will descend from you

"among your descendants there will be kings" or "some of your descendants will be kings"

translationWords

Genesis 17:7-8

General Information:

God continues speaking to Abraham.

throughout their generations

"for each generation"

for an everlasting covenant

"as a covenant that will last forever"

to be God to you and to your descendants after you

"to be your God and your descendants' God" or "covenant"

Canaan, for an everlasting possession

"Canaan, as an everlasting possession" or "Canaan, to possess forever"

translationWords

Genesis 17:9-11

As for you

God uses this phrase to introduce what Abram would have to do as part of God's covenant with him.

keep my covenant

"observe my covenant" or "honor my covenant" or "obey my covenant"

This is my covenant

"This is a requirement of my covenant" or "This is part of my covenant." This sentence introduces the part of the covenant that Abram must do.

Every male among you must be circumcised

This can be stated in an active form. AT: "You must circumcise every male among you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Every male

This refers to human males.

You must be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin

Some communities may prefer a less descriptive expression such as "You must be circumcised." If your translation of "be circumcised" already includes the word for "foreskin", you do not need to repeat it. This can be made active. AT: "You must circumcise every male among you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

the sign of the covenant

"the sign that shows that the covenant exists"

the sign

Possible meanings are 1) "the sign" or 2) "a sign." The first means that there was one sign, and the second means that there may have been more than one sign. Here the word "sign" means a reminder of something that God had promised.

translationWords

Genesis 17:12-14

General Information:

God continues speaking to Abraham.

Every male

"Every human male"

throughout your people's generations

"in every generation"

him who is bought with money

This refers to slaves. This can be stated in active form. AT: "any male that you buy" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

my covenant will be in your flesh

This can be stated in active form. AT: "you will mark my covenant in your flesh" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

for an everlasting covenant

"as a permanent covenant." Because it was marked in flesh, no one could easily erase it.

uncircumcised male who is not circumcised

This can be stated in active form, and you may leave out words that will give wrong meaning in your language. AT: "male whom you have not circumcised" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Any uncircumcised male ... foreskin will be cut off from his people

Possible meanings are 1) "I will cut off any uncircumcised male ... foreskin from his people" or 2) "I want you to cut off any uncircumcised male ... foreskin from his people."

cut off from his people

Possible meanings are 1) "killed" or 2) "sent away from the community." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

He has broken my covenant

"He has not obeyed the rules of my covenant." This is the reason that he would be cut off from his people.

translationWords

Genesis 17:15-16

As for Sarai

The words "As for" introduce the next person God talks about.

I will give you a son by her

"I will make her bear a son for you"

she will become the mother of nations

"she will be the ancestor of many nations" or "her descendants will become nations"

Kings of peoples will come from her

"Kings of peoples will descend from her" or "Some of her descendants will be kings of peoples"

translationWords

Genesis 17:17-18

said in his heart

"thought to himself" or "said to himself silently"

Can a child be born to a man who is a hundred years old?

Abraham used this rhetorical question because he did not believe that this could happen. AT: "Surely a man who is a hundred years old cannot father a child!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

How can Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear a son?

Again Abraham used a rhetorical question because he did not believe this could happen. The phrase "who is ninety years old" tells why Abraham did not believe that Sarah could bear a son. AT: "Sarah is ninety years old. Could she bear a son?" or "Sarah is ninety years old. Surely she could not bear a son!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-distinguish/01.md]])

Oh that Ishmael might live before you

"Please let Ishmael inherit the covenant that you have made with me" or "Perhaps Ishmael could receive your covenant blessing." Abraham suggested something that he believed really could happen.

translationWords

Genesis 17:19-21

No, but Sarah your wife will bear

God said this to correct Abraham's belief that Sarah could not have a son.

you must name him

The word "you" refers to Abraham.

As for Ishmael

The words "As for" show that God is switching from talking about the baby that would be born to talking about Ishmael.

Behold

"Look" or "Listen" or "Pay attention to what I am about to tell you"

will make him fruitful

This is an idiom that means "will cause him to have many children." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

will multiply him abundantly

"I will cause him to have many descendants"

leaders of tribes

"chiefs" or "rulers." These leaders are not the twelve sons and grandsons of Jacob that will lead the twelve tribes of Israel.

But my covenant I will establish with Isaac

God returns to talking about his covenant with Abraham and emphasizes that he would fulfill his promise with Isaac, not with Ishmael.

translationWords

Genesis 17:22-23

When he had finished talking with him

"When God had finished talking with Abraham"

God went up from Abraham

"God left Abraham"

every male among the men of Abraham's household

"every human male in Abraham's household" or "every male person in Abraham's household." It refers to human males of all ages: babies, boys, and men.

translationWords

Genesis 17:24-27

including those born into the household and those bought with money from a foreigner

"This includes those who were born in his household and those he had bought from foreigners"

those bought with money from a foreigner

This refers to servants or slaves.

those bought

This can be stated in active form. AT: "those whom he had bought" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 18

Genesis 18:intro-0

Genesis 18 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Three men

The three men who visited Abraham were probably angels. This is evident from Abraham's reaction to them. Also, it appears Abraham knew that he was speaking directly to Yahweh through these men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/angel.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

# Disbelief

When Sarah heard the news that she was going to have a baby, she laughed in disbelief because she was considered too old to have a baby. She also asked a rhetorical question in order to further show her disbelief. This would have been considered an insult to God. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/unbeliever.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

In his exchange with God, Abraham did not show any sign of unbelief. Instead, he is asking God for mercy because he trusted in the character of God. He does not question God's power to accomplish things as Sarah had done. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/trust.md]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# Sarah's age

It should be apparent that Sarah was physically no longer able to have children because of her age. There is a natural period in a woman's life when she stops being able to have children. The text assumes the reader understands that Sarah has already experienced this event. In English, this is called "menopause." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 18:1-2

Mamre

This was the name of the man who owned the oak trees.

in the tent doorway

"at the opening of the tent" or "at the entrance of the tent"

heat of the day

"hottest time of day"

He looked up and, behold, he saw three men standing

"He looked up and saw, and behold, three men were standing"

behold, he saw

"he was surprised because he saw"

across from him

"nearby" or "there." They were near him, but far enough away for him to run to them.

bowed

This means to bend over to humbly express respect and honor toward someone.

translationWords

Genesis 18:3-5

Lord

This is a title of respect. Possible meanings are 1) Abraham knew that one of these men was God or 2) Abraham knew that these men came on behalf of God.

if I have found favor in your eyes

Here "found favor" is an idiom that means be approved of or that he is pleased with her. Here "eyes" are a metonym for sight, and sight is a metaphor representing his evaluation. AT: "if you have evaluated me and approve" or "if you are pleased with me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

in your eyes

Abraham is speaking to one of the men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

do not pass by

"please do not keep on going"

your servant

"me." Abraham refers to himself this way in order to show respect to his guest.

Let a little water be brought

This can be stated in active form. AT: "Let me bring you some water" or "My servant will bring you some water" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

a little water ... a little food

"some water ... some food." Saying "little" was a polite way of showing generosity. Abraham would give them more than enough water and food.

wash your feet

This custom helped tired travelers to refresh themselves after walking long distances.

your ... you

Abraham speaks to all three of the men, so "you" and "your" are plural. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 18:6-8

three seahs

about 22 liters (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-bvolume/01.md]])

bread

This bread was probably cooked quickly on a hot stone. It may have been flat or round like small loaves or rolls.

he hurried

"the servant hurried"

to prepare it

"to cut it up and roast it"

curds

This refers to the solid part of fermented milk. It may have been yogurt or cheese.

the calf that had been prepared

"the roasted calf"

before them

"before the three visitors"

translationWords

Genesis 18:9-10

They said to him

"Then they said to Abraham"

He said, "I will certainly return to you

The word "He" refers to the man whom Abraham called "Lord" in Genesis 18:3.

in the springtime

"when this same season comes next year" or "about this time next year"

see

The word "see" here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

in the tent doorway

"at the opening of the tent" or "at the entrance of the tent"

translationWords

Genesis 18:11-12

After I am worn-out and my master is old, will I now have this pleasure?

You may want to add "of having a baby." Sarah used this rhetorical question because she did not believe that she could have a child. AT: "I cannot believe that I will experience the joy of having a child. My master is also too old" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

my master is old

This means "since my husband is also old."

my master

This is a title of respect that Sarah gave to her husband Abraham.

translationWords

Genesis 18:13-15

Why did Sarah laugh and say, 'Will I really bear a child, when I am old'?

God used this rhetorical question to show that he knew what Sarah was thinking and that he was not pleased with it. He repeats Sarah's rhetorical question (Genesis 18:12) using different words. AT: "Sarah was wrong to laugh and say, 'I will not bear a child because I am too old!'"(See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Is anything too hard for Yahweh?

"Is there anything that Yahweh cannot do?" Yahweh speaks of himself as if he were speaking of someone else to remind Abraham that he, Yahweh, is great and can do anything. AT: "There is nothing that I, Yahweh, cannot do!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

At the time appointed by me, in the spring

"At the time I have appointed, which is in the spring"

Then Sarah denied it and said

"The Sarah denied it by saying"

He replied

"Yahweh replied"

No, you did laugh

"Yes, you did laugh." This means "No, that is not true; you did in fact laugh."

translationWords

Genesis 18:16-19

to see them on their way

"to send them on their way" or "to say 'Farewell' to them." It was polite to go some distance with guests as they were leaving.

Should I hide from Abraham what I am about to do ... him?

God used this rhetorical question to say that he was going to talk to Abraham about something very important and that it was best for him to do so. AT: "I should not and will not hide from Abraham what I am about to do ... him." or "I should and will tell Abraham what I am about to do ... him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Should I ... do, since ... him?

"I should not ... do. This is because ... him"

all the nations of the earth will be blessed in him

This can be stated in active form. AT: "I will bless all the nations of the earth through Abraham" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

will be blessed in him

"will be blessed because of Abraham" or "will be blessed because I have blessed Abraham." For translating "in him" see how you translated "through you" in Genesis 12:3.

that he may instruct

"that he will direct" or "so that he will command"

to keep the way of Yahweh ... Yahweh may bring ... he has said

Yahweh is speaking about himself as if he were another person. AT: "to obey what I, Yahweh, require ... I, Yahweh, may bring ... I have said" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

to keep the way of Yahweh

"to obey the commands of Yahweh"

to do righteousness and justice

"by doing righteousness and justice." This tells how to keep the way of Yahweh.

so that Yahweh may bring upon Abraham what he has said to him

"so that Yahweh may bless Abraham just as he said he would." This refers to the covenant promise to bless Abraham and make him a great nation.

translationWords

Genesis 18:20-21

the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so great

This can be reworded so that the abstract noun "outcry" is expressed as the verb "accuse." AT: "so many people have been accusing the people of Sodom and Gomorrah of doing evil things" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

their sin is so serious

"they have sinned so much"

I will now go down there

"I will now go down to Sodom and Gomorrah"

go down there and see

"go down there to find out" or "go down there to decide"

see the outcry ... that has come to me

Yahweh speaks as if he knew about this matter because he had heard the cries and accusations coming from the people who had suffered. This can be reworded so that the abstract noun "outcry" is expressed as the verb "accuse." AT: "as wicked as those who are accusing them say that they are" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

If not

"If they are not as wicked as the outcry suggests"

translationWords

Genesis 18:22-23

turned from there

"went out from Abraham's camp"

Abraham remained standing before Yahweh

"Abraham and Yahweh remained together"

approached and said

"approached Yahweh and said" or "stepped closer to Yahweh and said"

sweep away

Abraham speaks of destroying people as if it were sweeping dirt with a broom. AT: "destroy" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

the righteous with the wicked

"the righteous people with the wicked people"

translationWords

Genesis 18:24-26

General Information:

Abraham continues talking to Yahweh.

Perhaps there are

"Suppose there are"

Will you sweep it away and not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are there?

Abraham was hoping that Yahweh would say, "I will not sweep it away." AT: "I think you would not sweep it away. Instead, you would spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are there" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

sweep it away

"destroy it." Abraham speaks of destroying people as if it were sweeping dirt with a broom. AT: "destroy the people who live there" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are there?

Abraham was hoping that God would say "I will spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous people there."

spare the place

"let the people live"

for the sake of

"because of"

Far be it from you to do such a thing

Here "Far be it from you" is an idiom that means the person should never do something like that. AT: "I would never want you to do something like that" or "You should not want to do something like that" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

such a thing, killing

"such a thing as killing" or "such a thing, that is, killing"

the righteous should be treated the same as the wicked

This can be stated in active from. AT: "you should treat the righteous the same way you treat the wicked" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Will not the Judge of all the earth do what is just?

Abraham used this rhetorical question to say what he expected God to do. AT: "The Judge of all the earth will certainly do what is just!" or "Since you are the Judge of all the earth, you will surely do what is right!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Judge

God is often referred to as a judge because he is the one perfect judge who makes the final decisions about what is right or wrong.

translationWords

Genesis 18:27-28

Look

The phrase "Look" here draws attention to the surprising information that follows.

I have undertaken to speak

"Pardon me for being so bold as to speak to you" or "Excuse me for daring to speak"

to my Lord

Abraham shows his respect to Yahweh by speaking to Yahweh as if he were speaking to someone else. AT: "to you, my Lord" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

only dust and ashes

This metaphor describes Abraham as a human being, who will die and whose body will turn into to dust and ashes. AT: "only a mortal man" or "as unimportant as dust and ashes" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

five less than fifty righteous

"only forty-five righteous people"

for lack of five

"if there are five fewer righteous people"

I will not destroy it

"I will not destroy Sodom"

translationWords

Genesis 18:29-31

He spoke to him

"Abraham spoke to Yahweh"

if there are forty found there

This can be translated in active form. You may have to fill in the ellipsis, "righteous people." AT: "if you find forty righteous people there" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

for the forty's sake

"for the sake of the forty" or "if I find forty there." You may have to fill in the ellipsis, "righteous people." AT: "for the sake of the forty righteous people" or "if I find forty righteous people there" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

He replied

"Yahweh answered"

I will not do it for the forty's sake

"I will not destroy the cities if I find forty righteous people there"

thirty will be found there

This can be translated in active form. You may have to fill in the ellipsis, "righteous people." AT: "you will find thirty righteous people there" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

Look

The phrase "Look" here draws attention to the surprising information that follows.

I have undertaken to speak

"Pardon me for being so bold as to speak to you" or "Excuse me for daring to speak." See how this is translated in Genesis 18:27.

twenty will be found there

This can be translated in active form. You may have to fill in the ellipsis, "righteous people." AT: "you will find twenty righteous people there" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

for the twenty's sake

"for the sake of the twenty" or "if I find twenty there." You may have to fill in the ellipsis, "righteous people." AT: "for the sake of the twenty righteous people" or "if I find twenty righteous people there" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 18:32-33

Perhaps ten will be found there

"Perhaps you will find ten righteous people there"

Perhaps ten

"Perhaps ten righteous people" or "ten good people"

Then he said

"And Yahweh answered"

for the ten's sake

"if I find ten righteous people there"

Yahweh went on his way

Here "went on his way" is an idiom that means he left, or he continued his journey. Yahweh appeared to Abraham in human form as a traveler. AT: "Yahweh departed" or "Yahweh continued on his journey" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 19

Genesis 19:intro-0

Genesis 19 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# The evil desires of the Sodomites

The men of Sodom desired to forcibly have sexual relations with the angels who came to the city appearing as men. Such action is known as "rape." Their desire was viewed as especially evil because Lot was obligated to protect his guests at all costs, even that of sacrificing his own children for his guests. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/evil.md]])

# Hospitality

Hospitality, or being kind to a visitor, was very important in the Ancient Near East. Lot showed his guests loyalty by doing his utmost to protect them from the people of Sodom.

Important figures of speech in this chapter
# Contrasts

It is probable that Abraham's faith and actions in chapter 18 are intended to contrast with the actions of the worldly Sodomites. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/faith.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 19:1-3

The two angels

Genesis 18 says that two men went to Sodom. Here we learn that they are really angels. (See: Genesis 18:22)

the gate of Sodom

"the entrance to the city of Sodom." The city had a wall around it, and people had to go through a gate to get into it. This was a very important place in a city. Important people often spent time there.

bowed down with his face to the ground

He put his knees on the ground then touched his forehead and nose to the ground.

my masters

This was a term of respect Lot used for the angels.

I urge you to turn aside into your servant's house

"Please come and stay in your servant's house"

your servant's house

Lot refers to himself as their servant in order to show them respect. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

wash your feet

People liked to wash their feet after traveling.

rise up early

"wake up early"

we will spend the night

When the two angels said this, they were referring only to themselves, not to Lot. The two of them planned to spend the night in the square. Some languages would use the exclusive form of "we" here. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-exclusive/01.md]])

town square

This is a public, outdoor place in the town.

they went with him

"they turned and went with him"

translationWords

Genesis 19:4-5

before they lay down

"before the people in Lot's house lay down to go to sleep"

the men of the city, the men of Sodom

"the men of the city, that is, the men of Sodom" or just "the men of the city of Sodom"

the house

"Lot's house"

both young and old

"from the youngest to the oldest." This means "men of all ages" and refers to the men of Sodom who were surrounding Lot's house.

that came in to you

"that went into your house"

sleep with them

"engage in sex with them." Your language may have a more polite way of saying this. AT: "know them intimately or sexually" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 19:6-8

after himself

"behind him" or "after he went through"

I beg you, my brothers

"I plead with you, my brothers"

my brothers

Lot spoke in a friendly way to the men of the city hoping that they would listen to him. AT: "my friends" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

do not act so wickedly

"do not do something so wicked" or "do not do such a wicked thing"

Look

"Pay attention" or "Look here"

have not slept with

"have not engaged in sex with." Your language may have a more polite way of saying this. AT: "have not known" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

whatever is good in your eyes

"whatever you desire" or "whatever you think is right"

under the shadow of my roof

The two men were guests in Lot's home, so he needed to protect them. The word "roof" is a synecdoche for the whole house and a metaphor for Lot protecting them. AT: "into my house, and God expects me to protect them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 19:9

Stand back!

"Step aside!" or "Get out of our way!"

This one came here to live as a foreigner

"This one came here as an outsider" or "This foreigner came to live here"

This one

"Lot." The men are speaking to each other. If this would be unclear in your language, you may have the men speak to Lot here, as in UDB.

and now

The speaker would not expect a foreigner to judge the people of that land. AT: "but even though he has no good reason to" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

he has become our judge

Here "has become our judge" is an idiom that means Lot is acting as if he can tell the men what actions are right or wrong. AT: "he acts as if he has the authority to tell us what is right and what is wrong" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Now we

"Because you are telling us that what we are doing is wrong, we"

we will deal worse with you than with them

The men are angry that Lot said, "Do not act so wickedly" (Genesis 19:7), so they are threatening to act more wickedly than Lot had feared at first. AT: "we will act more wickedly with you than we will with them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

They pressed hard against the man, against Lot, and came near to break down the door

Possible meanings are 1) "They kept coming closer to the man, to Lot, until they were close enough to break down the door" or 2) they physically pushed Lot up against the wall or door of the house and were about to break the door down.

the man ... Lot

This is two ways of referring to Lot.

translationWords

Genesis 19:10-11

But the men

"But Lot's two guests" or "But the two angels"

the men reached out their hands and brought ... them and shut

Your language may need to add that the men opened the door first. AT: 'the men opened the door far enough so they could reach out their hands and pull ... them, and then they shut" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Lot's visitors struck with blindness the men

The phrase "struck with blindness" is a metaphor; the visitors did not physically hit the men. AT: "Lot's visitors blinded the men" or "they took away their sight" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

both young and old

"men of all ages." This merism emphasizes that the visitors blinded all the men. This could indicate social standing rather than age. AT: "both small and great" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 19:12-13

Then the men said

"Then the two men said" or "Then the angels said"

Do you have anyone else here?

"Are there any other members of your family in the city?" or "Do you have any other family members in this place?"

whoever you have in the city

"any other members of your family living in this city"

we are about to destroy

The word "we" here is exclusive. Only the two angels would destroy the city; Lot would not destroy it. If your language has an exclusive form of "we," use it here. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-exclusive/01.md]])

the accusations against it before Yahweh have become so loud

This can be reworded so that the abstract noun "accusations" is expressed as a verb. See how similar words are translated in Genesis 18:20. AT: "so many people have been telling Yahweh that the people of this city are doing evil things" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 19:14-15

Lot went out

"So Lot left the house"

his sons-in-law, the men who had promised to marry his daughters

The phrase "the men who had promised to marry his daughters" explains what "sons-in-law" means here. AT: "the men who were going to marry his daughters" or "his daughters' fiancés" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]])

When the morning dawned

"Just before the sun came up"

Get going

"Go now"

you are not swept away in the punishment of the city

This can be stated in active form. AT: "so Yahweh does not also destroy you when he punishes the people of this city" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

not swept away in the punishment

God destroying the people of the city is spoken of as if a person were sweeping away dust. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

of the city

Here "city" stands for the people. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 19:16-17

But he lingered

"But Lot hesitated" or "But Lot did not start to leave"

So the men grabbed

"So the two men grabbed" or "So the angels grabbed"

was merciful to him

"had compassion on Lot." Yahweh is described as being "merciful" because he was sparing the lives of Lot and his family instead of destroying them when he destroyed the people of Sodom for the wrong they had done.

When they had brought them out

"When the two men had brought Lot's family out"

Run for your lives!

This is a way of telling them to run so that they do not die. AT: "Run away and save your lives!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Do not look back

The phrase "at the city" is understood. AT: "Do not look back at the city" or "Do not look back at Sodom" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

on the plain

This means the plain of the Jordan River. This refers to the general region of the Jordan River.

so you are not swept away

It is understood that they would swept away with the people of the city. This can be stated in active form. AT: "or else God will destroy you along with the people of the city" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

not swept away

God destroying the people of the city is spoken of as if a person were sweeping away dust. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 19:18-20

Your servant has found favor in your eyes

The phrase "found favor" is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Here "eyes" are a metonym for sight, and sight is a metaphor representing his evaluation. AT: "You have been pleased with me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

Your servant has

Lot was showing respect by referring to himself as "your servant." AT: "I, your servant, have" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

you have shown me great kindness in saving my life

The abstract noun "kindness" can be stated as "kind." AT: "you have been very kind to me by saving my life" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

I cannot escape to the mountains, because the disaster will overtake me, and I will die

Being unable to get far enough away from Sodom when God destroys the city is spoken of as if "disaster" is a person that will chase and catch up with Lot. AT: "My family and I will certainly die when God destroys the people of Sodom, because the mountains are too far away for us to get there safely" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]])

my life ... I cannot escape ... overtake me, and I will die

It is implied that Lot's family would die along with him. AT: "our lives ... we cannot escape ... overtake us, and we will die" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

let me escape there (is it not a little one?), and my life will be saved

Lot used this rhetorical question to get the angels to notice that the city really is a small one. AT: "let me escape there. You can see how small it is. If you let us go there we will live" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

let me escape there

Lot's full request can be made explicit. AT: "instead of destroying that city, let me escape there" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

my life will be saved

It is implied that the lives of Lot's family will be saved along with his. This can also be stated in active form. AT: "so that we will live" or "so that we will survive" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 19:21-22

I am granting this request also

"I will do what you have asked"

cannot do anything

This can be made more explicit. AT: "cannot destroy the other cities" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Zoar

Translators may add a footnote that says "The name Zoar sounds like the Hebrew word that means 'little.' Lot called this town 'little' in Genesis 19:20."

translationWords

Genesis 19:23-25

The sun had risen upon the earth

"The sun had risen over the earth." The phrase "upon the earth" can be left implicit as it is in the UDB where it is not translated. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

when Lot reached Zoar

It is implied that Lot's family is with him. AT: "when Lot and his family arrived at Zoar" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Yahweh rained down upon Sodom and Gomorrah sulfur and fire from Yahweh out of the sky

The phrase "from Yahweh" stands for God's power to cause the sulfur and fire to fall on the city. AT: "Yahweh caused sulfur and fire to fall from the sky onto Sodom and Gomorrah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

sulfur and fire

These two words are used together to describe one object. AT: "burning sulfur" or "fiery rain" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-hendiadys/01.md]])

those cities

This refers primarily to Sodom and Gomorrah, but also to three other towns.

the inhabitants of the cities

"the people who lived in the cities"

translationWords

Genesis 19:26-28

she became a pillar of salt

"she became like a statue of salt" or "her body became like a tall stone of salt." Because she disobeyed the angel who told them not to look back at the city, God caused her to become something like a statue made out of rock salt.

behold

The word "behold" draws attention to the surprising information that follows.

like the smoke of a furnace

This shows that it was a very large amount of smoke. AT: "like the smoke from a very large fire" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-simile/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 19:29

General Information:

Verse 29 is a summary of this chapter.

God called Abraham to mind

This tells why God rescued Lot. To "call to mind" is a way of saying "remember." This does not imply that God forgot about Abraham. It means he considered Abraham and had mercy on him. AT: "God thought about Abraham and had mercy on him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

out of the midst of the destruction

"away from the destruction" or "away from danger"

translationWords

Genesis 19:30

Lot went up from Zoar to live in the mountains

The phrase "went up from" is used because Lot went to a higher elevation in the mountains.

translationWords

Genesis 19:31-33

The firstborn ... the younger

Here "firstborn" and "younger" are nominal adjectives that refer to Lot's two daughters according to their birth order. AT: "Lot's first daughter ... Lot's last daughter" or "The older daughter ... the younger daughter" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-nominaladj/01.md]])

according to the way of all the world

Here "the world" stands for the people. AT: "as people everywhere do" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

drink wine

It can be made explicit that their goal was to get him drunk. AT: "drink wine until he gets drunk" or "get drunk with wine" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

so that we may extend our father's line

This speaks about giving Lot descendants as if his family were a line that they are making longer. AT: "so that we can bear children who will be our father's descendants" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

he did not know when she lay down, nor when she arose

"he did not know anything about it" or "he did not know that she had slept with him"

translationWords

Genesis 19:34-35

Let us make him drink wine ... nor when she arose

See how you translated these phrases in Genesis 19:32-33.

drink wine

It can be made explicit that their goal was to get him drunk. AT: "drink wine until he gets drunk" or "get drunk with wine" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

so that we may extend our father's line

This speaks about giving Lot descendants as if his family were a line that they are making longer. AT: "so that we can bear children who will be our father's descendants" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

He did not know when she lay down, nor when she arose

"he did not know anything about it" or "he did not know that she had slept with him"

translationWords

Genesis 19:36-38

were pregnant by their father

"became pregnant by their father" or "conceived children with their father"

He became

"He is"

the Moabites of today

"the Moab people who are now living"

of today

The word "today" refers to the time when the author of Genesis was living. The author was born and wrote this many years after Lot's family lived and died.

Ben-Ammi

This is a male name. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

the people of Ammon

"the descendants of Ammon" or "the Ammon people"

translationWords

Genesis 20

Genesis 20:intro-0

Genesis 20 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# "She is my sister"

Abraham was afraid the people of Gerar would see him as a foreigner and upon seeing his beautiful wife, they would try to kill him. This would free Sarah to marry someone else. Apparently, it would have been easy for them to kill a foreigner without punishment. If she was Abraham's sister, they would have shown favor to him. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/favor.md]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# Irony

Abraham believed that the people of Gerar did not fear Yahweh, but when confronted by Yahweh, the king showed that he feared Yahweh. Instead, it was Abraham who did not show any fear of Yahweh when he sinned. This is irony. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/fear.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 20:1-3

Shur

This is a desert region on the eastern border of Egypt. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

sent for Sarah and took her

"made his men go get Sarah and bring her to him"

God came to Abimelech

"God appeared to Abimelech"

Behold

"pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important: "

you are a dead man

This is a strong way of saying the king will die. AT: "you will certainly die soon" or "I will kill you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

a man's wife

"a married woman"

translationWords

Genesis 20:4-5

Now ... her

This word is used here to mark a change from the story to information about Abimelech. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

Abimelech had not come near her

This is a polite way of saying he did not have sex with her. AT: "Abimelech had not slept with Sarah" or "Abimelech had not touched Sarah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

even a righteous nation

Here "nation" stands for the people. Abimelech is worried that God will punish not only him, but his people also. AT: "even a people who are innocent" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

Did he not himself say to me, 'She is my sister?' Even she herself said, 'He is my brother.'

This has quotations within a quotation. They can be stated as indirect quotations. AT: "Did he himself not tell me that she is his sister? Even she herself told me that he is her brother." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

Did he not himself say to me, 'She is my sister?'

Abimelech used this rhetorical question to remind God of something God already knew. This can be translated as a statement. AT: "Abraham himself told me, 'She is my sister.'" or "Abraham said that she is his sister." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Did he not himself say ... Even she herself

The words "he himself" and "she herself" are used for emphasis to bring attention to Abraham and Sarah and to blame them for what happened. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rpronouns/01.md]])

I have done this in the integrity of my heart and the innocence of my hands

Here "heart" stands for his thoughts or intentions. Also "hands" stands for his actions. AT: "I have done this with good intentions and actions" or "I have done this with no evil thoughts or actions" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 20:6-7

God said to him

"God said to Abimelech"

in the integrity of your heart you did this

Here "heart" stands for his thoughts or intentions. AT: "you did this with good intentions" or "you did this without evil intentions" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

to touch her

This is a euphemism for having sex with Sarah. AT: "to sleep with her" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

the man's wife

"Abraham's wife"

you will live

"I will let you live"

all who are yours

"all of your people"

translationWords

Genesis 20:8-9

He told all these things to them

"He told them everything that God had told him"

What have you done to us?

Abimelech used this rhetorical question to accuse Abraham. AT: "You have done something bad to us!" or "Look what you have done to us!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

to us

The word "us" here is exclusive and does not include Abraham and Sarah. If your language uses an exclusive form of "we" or "us," use it here. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-exclusive/01.md]])

How have I sinned against you, that you have brought ... sin?

Abimelech used this rhetorical question to remind Abraham that he had not sinned against Abraham. AT: "I have done nothing against you to cause you to bring ... sin." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

that you have brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin

To cause someone to be guilty of sinning is spoken of as if "sin" was a thing that could be placed on a person. AT: "that you should make me and my kingdom guilty of such a terrible sin" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

on my kingdom

Here "kingdom" stands for the people. AT: "on the people of my kingdom" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

You have done to me that which ought not to be done

"You should not have done this to me"

translationWords

Genesis 20:10-12

What prompted you to do this thing?

"What caused you to do this?" or "Why did you do this?" What Abraham did can be stated explicitly. AT: "Why did you tell me that Sarah is your sister?" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Because I thought, 'Surely there is no fear of God in this place, and they will kill me because of my wife.'

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. AT: "Because I thought that since no one here fears God, someone may kill me so they can take my wife." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

no fear of God in this place

Here "place" refers to the people. AT: "no one here in Gerar fears God" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

fear of God

This means to deeply respect God and show that respect by obeying him.

Besides, she is indeed my sister

"Also, it is true that Sarah is my sister" or "Also, Sarah really is my sister"

the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother

"we have the same father, but we have different mothers"

translationWords

Genesis 20:13-14

General Information:

Verse 13 is a continuation of Abraham's answer to Abimelech.

my father's house

Here "house" stands for Abraham's family. AT: "my father and the rest of my family" or "my father's household" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

I said to her, 'You must show me this faithfulness as my wife: At every place where we go, say about me, "He is my brother."'

This has quotations within quotations. They can be stated as indirect quotations. AT: "I said to Sarah that I wanted her to be faithful to me by telling people everywhere we go that I am her brother" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

Abimelech took

"Abimelech brought some"

translationWords

Genesis 20:15-16

Abimelech said

"Abimelech said to Abraham"

Look

"Pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important"

my land is before you

This is a way of saying "I make all of my land available to you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Settle wherever it pleases you

"Live wherever you want"

a thousand

"1,000" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

It is to cover any offense against you in the eyes of all that are with you

Giving money to prove to others that Sarah is innocent is spoken of as if he is placing a cover over an offense so no one can see it. AT: "I am giving this to him, so that those who are with you will know that you have done nothing wrong" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

in the eyes

The eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. AT: "in the opinion" or "in the judgement" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

before everyone, you are completely made right

The passive phrase "made right" can be stated in active form. AT: "everyone will know that you are innocent" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 20:17-18

completely infertile

"totally unable to have children"

because of Sarah, Abraham's wife

The full meaning can be stated explicitly. AT: "because Abimelech had taken Abraham's wife Sarah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 21

Genesis 21:intro-0

Genesis 21 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Sarah's anger

After Sarah was able to have her own child, and he survived infancy, she began to get angry with Abraham's other son, Ishmael. He would have been a constant reminder of her own sin. God blessed Ishmael, but he was not able to inherit the promises given to Abraham. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/inherit.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/bless.md]])

# Abandoning Ishmael

According to the law at this time, Hagar was able to gain her freedom from slavery by abandoning any claim to receive an inheritance. This is why Hagar would have abandoned her son under the tree. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

# Treaty

The Gentile king, Abimelech, made a covenant or treaty with Abraham. It is possible that he did this because he recognized the power of Abraham's God, but his exact reasons are unknown. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]])

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Genesis 21:1-4

Yahweh paid attention to Sarah

Here the phrase "paid attention to" refers to Yahweh helping Sarah have a baby. AT: "Yahweh helped Sarah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

bore a son to Abraham

"gave birth to Abraham's son"

in his old age

"when Abraham was very old"

at the set time of which God had spoken to him

"at the exact time that God had told him it would happen"

Abraham named his son, the one who had been born to him, whom Sarah bore to him, Isaac

"Abraham named his newborn son, the one Sarah gave birth to, Isaac" or "Abraham named their newborn son Isaac"

Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old

"When his son Isaac was eight days old, Abraham circumcised him"

eight days

"8 days" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

had commanded him

"had commanded Abraham to do"

translationWords

Genesis 21:5-7

one hundred

"100" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

God has made me laugh

Sarah was laughing because she was surprised and happy. This can be made explicit. AT: "God has caused me to laugh joyfully" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

every one who hears

What people would hear can be stated explicitly. AT: "everyone who hears about what God has done for me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children

This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. AT: "No one would have ever said to Abraham that Sarah will nurse children" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

nurse children

This is a polite way of referring to breast-feeding babies. AT: "feed a baby her own milk" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 21:8-9

The child grew and ... Isaac was weaned

"Wean" here is a polite way of saying the child was finished with breast feeding. AT: "Isaac grew, and when he no longer needed his mother's milk, Abraham had a large feast" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham

The name of Hagar's son can be stated explicitly. AT: "Ishmael, the son of Hagar the Egyptian and Abraham" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

mocking

It can be stated explicitly that he was jeering or laughing at Isaac. AT: "laughing at Isaac" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 21:10-11

she said to Abraham

"Sarah said to Abraham"

Drive out

"send away" or "get rid of"

this slave woman and her son

This refers to Hagar and Ishmael. Sarah probably did not refer to them by name because she was angry with them.

with my son, with Isaac

"with my son Isaac"

This thing was very grievous to Abraham

"Abraham was very unhappy about what Sarah said"

because of his son

"because it was about his son." It is implied that this means his son, Ishmael. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 21:12-13

Do not be grieved because of the lad, and because of your servant woman

"Do not be upset about the boy and your handmaid"

Listen to her words in all she says to you about this matter

"Do everything that Sarah says to you about them"

it is through Isaac that your descendants will be named

The phrase "will be named" means those born through Isaac are the ones God considers to be the descendants that he promised Abraham. This can be stated in active form. AT: "Isaac is the one who will be the forefather of the descendants I promised to give you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

I will also make the son of the servant woman into a nation

The word "nation" means God will give him many descendants so that they become a great nation of people. AT: "I will make the servant woman's son also become the father of a great nation" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 21:14-16

took bread

Possible meanings are 1) this refers to food in general or 2) this refers to bread specifically. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

a skin of water

"a bag of water." The water container was made out of animal skin.

When the water in the waterskin was gone

"When the water bag was empty" or "When they had drank all of the water"

about the distance of a bowshot away

This refers to the distance that a person could shoot an arrow with a bow. This is about 100 meters.

Let me not look upon the death of the child

The abstract noun "death" can be stated as "die." AT: "I do not want to watch the boy die" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

she lifted up her voice and wept

Here "voice" stands for the sound of her crying. To "life up her voice" means to cry loudly. AT: "she cried out loudly and wept" or "she wept loudly" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 21:17-18

the voice of the lad

"the boy's voice." Here "voice" stands for the sound of the boy crying or speaking. AT: "the sound of Ishmael" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

the angel of God

"a messenger from God" or "God's messenger"

out of heaven

Here "heaven" means the place where God lives.

What troubles you

"What is wrong" or "Why are you crying"

the voice of the lad where he is

Here "voice" stands for the sound of the boy crying or speaking. AT: "the sound of the boy lying over there" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

raise up the lad

"help the boy stand up"

I will make him into a great nation

To make Ishmael into a great nation means God will give him many descendants who will become a great nation. AT: "I will make his descendants become a great nation" or "I will make him become the ancestor of a great nation" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 21:19-21

God opened her eyes, and she saw

God making Hagar aware of the well is spoken of as if he literally opened her eyes. AT: "God caused Hagar to see" or "God showed her" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

the skin

"the container made of skin" or "the bag"

the lad

"the boy" or "Ishmael"

God was with the lad

Here the phrase "was with" is an idiom that means God helped or blessed the boy. AT: "God guided the boy" or "God blessed the boy" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

became an archer

"became very skilled at using a bow and arrows"

got a wife

"found a wife"

translationWords

Genesis 21:22-24

It came about at that time

This phrase marks the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

Phicol

This is the name of a man. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

captain of his army

"commander of his army"

his army

The word "his" refers to Abimelech.

God is with you in all that you do

Here the phrase "is with you" is an idiom that means God helps or blesses Abraham. AT: "God blesses everything you do" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Now therefore

The word "Now" does not mean "at this moment," but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows. AT: "Therefore" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

swear to me here by God

This is an idiom meaning to make a solemn oath witnessed by a higher authority, in this instance, God. AT: "promise me with God as your witness" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

that you will not deal falsely with me

"that you will not lie to me"

will not deal falsely ... with my descendants

This can be stated in positive form. AT: "will deal honestly with me and my descendants" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublenegatives/01.md]])

Show to me ... covenant faithfulness that I have shown to you

The two men had made a covenant with each other. The abstract noun "faithfulness" can be stated as "faithful" or "loyal." AT: "Be as faithful to me and to the land as I have been to you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

to the land

Here "land" stands for the people. AT: "to the people of the land" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

I swear

This can be stated with the understood information. AT: "I swear to be as faithful to you and your people as you have been to me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 21:25-27

Abraham also complained to Abimelech

Possible meanings are 1) Abraham was complaining about what happened or 2) "Abraham also rebuked Abimelech"

concerning a well of water that Abimelech's servants had seized from him

"because Abimelech's servants had taken one of Abraham's wells"

seized from him

"taken from Abraham" or "had taken control of"

I have not heard of it until today

"This is the first time I have heard about it"

Abraham took sheep and oxen and gave them to Abimelech

This is a sign of friendship and that Abraham agrees to make covenant with Abimelech. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 21:28-30

Abraham set seven female lambs of the flock by themselves

"Abraham separated seven female lambs from the flock"

What is the meaning of these seven female lambs that you have set by themselves?

"Why have you separated these seven lambs from the flock?"

you will receive

"you will take"

from my hand

Here "hand" stands for Abraham. AT: "from me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

it may be a witness

The word "it" refers to the gift of seven lambs.

so that it may be a witness for me

The abstract noun "witness" can be stated as "to prove." AT: "to prove to everyone" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 21:31-32

he called that place

"Abraham called that place"

Beersheba

Translators may add a footnote saying "Beersheba can mean either "well of the oath" or "well of seven."

they both

"Abraham and Abimelech"

Phicol

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 21:22.

translationWords

Genesis 21:33-34

a tamarisk tree

This is an evergreen tree that can grow in the desert. It can be stated more generally. AT: "a tree" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-unknown/01.md]])

the eternal God

"the God who lives forever"

many days

"for a long time"

translationWords

Genesis 22

Genesis 22:intro-0

Genesis 22 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Sacrificing his son

Although Isaac was not Abraham's only son, he was the son who was to inherit Abraham's promised blessings. It is possible this parallels God's actual sacrifice of his son, Jesus, for the sins of man. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/inherit.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]])

# Covenant affirmation

After important events, it is common for Scripture to affirm the tenants of a covenant. This serves as a reminder of the covenant and affirms it. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# God tests Abraham

Extra care should be taken when translating "testing." It is best to avoid using the same word used for "tempting" even though they overlap in meaning. This is because Scripture also says God does not tempt anyone. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/test.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/tempt.md]] and James 2:13)

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Genesis 22:1-3

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

after these things

This phrase refers to the events in chapter 21.

God tested Abraham

It is implied that God tests Abraham to learn if Abraham will be faithful to him. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. AT: God tested Abraham's faithfulness" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Here I am

"Yes, I am listening" or "Yes, what is it?"

your only son

It is implied that God knows that Abraham has another son, Ishmael. This emphasizes that Isaac is the son that God promised to give Abraham. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. AT: "your only son whom I have promised" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

whom you love

This emphasizes Abraham's love for his son, Isaac.

the land of Moriah

"the land called Moriah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

saddled his donkey

"loaded his donkey" or "put on his donkey what he needed for the journey"

young men

"servants"

set out on his journey

"started his journey" or "started traveling"

translationWords

Genesis 22:4-6

On the third day

The word "third" is the ordinal number for three. AT: "After traveling for three days" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-ordinal/01.md]])

saw the place afar off

"saw far away the place that God had spoken of"

young men

"servants"

We will worship

The word "we" refers only to Abraham and Isaac, but not to the young men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-exclusive/01.md]])

come again to you

"return to you"

put it on Isaac his son

"had Isaac, his son, carry it"

He took in his own hand

Here "his own hand" emphasizes that Abraham himself carried these things. AT: "Abraham himself carried" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

the fire

Here "fire" stands for a pan containing burning coals or a torch or lamp. AT: "something for starting a fire" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

they went both of them together

"they left together" or "the two of them went together"

translationWords

Genesis 22:7-8

My father

This is a loving way for a son to speak to his father.

Here I am

"Yes, I am listening" or "Yes, what is it?" See how you translated this in Genesis 22:1.

my son

This is a loving way for a father to speak to his son.

the fire

Here "fire" stands for a pan containing burning coals or a torch or lamp. See how you translated this in Genesis 22:6. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

the lamb for the burnt offering

"the lamb that you will give as a burnt offering"

God himself

Here "himself" emphasizes that it is God who will provide the lamb. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rpronouns/01.md]])

will provide

"will give us"

translationWords

Genesis 22:9-10

When they came to the place

"When Abraham and Isaac arrived at the place"

he bound

"he tied up"

on the altar, on top of the wood

"on top of the wood that was on the altar"

reached out with his hand and took up the knife

"picked up the knife"

translationWords

Genesis 22:11-12

the angel of Yahweh

Possible meanings are 1) Yahweh made himself look like an angel or 2) this was one of Yahweh's angels or 3) this was a special messenger from God (some scholars think it was Jesus). Since the phrase is not well understood, it is best to simply translate it as "the angel of Yahweh" using the normal word that you use for "angel." See the note about this phrase in Genesis 16:7.

from heaven

This refers to the place where God lives.

Here I am

"Yes, I am listening" or "Yes, what is it?" See how you translated this in Genesis 22:1.

Do not lay your hand upon the lad, nor do anything to harm him

The phrase "Do no lay your hand upon" is a way of saying "do not harm." God said basically the same thing twice to emphasize that Abraham should not hurt Isaac. AT: "Do not hurt the boy in any way" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]])

now I know ... from me

The words "I" and "me" refer to Yahweh. When translating what is in the quote, do it as the angel of Yahweh did and use the words "I" and "me" when referring to Yahweh.

you fear God

This refers to deeply respecting God and showing that respect by obeying him.

seeing that

"because I see that"

you have not withheld your son ... from me

"you have not held back your son ... from me." This can be stated in positive form. AT: "you were willing to offer your son ... to me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublenegatives/01.md]])

your son, your only son

It is implied that God knows that Abraham has another son, Ishmael. This emphasizes that Isaac is the son that God promised to give Abraham. See how you translated a similar phrase in Genesis 22:2. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 22:13-14

behold

The word "behold" here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

was a ram caught in the bushes by his horns

This can be stated in active form. AT: "was a ram whose horns were stuck in the bushes" or "was a ram stuck in the bushes" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

went and took the ram

"Abraham went over to the ram and took it"

will provide ... will be provided

Use the same word for "provide" as you used in Genesis 22:8.

to this day

"even now." This means even to the time that the author was writing this book.

it will be provided

This can be stated in active form. AT: "he will provide" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 22:15-17

The angel of Yahweh

Possible meanings are 1) Yahweh made himself look like an angel or 2) this was one of Yahweh's angels or 3) this was a special messenger from God (some scholars think it was Jesus). Since the phrase is not well understood, it is best to simply translate it as "The angel of Yahweh" using the normal word that you use for "angel." See the note about this phrase in Genesis 16:7.

a second time

The word "second" is the ordinal number for two. AT: "again" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-ordinal/01.md]])

from heaven

Here the word "heaven" refers to the place where God lives.

said—this is Yahweh's declaration

"spoke this message from Yahweh" or "declared these words of Yahweh." This is a formal way of saying that the words that follow come directly from Yahweh.

by myself I have sworn

"I have promised and I am my witness." To swear means to use the name of something or someone as the basis or power on which the oath is made. There is nothing more powerful for Yahweh to swear by than himself.

you have done this thing

"you obeyed me"

have not withheld your son

"have not kept back your son." This can be stated in positive form. AT: "were willing to offer your son to me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublenegatives/01.md]])

your son, your only son

It is implied that God knows that Abraham has another son, Ishmael. This emphasizes that Isaac is the son that God promised to give Abraham. See how you translated a similar phrase in Genesis 22:2. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

surely bless

"certainly bless"

I will greatly multiply your descendants

"I will cause your descendants to increase again and again" or "I will cause your descendants to be very many"

as the stars of the heavens, and as the sand which is upon the seashore

God compared Abraham's descendants to the stars and the sand. Just as people cannot count the huge number of stars or the grains of sand, so there would be so many of Abraham's descendants that people would not be able to count them. AT: "beyond what you can count" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-simile/01.md]])

as the stars of the heavens

Here the word "heavens" refers to everything we see above the earth, including the sun, moon, and stars.

will possess the gate of their enemies

Here "gate" represents the whole city. To "possess the gate of their enemies" means destroying their enemies. AT: "will completely triumph over their enemies" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 22:18-19

General Information:

The angel of Yahweh continues speaking to Abraham.

all the nations of the earth will be blessed

This can be stated in active form. AT: "I, the Lord, will bless all the people living everywhere" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

nations of the earth

Here "nations" stands for the people of the nations. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

you have obeyed my voice

Here "voice" stands for what God said. AT: "you have obeyed what I said" or "you have obeyed me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

Abraham returned

Only Abraham was named because he was the father, but it was implied that his son went with him. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. AT: "Abraham and his son went back" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

young men

"servants"

they departed

"they left that place"

he lived at Beersheba

Only Abraham was mentioned because he was the leader of his family and servants, but it was implied that they were with him. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. AT: "Abraham and his people stayed in Beersheba" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 22:20-22

It came about after these things

"After these events." The phrase "these things" refers to the events of Genesis 22:1-19. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

Abraham was told

This can be stated in active form. AT: "someone told Abraham" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Milkah has borne children, as well

"Milkah has also borne children"

Milkah

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

They were Uz his firstborn, Buz his brother

"The name of his firstborn was Uz, and the names of the rest of his children were Buz his brother"

Uz ... Buz ... Kemuel ... Aram ... Kesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel

These are all names of men. Translate this so that it is clear that all of these except Aram are the sons of Nahor and Milkah. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 22:23-24

Bethuel became the father of Rebekah

"Later Bethel became the father of Rebekah"

These were the eight children that Milkah bore to Nahor, Abraham's brother

"These were the eight children of Milkah and Nahor, Abraham's brother." This refers to the children that were listed in Genesis 22:21-22.

His concubine

"Nahor's concubine"

Reumah

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

also bore

"also gave birth to"

Tebah, Gaham, Tahash, and Maacah

These are all names of men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 23

Genesis 23:intro-0

Genesis 23 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Abraham's character

Abraham's interaction with the people show that he was greatly respected. This would have been unusual for a foreigner and indicates that Abraham was a man of great character. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

# Burial

Burial was a common practice when Abraham lived, but only the wealthy were able to bury their dead relatives in this way.

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 23:1-2

Sarah lived a hundred and twenty-seven years

"Sarah lived 127 years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

These were the years of the life of Sarah

Some translations do not include this sentence. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]])

Kiriath Arba

This is the name of a city. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Abraham mourned and wept for Sarah

"Abraham was very sad and cried because Sarah died"

translationWords

Genesis 23:3-4

rose up and went from his dead wife

"got up and left his wife's body"

the sons of Heth

Here "sons" stands for those who descended from Heth. AT: "the descendants of Heth" or "the Hittites" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

among you

This idea may be expressed in terms of location. "in your country" or "here"

Please grant me a property

"Sell me some land" or "Allow me to buy a piece of land"

my dead

The nominal adjective "dead" can be stated as an adjective or a verb. AT: "my dead wife" or "my wife who has died" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-nominaladj/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 23:5-6

The sons of Heth

Here "sons" stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. AT: "The descendants of Heth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

my master

This phrase is used to show respect to Abraham.

a prince of God

This is an idiom. This probably means "a powerful man" or "a mighty leader." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

your dead

The nominal adjective "dead" can be stated as a verb or simply as "wife." AT: "your wife who has died" or "your wife" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-nominaladj/01.md]])

the choicest of our tombs

"the best of our burial places"

refuse you his tomb

"withhold his burial place from you" or "refuse to give to you his tomb"

translationWords

Genesis 23:7-9

bowed down

This means to bend over or kneel down very low to humbly express respect and honor toward someone. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-symlanguage/01.md]])

to the people of the land, to the sons of Heth

"to the sons of Heth who lived in the area"

the sons of Heth

Here "sons" stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. AT: "the descendants of Heth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

my dead

The nominal adjective "dead" can be stated as a verb or simply as "wife." AT: "my wife who has died" or "my wife" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-nominaladj/01.md]])

Ephron ... Zohar

These are names of men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

the cave of Machpelah, which he owns, which is at the end of his field

"his cave that is at the end of his field in Machpelah"

the cave of Machpelah

"the cave in Machpela." Machpela was the name of an area or region. Ephron owned a field in Machpela and the cave that was in the field. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

which he owns

This tells something about the cave. Ephron owned the cave. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-distinguish/01.md]])

which is at the end of his field

This also tells something about the cave. The cave was at the end of Ephron's field. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-distinguish/01.md]])

sell it to me publicly

"sell it to me in front of you all" or "sell it to me in your presence"

as a property

"as a piece of land that I may own and use"

translationWords

Genesis 23:10-11

Now Ephron was sitting among the sons of Heth

Here "Now" is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Ephron. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

Ephron

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:8. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

the sons of Heth

Here "sons" stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. AT: "the descendants of Heth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

in the hearing of the sons of Heth

The abstract noun "the hearing" can be stated as "hear" or "listening." AT: "so that all the sons of Heth could hear him" or "while all the sons of Heth were listening" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

all those who had come into the gate of his city

This tells which sons of Heth were listening. AT: "all those who had gathered at the gate of his city" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-distinguish/01.md]])

gate of his city

The city gate was where the leaders of the city would meet to make important decisions.

his city

"the city where he lived." This phrase shows that Ephron belonged to that city. It does not mean that he owned it.

my master

This phrase is used to show respect to Abraham.

in the presence of the sons of my people

Here "presence" stands for the people serving as witnesses. AT: "with my fellow countrymen as my witnesses" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

sons of my people

This means "my fellow countrymen" or "my fellow Hittites"

my people

This phrase shows that Ephron was part of that group of people. It does not mean that he was their leader.

I give it to you to bury your dead

"I give it to you. Bury your dead"

your dead

The nominal adjective "dead" can be stated as a verb or simply as "wife." AT: "your wife who has died" or "your wife" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-nominaladj/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 23:12-13

bowed himself down

This means to bend over or kneel down very low to humbly express respect and honor toward someone. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-symlanguage/01.md]])

people of the land

"people who lived in that area"

in the hearing of the people of the land

The abstract noun "the hearing" can be stated as "hear" or "listening" AT: "so that the people who lived in the area could hear" or "while the people who lived in the area were listening" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

But if you are willing

The word "but" shows a contrast. Ephron wanted to give the field to Abraham; Abraham wanted to pay for it. AT: "No, but if you are willing" or "No, but if you agree with this"

I will pay for the field

"I will give you money for the field"

my dead

The nominal adjective "dead" can be stated as a verb or simply as "wife." AT: "my wife who has died" or "my wife" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-nominaladj/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 23:14-16

Ephron

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:8. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Please, my master, listen to me

"Hear me, my master" or "Listen to me, kind sir"

my master

This phrase is used to show respect to Abraham.

A piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver, what is that between me and you?

Ephron meant that since he and Abraham were both so wealthy, 400 pieces of silver was a small amount. This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. AT: "The piece of land is worth only four hundred shekels of silver. For you and me, that is nothing." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

four hundred shekels of silver

This is about 4.5 kilograms of silver. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-bweight/01.md]])

four hundred

"400" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Bury your dead

The nominal adjective "dead" can be stated as a verb or simply as "wife." AT: "Go bury your wife who has died" or "Go bury your wife" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-nominaladj/01.md]])

Abraham weighed out to Ephron the amount of silver

"Abraham weighed the silver and gave Ephron the amount" or "Abraham counted out to Ephron the amount of silver"

the amount of silver that he had spoken

"the amount of silver that Ephron had said"

in the hearing of the sons of Heth

The abstract noun "the hearing" can be stated as "hear" or "listening." AT: "so that all the sons of Heth could hear him" or "while all the sons of Heth were listening" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

the sons of Heth

Here "sons" stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. AT: "the descendants of Heth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

according to the standard measurement of the merchants

"using the standard measurement of weight that merchants used." This can be stated as a new sentence. AT: "He weighed the silver the same way that the merchants used to weigh it"

translationWords

Genesis 23:17-18

Machpelah

Machpela was the name of an area or region. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:9. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Mamre

This was another name for the city of Hebron. It may have been named after Mamre, the friend of Abraham who lived there. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

that is, the field, the cave that was in it, and all the trees

This phrase explains what the author meant when he wrote "the field of Ephron." It was not only the field, but also the cave and trees in the field.

passed to Abraham by purchase

"became Abraham's possession when he purchased it" or "belonged to Abraham after he bought it"

in the presence of the sons of Heth

Here "presence" stands for the people serving as witnesses. AT: "with the people of Heth watching as witnesses" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

the sons of Heth

Here "sons" stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. AT: "the descendants of Heth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

all those who had come into the gate of his city

This tells which sons of Heth saw Abraham buy the property. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:10. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-distinguish/01.md]])

gate of his city

The city gate was where the leaders of the city would meet to make important decisions.

his city

"the city where he lived." This phrase shows that Ephron belonged to that city. It does not mean that he owned it.

translationWords

Genesis 23:19-20

After this

"After he bought the field"

the cave of the field

"the cave in the field"

the field of Machpelah

"the field in Machpelah"

that is, Hebron

Possible meanings are 1) Mamre was another name for Hebron or 2) Hebron was formerly called Mamre or 3) Mamre was very near the larger city of Hebron, so people usually called it Hebron.

passed to Abraham as a property for a burial place from the sons of Heth

"became Abraham's property for a burial ground when he bought it from the sons of Heth"

the sons of Heth

Here "sons" stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. AT: "the descendants of Heth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 24

Genesis 24:intro-0

Genesis 24 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULB does this with the poetry in 24:60.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Intermarriage

Abraham would not allow his son to marry anyone from the people of Canaan. This is because it would cause his son to worship other gods. Intermarriage and worshiping false gods are things that frequently caused Abraham's descendants to struggle. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/falsegod.md]])

# Abraham's wealth

There are many instances recorded in this chapter which highlight Abraham's significant wealth. He owned more than 10 camels and had large amounts of gold.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# "Put your hand under my thigh"

Many scholars believe this is a euphemism. Putting one's hand on a man's genitals was a way to make an important oath. It represented power and progeny. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 24:1-4

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the author starts to tell a new part of the story.

Put your hand under my thigh

Abraham was about to ask the servant to swear to do something. Putting his hand under Abraham's thigh would show that he would certainly do what he would swear to do. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

I will make you swear

This can be expressed as a command. AT: "swear" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

swear by Yahweh

The term "swear by" means to use the name of something or someone as the basis or power on which the oath is made. "promise me with Yahweh as your witness"

the God of heaven and the God of the earth

"the God of heaven and earth." The words "heaven" and "earth" are used together to mean every thing that God created. AT: "the God of everything in heaven and earth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

heaven

This refers to the place where God lives.

from the daughters of the Canaanites

"from the Canaanite women" or "from the Canaanites." This refers to Canaanite females.

among whom I make my home

"among whom I live." Here, "I" stands for Abraham and all of his family and servants. AT: "among whom we live" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

But you will go

This can be stated as a command. AT: "Swear that you will go" or "But go" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-imperative/01.md]])

my relatives

"my family"

translationWords

Genesis 24:5-7

What if

"What should I do if"

will not be willing to follow me

"will not follow me" or "refuses to come back with me"

Must I take your son back to the land from which you came

"Should I take you son to live in the land from which you came"

Make sure that you do not take my son back there

The phrase "Make sure" emphasizes the command that follows. "Be careful not to take my son back there" or "You definitely must not take my son there"

who took me from my father's house

Here "house" stands for the people in his family. AT: "who took me from my father and the rest of my family" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

promised me with a solemn oath

"swore an oath to me"

saying, 'To your offspring I will give this land,'

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. AT: "saying that he would give this land to my offspring" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

he will send his angel

The words "he" and "his" refer to Yahweh.

translationWords

Genesis 24:8-9

General Information:

Verse 8 is a continuation of the instructions Abraham gave his servant.

But if the woman is not willing to follow you

"But if the woman refuses to come with you." Abraham was answering the servant's question from Genesis 24:5. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-hypo/01.md]])

you will be free from this oath of mine

"you will be released from the oath you made to me." Not having to fulfill an oath is spoken of as if the person is free from an object to which he was bound. AT: "you will not have to do what you swore to me that you would do" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his master

This was to show that he would certainly do what he was swearing to do. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

swore to him

"made an oath to him"

concerning this matter

"concerning Abraham's request" or "that he would do what Abraham said"

translationWords

Genesis 24:10-11

departed. He also took

The sentence starting with "He also took" gives additional information about what the servant took with him on the journey. He gathered them before he departed.

He also took with him all kinds of gifts from his master

This means he also took many good things that his master wanted to give to the woman's family.

departed and went

"set out and went" or "he left and went"

the city of Nahor

Possible meanings are 1) the city where Nahor lived" or 2) "the city called Nahor." If you can translate it without choosing a meaning, do so. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

He made the camels kneel down

Camels are tall animals with long legs. He made them bend their legs and lower their bodies to the ground. "He made the camels lie down"

well of water

"water well" or "well"

draw water

"get water"

translationWords

Genesis 24:12-14

Then he said

"Then the servant said"

grant me success today and show covenant faithfulness to my master Abraham

You can state this with the connecting word "by." This makes clear how the servant wants God to show covenant faithfulness. AT: "Show covenant faithfulness to my master Abraham by granting me success today" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-connectingwords/01.md]])

grant me success

"give me success." The servant wanted to find a good wife for Abraham's son. The abstract noun "success" can be stated as a verb. AT: "help me to succeed" or "make me able to do what I have come here to do" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

show covenant faithfulness to my master Abraham

The abstract noun "faithfulness" can be stated as "faithful." AT: "be faithful to the covenant you have with my master Abraham" or "be faithful to my master Abraham" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

Look, here I am standing

"You can see me standing here"

the spring of water

"the spring" or "the well"

the daughters of the men of the city

"the young women of the city"

Let it happen like this

"Let it happen this way" or "Make this happen"

When I say to a young woman, 'Please lower your pitcher so that I may drink,'

This is a quotation within a quotation. This can be expressed with an indirect quote. AT: "When I ask a young woman to let me have a drink of water from her jar" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

Please lower your pitcher

The women carried the pitchers on their shoulder. She would have to lower it to give the man a drink.

pitcher

a medium-size jar made of clay used for holding and pouring liquids

that you have shown covenant faithfulness to my master

The abstract noun "faithfulness" can be stated as "been faithful." AT: "that you have been faithful to the covenant you have with my master Abraham" or "you have been faithful to my master Abraham" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 24:15-16

It came about that

This phrase is used here to mark where the action starts. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

behold

The word "behold" here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

pitcher

This is a medium-size jar made of clay used for holding and pouring liquids. See how you translated this in Genesis 24:14.

Rebekah was born to Bethuel son of Milkah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham's brother

"Rebekah's father was Bethuel. Bethuel's parents were Milkah and Nahor. Nahor was Abraham's brother"

Bethuel

Bethuel was Rebekah's father. See how you translated this name in Genesis 22:22. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Nahor

This is the name of a man. See how you translated his name in Genesis 11:22. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Milkah

Milkah was Nahor's wife and Bethuel's mother. See how you translated this name in Genesis 11:29. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

She went down to the spring ... and came up

The spring was somewhere lower in elevation than where the servant was standing.

translationWords

Genesis 24:17-18

to meet her

"to meet the young woman"

a little drink of water

"a little water"

pitcher

This is a medium-size jar made of clay used for holding and pouring liquids. See how you translated this in Genesis 24:14.

my master

"sir." Here the woman uses this term of respect to refer to the man, though she is not his slave.

she quickly let down her pitcher on her hand

"she quickly lowered her pitcher." She was carrying the pitcher on her shoulder. She had to lower it to get water for the servant.

translationWords

Genesis 24:19-20

I will draw water

"I will get water"

So she hurried and emptied her pitcher

"So she quickly emptied her pitcher"

the trough

"the animals' water trough." A trough is a long open container for holding water for animals to drink.

translationWords

Genesis 24:21-23

The man

"The servant"

watched her

"watched Rebekah" or "watched the young woman"

to see

Learning something is often spoken of as if it were seeing. AT: "to know" or "to determine" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

had prospered his journey

"had fulfilled the purpose of his journey" or "had made his journey successful." You can make explicit what specifically the servant was trying to determine. AT: "was showing him the woman who would become Isaac's wife" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

or not

You can state clearly the understood information. AT: "or not prospered his journey" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

a gold nose ring weighing half a shekel

"a gold nose ring that weighed six grams." The weight indicates the value of the ring. AT: "an expensive gold nose ring" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-bweight/01.md]])

two gold bracelets for her arms weighing ten shekels

"two gold bracelets for her arms that weighed 110 grams." The weight shows their size and value. AT: "two large gold bracelets for her arms" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-bweight/01.md]])

Whose daughter are you

"Who is your father"

is there room in your father's house

"is there a place in your father's house"

for us

Apparently other men went on this journey with Abraham's servant. Here "us" refers to the servant and those traveling with him, but not to those to whom he was speaking. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-exclusive/01.md]])

to spend the night

"to stay tonight" or "to stay for the night"

translationWords

Genesis 24:24-25

She said

"Rebekah said" or "the young woman said"

to him

"to the servant"

I am the daughter of Bethuel son of Milkah, whom she bore to Nahor

"Bethuel is my father, and his parents are Milkah and Nahor"

We have plenty of both straw and feed

It is understood that the straw and feed are for the camels. You can make clear this understood information. AT: "We have plenty of straw and feed for the camels" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

for you to spend the night

"for you to stay tonight" or "where you can stay for the night"

for you

Here "you" refers to the servant and those traveling with him. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

Genesis 24:26-27

the man

"the servant"

bowed down

This is a sign of humility before God. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

has not forsaken his covenant faithfulness and his trustworthiness toward my master

"has not stopped showing his covenant faithfulness and trustworthiness to my master." The abstract nouns "faithfulness" and "trustworthiness" can be stated as "to be faithful and trustworthy." AT: "has not stopped being faithful to his covenant and trustworthy toward my master" or "has not stopped being faithful and trustworthy to my master" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

has not forsaken

This can be stated in positive form. AT: "continues to show" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-litotes/01.md]])

my master's relatives

"my master's family" or "my master's clan"

translationWords

Genesis 24:28-30

ran and told her mother's household

Here "household" stands for all the people living in her mother's house. AT: "ran to the house and told her mother and everyone there" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

all of these things

"everything that had just happened"

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the author tells background information about Rebekah. The author introduces her brother, Laban, to the story. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-participants/01.md]])

When he had seen the nose ring ... and when he had heard the words of Rebekah his sister

These things happened before he ran out to the man. This tells why Laban ran out to the man. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-events/01.md]])

when he had heard the words of Rebekah his sister, "This is what the man said to me,"

This can be stated as an indirect quotation. AT: "when he had heard his sister Rebekah tell what the man had said to her" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

behold, he

The word "behold" here adds emphasis to what follows. "it was just as she had said: he"

translationWords

Genesis 24:31-32

Come, you

"Come in, you" or "Enter, you"

you blessed of Yahweh

"you whom Yahweh has blessed"

you

Here the word "you" refers to Abraham's servant. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

Why are you standing outside?

Laban used this question to invite Abraham's servant into his house. This question can be translated as a statement. AT: "You do not need to stay outside." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

So the man came to the house

The word "came" can be translated as "went." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-go/01.md]])

he unloaded the camels

It is not clear who did this work. This may be stated in active form. AT: "Laban's servants unloaded the camels" or "the camels were unloaded" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

The camels were given straw and feed, and water was provided

This does not say who did the work. If you state this in active form use "Laban's servants" as the subject. AT: "Laban's servants gave straw and feed to the camels, and they provided water" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

to wash his feet ... him

"for Abraham's servant and the men who were with him to wash their feet"

translationWords

Genesis 24:33-35

They set

Here, the word "they" refers to Laban's family members or to the household servants.

set food before him

"gave food to the servant"

said what I have to say

"spoken my words" or "told you why I am here"

he has become great

Here the word "he" refers to Abraham.

become great

"become very wealthy"

He has given

The word "he" refers to Yahweh.

translationWords

Genesis 24:36-38

General Information:

Abraham's servant continues speaking to Rebekah's family.

bore a son to my master

"gave birth to a son"

he has given ... to him

"my master has given ... to his son"

My master made me swear, saying

"My master made me swear that I would do what he told me to do. He said"

from the daughters of the Canaanites

This refers to Canaanite females. AT: "from the Canaanite women" or "from the Canaanites"

in whose land I make my home

"among whom I live." Here, "I" stands for Abraham and all of his family and servants. AT: "among whom we live" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

to my relatives

"to my own clan"

translationWords

Genesis 24:39-41

General Information:

Abraham's servant continues speaking to Rebekah's family.

Perhaps the woman will not follow me.

This is something that could possibly happen. AT: "What if the woman will not come back with me?" or "What should I do if the woman will not come back with me?" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-hypo/01.md]])

before whom I walk

Serving Yahweh is spoken of as if Abraham were walking in Yahweh's presence. AT: "whom I serve" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

he will prosper your way

"he will make your journey successful"

family line

"family"

But you will be free from my oath if you come to my relatives and they will not give her to you. Then you will be free from my oath

This is a hypothetical situation that Abraham did not think was likely to happen. Possible meanings are 1) "There is only one way for you to be free from my oath: if you come to my relatives and they will not give her to you, then you will be free from my oath" or, 2) building on verse 40, "If you go to my father's family and ask for a girl, you will have done what I told you to do. If they will not give her to you, then you will be free from the oath you swore to me." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-hypo/01.md]])

you will be free from my oath

"you will be released from the oath you made to me." Not having to fulfill an oath is spoken of as if the person is free from an object to which he was bound. AT: "you will not have to do what you swore to me that you would do" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

if you come to my relatives

Languages use the words come and go differently. AT: "if you arrive at my relatives' home" or "if you go to my relatives" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-go/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 24:42-44

General Information:

Abraham's servant continues speaking to Rebekah's family.

the spring

"the well"

here I am, standing by the spring of water

The servant interrupted what he was asking God to do by drawing God's attention to where he was standing.

let the young woman who comes ... the woman to whom I say ... the woman who says to me

The servant went back to stating his request, and he had three things to say about the woman that he hoped would come.

to draw water

"to get water"

pitcher

This is a medium-size jar made of clay used for holding and pouring liquids. See how you translated this in Genesis 24:14.

let her be the woman

The servant finished his request.

translationWords

Genesis 24:45-46

General Information:

Abraham's servant continues speaking to Rebekah's family.

speaking in my heart

To pray silently in one's mind is spoken of as if he were speaking in his heart. The word "heart" refers to his thoughts and his mind. AT: "praying" or "praying quietly" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

behold, Rebekah came

"suddenly Rebekah came" or "I was surprised because I saw Rebekah coming"

pitcher

This is a medium-size jar made of clay used for holding and pouring liquids. See how you translated this in Genesis 24:14.

she went down to the spring

The phrase "went down" is used because the spring was somewhere lower than where the servant was standing.

spring

opening in the ground from which fresh water comes

watered the camels

"gave water to the camels"

translationWords

Genesis 24:47-48

General Information:

Abraham's servant continues speaking to Rebekah's family.

The daughter of Bethuel, Nahor's son, whom Milkah bore to him

"My father is Bethuel. His parents are Nahor and Milkah"

ring ... bracelets

In this story, all of these items were made of gold. See how you translated these in Genesis 24:22.

I bowed down

This is a sign of humility before God. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

led me by the right way

"brought me here"

who had led me

The connecting word "because" can be used to show this is why the servant worshiped God. AT: "because Yahweh led me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-connectingwords/01.md]])

my master's relative

This refers to Bethuel, the son of Abraham's brother Nahor.

translationWords

Genesis 24:49

General Information:

Abraham's servant continues speaking to Rebekah's family.

Now therefore

"Now." Here "Now" does not mean "at this moment," but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

if you are prepared to show covenant faithfulness and trustworthiness to my master, tell me

How they could show the covenant faithfulness and trustworthiness can be stated explicitly. AT: "tell me if you will be faithful and trustworthy to my master by giving Rebekah to be his son's wife" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

you

The word "you" refers to Laban and Bethuel. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

faithfulness and trustworthiness

These abstract nouns can be stated as "faithful and trustworthy." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

But if not

The understood information can be stated clearly. AT: "But if you are not prepared to treat my master with family faithfulness and trustworthiness" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

so that I may turn to the right hand or to the left

Possible meanings are 1) deciding what to do is spoken of as if the person will physically turn one direction or another. AT: "so that I will know what do" or 2) the servant wants to know if he needs to travel somewhere else. AT: "so that I may continue on my journey" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 24:50-51

Bethuel

This was the father of Laban and Rebekah.

The thing has come from Yahweh

"Yahweh has caused all of this to happen"

we cannot speak to you either bad or good

They are saying they do not have the authority to decide whether what God has done is good or bad. AT: "we dare not judge what Yahweh is doing" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Look, Rebekah is

"You can see Rebekah here"

Rebekah is before you

"Here is Rebekah"

translationWords

Genesis 24:52-53

their words

"what Laban and Bethuel said"

he bowed himself down

Bowing down before God is an expression of worship to him. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

articles of silver and articles of gold

"silver and gold items" or "things made of silver and gold"

precious gifts

"expensive gifts" or "valuable gifts"

translationWords

Genesis 24:54-55

he and the men who were with him

"Abraham's servant and his men"

stayed there overnight

"slept there that night"

arose in the morning

"got up the next morning"

Send me away

"Let me leave and return"

a few more days, at least ten

"at least ten more days"

After that

"Then"

translationWords

Genesis 24:56-58

he said

"Abraham's servant said"

to them

"to Rebekah's brother and mother"

Do not hinder me

"Do not delay me" or "Do not make me wait"

Yahweh has prospered my way

Here "way" stands for a journey. AT: "Yahweh has caused me to succeed in the purpose my journey" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

Send me on my way

"Allow me to leave"

translationWords

Genesis 24:59-60

So they sent their sister Rebekah

"So the family sent Rebekah"

their sister

Rebekah was Laban's sister. AT: "their relative" or "Laban's sister"

her female servant

This refers to the female servant who had fed Rebekah when she was a baby, cared for her when she was a child, and still served her.

Our sister

Rebekah was not the sister to everyone in her family. But they called her this to show that they loved her. AT: "Our dear Rebekah"

may you be the mother of thousands of ten thousands

Here "mother" stands for ancestor. AT: "may you be the ancestor of millions of people" or "may you have very many descendants"

thousands of ten thousands

This means a very large number or an uncountable number. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

may your descendants possess the gate of those who hate them

Armies would break through the gate of their enemies' cities and conquer the people. AT: "may your descendants completely defeat those who hate them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 24:61-62

Then Rebekah arose, and she and her servant girls mounted the camels

"Then Rebekah and her servant girls went and got on the camels"

Thus the servant took Rebekah, and went his way

"In this way Abraham's servant took Rebekah with him and returned to where he had come from"

Now

This word marks a change in the story. It was telling about the servant finding a wife, and now it will tell about Isaac.

Beer Lahai Roi

This is the name of a water well in the Negev. See how you translated it in Genesis 16:14.

translationWords

Genesis 24:63-65

Isaac went out to meditate in the field in the evening

"One evening Isaac went out to the field to think." This must have been a long time after the servant and Rebekah left her home since they had to travel a long distance.

When he looked up and saw, behold, there were camels coming!

The word "behold" here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows. "When he looked up he was surprised to see camels coming"

Rebekah looked

"Rebekah looked up"

she jumped down from the camel

"she quickly got off the camel"

So she took her veil, and covered herself

"So she covered her face with her veil." This is a sign of respect and modesty towards the man she will marry. The full meaning of this can be made explicit. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

veil

a piece of cloth used to cover a person's head, shoulders and face

translationWords

Genesis 24:66-67

took Rebekah, and she became his wife

Both of these phrases mean that Isaac married Rebekah. AT: "married Rebekah" or "took her as his wife" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]])

So Isaac was comforted

This can be stated in active form. AT: "So Rebekah comforted Isaac" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 25

Genesis 25:intro-0

Genesis 25 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULB does this with the poetry in 25:23.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Polygamy

Abraham married another wife. This was sinful of him. Many other Hebrew leaders came to marry multiple wives. This is known as "polygamy." It has never been an acceptable practice. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]])

# Inheritance

In the ancient Near East, inheritance was passed on through the eldest son. Even though Esau and Jacob were twins, it is very important that Esau was born first. It was his birthright to receive his inheritance, but he foolishly gave it up. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/inherit.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/birthright.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/foolish.md]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# God fulfill's his promise

God begins to fulfill the promise he gave to Abraham about making his descendants numerous. Many of these children through his concubines would become large people groups. This may not be easy to understand without the remainder of the Old Testament and the history it records. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 25:1-4

General Information:

See [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]].

All these

This refers to the people named in verses 2-4.

translationWords

Genesis 25:5-6

Abraham gave all that he owned to Isaac

"Isaac inherited all that Abraham owned." It was normal for the father to divide his wealth when he was old and not leave that for others to do after he died.

translationWords

Genesis 25:7-8

These were the days of the years of Abraham's life which he lived, 175 years

"These were ... he lived, one hundred and seventy-five years." Abraham lived 175 years. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Abraham breathed his last and died

"Abraham took his last breath and died." The phrases "breathed his last" and "died" mean basically the same thing. AT: "Abraham died" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]])

breathed his last

This is a polite way of saying a person died. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

at a good old age, an old man with a full life

These two phrases mean basically the same thing and emphasize that Abraham lived a very long time. AT: "when he had lived a very long time and was very old" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]])

an old man with a full life

Living a long life is spoken of as if life were a container that becomes full. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

he was gathered to his people

This means that after Abraham died, his soul went to the same place as his relatives who died before him. This can be stated in active form. AT: "he joined his family members who had already died" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 25:9-11

the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron

Ephron owned a field in Machpelah and the cave that was in that field. Abraham bought the field from Ephron.

Machpelah

Machpelah was the name of an area or region. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:9. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Ephron ... Zohar

These are names of men. See how you translated these men's names in Genesis 23:8. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

which is near Mamre

Machpela was near Mamre.

Mamre

This was another name for the city of Hebron. It may have been named after Mamre, the friend of Abraham who lived there. See how you translated this place name in Genesis 23:17. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

This field Abraham had bought

"Abraham had bought this field"

sons of Heth

"the descendants of Heth" or "the Hittites." See how you translated this in Genesis 23:5.

Abraham was buried

This can be stated in active form. AT: "They buried Abraham" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

his son

"Abraham's son"

Beer Lahai Roi

This name means "the well of the living one who sees me." See how you translated this place name in Genesis 16:14. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 25:12

Now

This word is used in English to introduce a new part of the story and information about Ishmael.

translationWords

Genesis 25:13-16

General Information:

See [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]].

These were Ishmael's sons, and these were their names, by their villages, and by their encampments; twelve princes according to their tribes

This can be stated as two sentences. "These were the names of Ishmael's twelve sons. They led tribes that were named after them, and they each had their own villages and campsites"

twelve

"12" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

princes

Here the word "princes" means that the men were leaders or rules of the tribes; it does not mean that they were the sons of a king.

translationWords

Genesis 25:17-18

These were the years of the life of Ishmael, 137 years

"These were ... Ishmael, one hundred and thirty-seven years." Ishmael lived 137 years. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

breathed his last and died

The terms "breathed his last" and "died" mean basically the same thing. AT: "died" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]])

was gathered to his people

This means that after Ishmael died, his soul went to the same place as his relatives who died before him. This can be stated in active form. AT: "he joined his family members who had already died" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

They lived

"His descendants settled"

from Havilah to Ashhur

"between Havilah and Ashhur"

Havilah

Havilah was located somewhere in the Arabian Desert. See how you translated this in Genesis 2:11. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

as one goes toward

"in the direction of"

They lived in hostility with each other

Possible meanings are 1) "they did not live in peace together," or 2) "they lived away from their other relatives."

translationWords

Genesis 25:19-20

These were the events concerning Isaac, Abraham's son

This sentence introduces the account of Isaac's descendants in Genesis 25:19-35:29. AT: "This is the account of the descendants of Isaac, Abraham's son" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

forty years old

"40 years old" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

when he took as his wife Rebekah

"when he married Rebekah"

Bethuel

Bethuel was Rebekah's father. See how you translated this name in Genesis 22:22. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Paddan Aram

This was another name for the region of Mesopotamia, which about the same location as modern Iraq. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 25:21-22

she was childless

"she was unable to become pregnant"

Rebekah his wife conceived

It can be made explicit that Rebekah was pregnant with two babies at the same time: "Rebekah, his wife, became pregnant with twins" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

The children struggled together within her

"the babies inside her kept bumping against each other" or "The babies pushed against each other within her"

The children ... within her

Rebekah was pregnant with twins. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

She went to ask Yahweh about this

"She went and asked Yahweh about this." It is not clear where she went. She may have gone somewhere private to pray, or she may have gone somewhere to offer a sacrifice.

translationWords

Genesis 25:23

said to her

"said to Rebekah"

Two nations ... serve the younger

This is poetic language. If your language has a way to indicate poetry, you could use it here. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-poetry/01.md]])

Two nations are in your womb

Here "two nations" stands for the two children. Each child will be the father of a nation. AT: "Two nations will come from the twins within you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

two peoples will be separated from within you

Here "two peoples" stands for the two children. Each child will be the father of a people. This can be translated with an active verb. AT: "when you give birth to these two children they will be rivals" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

the older will serve the younger

Possible meanings are 1) "the older son will serve the younger son" or 2) "the descendants of the older son will serve the descendants of the younger son." If possible, translate it so that people could understand either meaning.

translationWords

Genesis 25:24-26

behold, there

"she was surprised to learn that there"

red all over like a hairy garment

Possible meanings are 1) his skin was red and he had a lot of hair on his body or 2) he had a lot of red hair on his body. AT: "red and hairy like a garment made of animal hair" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-simile/01.md]])

Esau

Translators may add a footnote that says "The name Esau sounds like the word 'hairy.'"

grasping Esau's heel

"holding the back part of Esau's foot"

Jacob

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Jacob means 'he grasps the heel.'"

sixty years old

"60 years old" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 25:27-28

became a skillful hunter

"became good at hunting and killing animals for food"

a quiet man

"a peaceful man" or "a less active man"

who spent his time in the tents

This speaks about time as if it were a commodity that someone could spend. AT: "who remained in the tents much of the time" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

Now

This word is used to mark a change in focus, shifting from the story to background information about Isaac and Rebekah. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

Isaac loved

Here the word "loved" means "favored" or "preferred."

because he ate the animals that he had hunted

"because he ate the animals that Esau had hunted" or "because he enjoyed eating the wild animal meat that Esau caught"

translationWords

Genesis 25:29-30

Jacob cooked

Since this is the beginning of a story about something that happened one time, some translators may want to start it with a phrase like "One day, Jacob cooked" in a similar manner to the UDB.

cooked some stew

"boiled some food" or "cooked some soup." This stew was made of boiled lentils. (See: Genesis 25:34)

he was weak from hunger

"he was weak because he was very hungry" or "he was very hungry"

I am exhausted

"I am weak from hunger" or "I am very hungry"

Edom

Translators may add a footnote that says "The name Edom means 'red.'"

translationWords

Genesis 25:31-34

birthright

right as firstborn to inherit most of the father's wealth

I am about to die

Esau was exaggerating to emphasize how hungry he was. AT: "I am so hungry I feel like I could die" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-hyperbole/01.md]])

What good is the birthright to me?

Esau used a question to emphasize that eating was more important than a birthright. This can be translated as a statement. AT: "My inheritance is no good to me if I die of hunger!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

First swear to me

What Jacob wanted Esau to swear can be stated explicitly. AT: "First swear to me that you will sell me your birthright" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

lentils

These are like beans, but their seeds are very small, round, and somewhat flat. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-unknown/01.md]])

Esau despised his birthright

"Esau showed that he did not value his birthright"

translationWords

Genesis 26

Genesis 26:intro-0

Genesis 26 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Trust

When things in the land were bad, Isaac did not trust in Yahweh. Instead, he ran to the safety of Egypt. Even when Abraham's descendants did not trust in Yahweh's faithfulness to fulfill his covenant, Yahweh remained faithful to his covenant and blessed Isaac. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/trust.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/faithful.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/fulfill.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]])

# Wells

In the ancient Near East, wells were very important strategically. Therefore, they were a sign of power and a sign of God's blessing being upon Isaac.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# "She is my sister"

Isaac was afraid the Egyptians would see him as a foreigner and upon seeing his beautiful wife, they would try to kill him. This would free Rebekah to marry someone else. Apparently, it would have been easy for them to kill a foreigner without punishment. If she was Isaac's sister, they would have shown favor to him. This is the same thing his father, Abraham, did. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/favor.md]])

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Genesis 26:1

Now

This word is used here to mark a new part of the story.

a famine happened

"there was a famine" or "there was another famine"

in the land

You can state explicitly the land to which this refers. AT: "in the land where Isaac and his family lived" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

that had been in the days of Abraham

"that had happened during Abraham's life" or "that had happened while Abraham was alive"

translationWords

Genesis 26:2-3

General Information:

Yahweh begins to speak to Isaac.

appeared to him

"appeared to Isaac"

Do not go down to Egypt

It was common to speak of leaving the promised land as "going down" to another place. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

for to you and to your descendants, I will give all these lands

"for I will give all these lands to you and your descendants"

I will fulfill the oath that I swore to Abraham your father

"I will do what I promised Abraham your father I would do"

translationWords

Genesis 26:4-5

General Information:

Yahweh continues speaking to Isaac.

I will multiply your descendants

"I will cause you to have very many descendants."

like the stars of heaven

This speaks about the number of Isaac's descendants as if they were the same as the number of stars. See how you translated this in Genesis 22:17. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-simile/01.md]])

heaven

This refers to everything we see above the earth, including the sun, moon, and stars.

all the nations of the earth will be blessed

This can be stated in active form. AT: "I will bless all the nations of the earth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Abraham obeyed my voice and kept my instructions, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws

The phrases "obeyed my voice" and "kept my instructions, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws" mean basically the same thing. AT: "Abraham obeyed me and did everything I commanded him to do" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]])

obeyed my voice

Here "voice" stands for Yahweh. AT: "obeyed me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 26:6-8

So Isaac settled in Gerar

Only Isaac is mentioned because he is the leader of the family, but his whole family was with him. AT: "So Isaac and his family settled in Gerar" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

He feared to say

Here "fear" refers to the unpleasant feeling a person has when there is a threat of harm to himself or others. "He was afraid to say"

to get Rebekah

"in order to take Rebekah"

He saw, behold, Isaac

The word "behold" shows that what Abimelech saw surprised him. AT: "And he was surprised to see that Isaac"

was caressing Rebekah

Possible meanings are 1) he was touching her the way a husband touches his wife or 2) he was laughing and talking with her the way a husband talks with his wife.

translationWords

Genesis 26:9-11

Abimelech called Isaac to him

Abimelech probably sent someone to tell Isaac that Abimelech wanted to see him. AT: "Abimelech sent someone to bring Isaac to him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

Why did you say, 'She is my sister'?

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. AT: "Why did you say that she is your sister?" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

to get her

"so he could take her"

What is this you have done to us?

Abimelech used this question to scold Isaac. AT: "You should not have done this to us!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

you would have brought guilt upon us

This speaks about causing someone to be guilty as if "guilt" were an object that is placed on someone. AT: "you would have caused us to be guilty of taking a man's wife" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

upon us

Here "us" refers to Abimelech and his people. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-exclusive/01.md]])

Whoever touches this man

Here "touches" means to touch in a harmful way. AT: "Whoever harms this man" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

will surely be put to death

Abimelech may have intended to tell someone to kill anyone who might harm Isaac or Rebekah. This can be stated in active form. AT: "I will put him to death" or "I will order my men to kill him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 26:12-14

General Information:

This begins a new part of the story. It changes from telling about Isaac calling Rebekah his sister, and it starts to tell about how Isaac became very rich and the Philistines were jealous of him.

in that land

"in Gerar"

a hundredfold

This means "one hundred times as much as he planted." It can be translated more generally as "a very large crop." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

The man became rich

"Isaac became rich" or "He became rich"

grew more and more until he became very great

"he gained more and more until he became very wealthy"

sheep

This may also include goats. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

a large household

Here "household" stands for workers or servants. AT: "many servants" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

The Philistines envied him

"The Philistines were jealous of him"

translationWords

Genesis 26:15-17

Now

Here this word does not mean "at this moment." It is indicating where the action in the story begins. It can be translated with the connecting word "So" to show that this is a result of what happened in Genesis 26:12-13. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-connectingwords/01.md]])

in the days of Abraham his father

The phrase "in the days of" stands for a person's lifetime. AT: "when Abraham, his father, was living" or "during his father Abraham's lifetime"

Abimelech said

Possible meanings are 1) this is another action to force Isaac and his people to leave. AT: "Then Abimelech said" or "Finally Abimelech said" or 2) Abimelech made this decision because he saw that his people were jealous and acting in a hostile way towards Isaac. AT: "Therefore Abimelech said" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-connectingwords/01.md]])

much mightier than we

"much stronger than we are"

So Isaac departed

Only Isaac is mentioned because he is the leader, but his family and servants went with him. AT: "So Isaac and his household left" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 26:18

Isaac dug out

Here "Isaac" stands for Isaac and his servants. AT: "Isaac and his servants dug out" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

which they had dug

"which Abraham's servants had dug"

in the days of Abraham his father

"during his father Abraham's lifetime" or "when Abraham, his father, was living"

The Philistines had stopped them up

This was the reason that Isaac dug them out. Possible ways to translate this are: 1) Since this happened first, this sentence can come before the sentence about Isaac digging them out, as in the UDB. or 2) This sentence can start with "Isaac did this because the Philistines had stopped them up." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-events/01.md]])

had stopped them up

"had filled them with earth"

translationWords

Genesis 26:19-20

flowing water

This phrase refers to a natural spring they uncovered when they were digging a new well. It provided a continuous flow of fresh drinking water. AT: "fresh water" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

herdsmen

men who tended livestock

This water is ours

Here "ours" refers to the herdsmen of Gerar. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-exclusive/01.md]])

Esek

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Esek means 'quarrel' or 'argue.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 26:21-22

Then they dug

"Then Isaac's servants dug"

they quarreled

"the herdsmen of Gerar argued with Isaac's herdsmen"

so he gave it

"so Isaac gave it"

Sitnah

Translators may add a footnote that says "The name Sitnah means 'oppose' or 'accuse.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Rehoboth

Translators may add a footnote that says "The name Rehoboth means 'make room for' or 'empty place.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

us ... we

Isaac was speaking about himself and his household.

translationWords

Genesis 26:23-25

Isaac went up from there to Beersheba

Here "went up" is probably a reference to going north. Say that he departed in the most natural way for your language. AT: "Isaac left there and went to Beersheba"

multiply your descendants

"will cause your descendants to increase greatly" or "will cause your descendants to be very many"

for my servant Abraham's sake

"for my servant Abraham" or you can make the full meaning explicit. AT: "because I promised my servant Abraham that I would do this" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Isaac built an altar there

You can make explicit why Isaac built an altar. AT: "Isaac built an altar there to sacrifice to Yahweh" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

called on the name of Yahweh

To "call on" means to pray or to worship. Here "name" stands for Yahweh. AT: "prayed to Yahweh" or "worshiped Yahweh" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 26:26-27

went to him

"went to Isaac"

Ahuzzath

This is the name of a man. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

his friend

Possible meanings are 1) "Abimelech's friend" or 2) "Abimelech's advisor."

Phicol

This is the name of a man. See how you translated his name in Genesis 21:22. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 26:28-29

they said

This refers to Abimelech, Ahuzzath, and Phicol. One of them spoke and the other two agreed with what he said. It does not mean they all spoke at the same time. AT: "one of them said"

We have clearly seen

"We know" or "We are certain"

So let us make a covenant

"So we want to make a covenant"

and as we have treated you well

This can also be translated as the beginning of a new sentence. "We have done only good to you"

you are blessed by Yahweh

This can be stated in active form. AT: "Yahweh has blessed you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 26:30-31

Isaac made a feast for them, and they ate and drank

Eating a meal together was a part of making a covenant with one another. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

for them

Here "them" refers to "Abimelech, Ahuzzath, and Phicol"

they ate

Here "they" refers to Isaac, Abimelech, Ahuzzath, and Phicol. AT: "they all ate"

They rose early

"They awoke early"

translationWords

Genesis 26:32-33

He called the well Shibah

"So he called the well Shibah." Translators may add a footnote that says "The name Shibah sounds like the word that means 'oath.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Beersheba

Translators may add a footnote saying "Beersheba can mean either "well of the oath" or "well of seven." (See note on Genesis 21:32)

translationWords

Genesis 26:34-35

General Information:

Most of Genesis 26 was about Isaac. These verses are about his older son Esau.

forty

"40" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

he took a wife

"he married." You can state explicitly that he married two women. AT: "he took two wives" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Judith ... Basemath

These are the names of Esau's wives. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Beeri ... Elon

These are names of men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

the Hittite

"the descendant of Heth" or "a descendant of Heth." The Hittite people were the descendants of Heth. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

They brought sorrow to Isaac and Rebekah

Here "they" refers to Judith and Basemath. To make someone sorrowful or miserable is spoken of as if "sorrow" were an object that a person could bring to another person. AT: "They made Isaac and Rebekah sorrowful" or "Isaac and Rebekah were miserable because of them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 27

Genesis 27:intro-0

Genesis 27 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULB does this with the poetry in 27:27-29 and in 27:39-40.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Blessing

In the ancient Near East, a father's blessing was very important. This spoken blessing was legally binding. Jacob previously received the birthright from Esau and was guaranteed the double portion of land and money that was supposed to be inherited by the older son, Esau. In this chapter, Jacob tricks Isaac into giving him Esau's blessing. This means that he is to inherit the promises of the covenant Yahweh made with Abraham. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/bless.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/birthright.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/inherit.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]])

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Genesis 27:1-2

his eyes were dim

This speaks about being nearly blind as if the eyes were a lamp and the light has nearly gone out. AT: "he was nearly blind" or "he was almost blind" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

He said to him

"And Esau replied"

Here I am

"I am here" or "I am listening." See how you translated this in Genesis 22:1.

He said

"Then Isaac said"

See here

The phrase "see here" adds emphasis to what follows. AT: "Listen carefully" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

I do not know the day of my death

It is implied that Isaac knows he will die soon. AT: "I may die any day now" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

death

This refers to physical death.

translationWords

Genesis 27:3-4

General Information:

Isaac continues giving instructions to his older son Isaac.

your weapons

"your hunting equipment"

your quiver

A quiver is a case for holding arrows. AT: "your quiver of arrows" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

hunt game for me

"hunt a wild animal for me"

Make delicious food for me, the sort that I love

The word "delicious" refers to something that tastes very good. AT: "Cook for me the tasty meat that I love" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

bless you

In Bible times, a father would often pronounce a formal blessing on his children.

translationWords

Genesis 27:5-7

Now

The word "now" shows a change of emphasis to Rebekah and Jacob. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

Rebekah heard it when Isaac spoke to Esau his son

"Rebekah heard Isaac speaking to his son Esau"

Esau went ... bring it back. Rebekah spoke to Jacob

After Esau leaves, Rebekah speaks to Jacob because of what she heard. AT: "So when Esau went ... bring it back, Rebekah spoke to Jacob" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-connectingwords/01.md]])

to Esau his son ... to Jacob her son

Esau and Jacob were both sons of Isaac and Rebekah. They are called "his son" and "her son" to emphasize that one parent preferred one son over the other son.

See here

The phrase "see here" adds emphasis to what follows. AT: "Listen carefully"

He said, 'Bring me game and make me delicious food, that I may eat it and bless you in the presence of Yahweh before my death.'

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. AT: "He told Esau to 'hunt a wild animal, and to make the tasty meat that he loves.' Then before he dies, Isaac will bless Esau in the presence of Yahweh." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

Bring me game

"Bring me a wild animal that you hunt and kill"

make me delicious food

"cook for me the tasty meat that I love." See how this was translated in Genesis 27:04.

bless you in the presence of Yahweh

"bless you before Yahweh"

before my death

"before I die"

translationWords

Genesis 27:8-10

General Information:

Rebekah continues to speak to her younger son Jacob.

Now

This does not mean "at this moment," but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

obey my voice as I command you

Rebekah said "my voice" to refer to what she was saying. AT: "obey me and do what I tell you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

I will make delicious food from them for your father, just like he loves

The word "delicious" refers to something that tastes very good. See how a similar sentence was translated in Genesis 27:4.

You will take it to your father

"Then take it to your father"

so that he may eat it, so that he may bless you

"and after he eats it, he will bless you"

he may bless you

The word "bless" refers to the formal blessing a father pronounces on his children.

before his death

"before he dies"

translationWords

Genesis 27:11-12

I am a smooth man

"I am a man with smooth skin" or "I am not hairy"

I will seem to him as a deceiver

"he will think that I am a liar" or "he will know that I am deceiving him"

I will bring a curse upon me and not a blessing

Being cursed or blessed is spoken of as if a curse and a blessing are objects that are placed on a person. AT: "Then because of this, he will curse me and not bless me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 27:13-14

My son, let any curse fall on me

"let your curse be on me, my son." Being cursed is spoken of as if the curse were on object that is placed on the person. AT: "let your father curse me instead of you, my son" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

obey my voice

Rebekah said "my voice" to refer to what she was saying. AT: "obey what I tell you" or "obey me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

bring them to me

"bring me the young goats"

made delicious food, just like his father loved

The word "delicious" refers to something that tastes very good. See how a similar sentence was translated in Genesis 27:4.

translationWords

Genesis 27:15-17

She put the skins of the young goats on his hands

The goat skins still had the hair on them.

She put the delicious food and the bread that she had prepared into the hand of her son Jacob

"She gave to her son Jacob the delicious food and bread which she had prepared"

translationWords

Genesis 27:18-19

He said

"And his father replied" or "Isaac replied"

Here I am

"Yes, I am listening" or "Yes, what is it?" See how you translated this in Genesis 22:1.

I have done as you said to me

"I have done what you told me to do"

some of my game

The word "game" refers to wild animals that someone hunts and kills. See how "game" was translated in Genesis 27:3.

translationWords

Genesis 27:20-21

He said

"Jacob replied"

brought it to me

This is an idiom meaning that God caused it to happen. AT: "helped me to succeed while hunting" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

whether you are my true son Esau or not

"if you are really my son Esau"

translationWords

Genesis 27:22-23

Jacob went over to Isaac his father

"Jacob approached Isaac his father"

The voice is Jacob's voice

Here Issac speaks of Jacob's voice as representing Jacob. AT: "You sound like Jacob" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

but the hands are the hands of Esau

Here Issac speaks of Esau's hands as representing Esau. AT: "but your hands feel like Esau's hands" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 27:24-25

He said

Isaac asks this question before blessing his son. AT: "But first Isaac asked" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-events/01.md]])

eat of your game

The word "game" refers to a wild animal that people hunt and kill. See how "game" was translated in Genesis 27:7.

he drank

"Isaac drank it"

translationWords

Genesis 27:26-27

he smelled the smell of his clothes and blessed him

It can be made explicit that the clothes smelled like Esau's clothes. AT: "he smelled his clothes and they smelled like Esau's clothes, so Isaac blessed him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

he smelled

"Isaac smelled"

the smell

"the scent"

blessed him

"then he blessed him." This refers to the formal blessing a father pronounces on his children.

See, the smell of my son

The word "see" is used as an emphatic figure of speech to mean "it is true." AT: "Truly, the smell of my son"

that Yahweh has blessed

Here the word "blessed" means that Yahweh has caused good things to happen to the field and it has become fruitful. AT: "that Yahweh has caused to be very productive" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 27:28

General Information:

This is Isaac's blessing. He thought he was speaking to Esau, but he was speaking to Jacob.

give you

Here "you" is singular and refers to Jacob. But the blessing would also apply to Jacob's descendants. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

dew of heaven

"Dew" is drops of water that form on the plants during the night. This can be made explicit in the translation. AT: "night mist from heaven to water your crops" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

fatness of the earth

Having fertile land is spoken of as if the earth were fat or rich. AT: "good soil for producing crops" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

plenty of grain and new wine

If "grain" and "wine" are unknown, this can be stated more generally. AT: "plenty of food and drink" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 27:29

you ... your

Here these pronouns are singular and refer to Jacob. But the blessing also applies to Jacob's descendants. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

nations bow down

Here "nations" refers to the people. AT: "people from all nations bow down" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

bow down

This means to bend over to humbly express respect and honor toward someone. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

Be master over your brothers

"Become a master over your brothers"

your brothers ... your mother's sons

Isaac is speaking this blessing directly to Jacob. But, it also applies to Jacob's descendants who will rule over the descendants of Esau and the descendants of any other of Jacob's brothers that he may have. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

may your mother's sons bow down to you

"your mother's sons will bow down to you"

May every one who curses you be cursed

This can be stated in active form. AT: "May God curse everyone who curses you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

may every one who blesses you be blessed

This can be stated in active form. AT: "May God bless everyone who blesses you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 27:30-31

had scarcely gone out from the presence of Isaac his father

"had just left the tent of Isaac his father"

delicious food

"tasty meat that I love." See how this was translated in Genesis 27:3.

some of your son's game

Here "your son's" was a polite way of Esau referring to his own food he prepared. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

your son's game

The word "game" refers to wild animals that people hunt to eat. See how "game" was translated in Genesis 27:7.

bless me

This refers to the formal blessing a father pronounces on his children.

translationWords

Genesis 27:32-33

said to him

"said to Esau"

Isaac trembled

"Isaac began to shake"

hunted this game

Game refers to a wild animal that people hunt and kill. See how "game" was translated in Genesis 27:7.

translationWords

Genesis 27:34-35

he cried with a very great and bitter cry

Esau's anguish was similar to the taste of something bitter. AT: "he cried loudly" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

has taken away your blessing

This is a figure of speech meaning Jacob took what was Esau's. AT: "I have blessed him instead of you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 27:36-37

Is he not rightly named Jacob?

Esau uses a question to emphasize his anger at Jacob. AT: "Jacob is certainly the right name for my brother!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Jacob

Translators may also add a footnote that says: "The name Jacob means 'he grasps the heel.' In the original language the name 'Jacob' also sounds like the word for 'he deceives.'"

He took away my birthright

This speaks about a birthright as if it were an object that a person could take away. AT: "What was once my birthright is now his because he tricked me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

now he has taken away my blessing

This speaks about a blessing as if it were an object that person could take away. AT: "now he has tricked you into blessing him instead of me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

Have you not reserved a blessing for me

Esau knows that his father cannot bless him with the same things that he blessed Jacob. Esau is asking if there is anything left to say to him that Isaac did not say while blessing Jacob.

What more can I do for you, my son?

Isaac uses a question to emphasize that there is nothing else he can do. AT: "There is nothing else I can do for you!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 27:38

Have you not even one blessing for me, my father

This can be stated in positive form. "My father, do you have one more blessing for me"

translationWords

Genesis 27:39-40

said to him

"said to Esau"

Look, the place

"Pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important: the place"

far from the richness of the earth

This is a figure of speech referring to the earth's fertility. AT: "far from the fertile soil" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

your ... you

In 27:39-40 these pronouns are singular and refer to Esau, but what Isaac says also applies to Esau's descendants (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

dew of the sky above

"Dew" is drops of water that form on the plants during the night. This can be made explicit in the translation. AT: "the night mist from the sky to water your crops" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

By your sword you will live

Here "sword" stands for violence. AT: "You will rob and kill people in order to get what you need to live" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

you will shake his yoke from off your neck

This speaks about someone having a master as if the master's control over the person were a yoke that the person had to carry. AT: "you will free yourself from his control" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 27:41-42

Esau said in his heart

Here "heart" stands for Esau himself. AT: "Esau said to himself" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

days of mourning for my father are near

This refers to a number of days a person grieves when a family member dies.

The words of Esau her older son were told to Rebekah

This can be stated in active form. AT: "Someone told Rebekah about Esau's plan" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

See

"Look" or "Listen" or "Pay attention to what I am about to tell you"

is consoling himself

"is making himself feel better"

translationWords

Genesis 27:43-45

Now

This does not mean "at this moment," but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

flee to Laban

"leave here quickly and go to Laban"

for a while

"for a period of time"

until your brother's fury subsides

"until you brother calms down"

until your brother's anger turns away from you

No longer being angry is spoken of as if the anger turns to a different direction away from the person. AT: "until he is no longer angry with you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

Why should I lose you both in one day?

Rebekah uses a question to emphasize her concern. AT: "I do not want to lose both of you in one day!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

I lose you both in one day

It is implied that if Esau kills Jacob, then they will execute Esau as a murderer. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

I lose

This is a polite way of referring to her sons dying. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 27:46

I am weary of life

Rebekah is exaggerating to emphasize how upset she is about the Hittite women that Esau married. AT: "I am terribly upset" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-hyperbole/01.md]])

the daughters of Heth

"these Hittite women" or "descendants of Heth"

like these women, some of the daughters of the land

The phrase "daughters of the land" means the local females. AT: "like these women who live in this land" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

what good will my life be to me?

Rebekah uses a question to emphasize how upset she would be if Jacob marries a Hittite woman. AT: "My life will be awful!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 28

Genesis 28:intro-0

Genesis 28 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Even though Jacob tricked his father in order to receive Esau's blessing, the chapter repeats the blessing, ensuring he inherits the blessings promised to Abraham. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/bless.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/inherit.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]])

Special concepts in this chapter
# Jacob's dream

Jacob had a dream or received a vision. The purpose of this dream is to show that, despite Jacob's sin, God is giving Abraham's covenant promises to Jacob and his descendants. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]])

# Bethel

This was an important city for Abraham and his descendants. It is possible that there is some theological significance to the city of Bethel.

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 28:1-2

You must not take

"Do not take"

Arise, go

"Go right away"

Paddan Aram

This was another name for the region of Mesopotamia, which about the same location as modern Iraq. See how this was translated in Genesis 25:20. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

house of

This refers to a person's descendants or other relatives. AT: "family" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

Bethuel

Bethuel was Rebekah's father. See how you translated this name in Genesis 22:22. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

your mother's father

"your grandfather"

one of the daughters

"from the daughters"

your mother's brother

"your uncle"

translationWords

Genesis 28:3-4

General Information:

Isaac continues speaking to Jacob

make you fruitful and multiply you

The word "multiply" explains how God would make Jacob "fruitful." AT: "give you many children and descendants" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]])

May he give you the blessing of Abraham, to you, and to your descendants after you

This speaks about blessing someone as if a blessing were an object that a person can give. The abstract noun "the blessing" can be stated as "bless." AT: "May God bless you and your descendants as he blessed Abraham" or "May God give to you and your descendants what he promised to Abraham" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

that you may inherit the land

God giving the land of Canaan to Jacob and his descendants is spoken of as if a child were inheriting money or possessions from his father. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

the land where you have been living

"the land where you have been staying"

which God gave to Abraham

"which God promised to Abraham"

translationWords

Genesis 28:5

Paddan Aram

This was another name for the region of Mesopotamia, which about the same location as modern Iraq. See how this was translated in Genesis 25:20. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Bethuel

Bethuel was Rebekah's father. See how you translated this name in Genesis 22:22. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 28:6-7

General Information:

The story changes from Jacob to Esau

Now

This word is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Esau. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

Paddan Aram

This was another name for the region of Mesopotamia, which about the same location as modern Iraq. See how this was translated in Genesis 25:20. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

to take a wife

"to take a wife for himself"

He also saw that Isaac had blessed him

"Esau also saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob"

You must not take

"Do not take"

women of Canaan

"daughters of Canaan" or "Canaanite women"

translationWords

Genesis 28:8-9

General Information:

This continues the background information about Esau.

Esau saw

"Esau realized"

the women of Canaan did not please Isaac his father

"his father Isaac did not approve of the women of Canaan"

women of Canaan

"daughters of Canaan" or "the Canaanite women"

So he went

"Because of that, he went"

besides the wives that he had

"in addition to the wives that he already had"

Mahalath

This is the name of one of Ishmael's daughters. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Nebaioth

This is the name of one of Ishmael's sons. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 28:10-11

General Information:

The story switches back to Jacob

He came to a certain place and stayed there all night, because the sun had set

"He came to a certain place and, because the sun had set, he decided to stay for the night"

translationWords

Genesis 28:12-13

He dreamed

"Jacob had a dream"

set up on the earth

"with the bottom of it touching the ground"

reached to heaven

This refers to the place where God lives.

Behold

The word "behold" here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

Yahweh stood above it

Possible meanings are 1) "Yahweh was standing at the top of the stairway" or 2) "Yahweh was standing next to Jacob"

Abraham your father

Here "father" means "ancestor." AT: "Abraham your ancestor" or "Abraham your forefather"

translationWords

Genesis 28:14-15

General Information:

God continues to talk to Jacob in a dream.

Your descendants will be like the dust of the earth

God compares Jacob's descendants to the dust of the earth to emphasize their huge number. AT: "You will have more descendants than you can count" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-simile/01.md]])

you will spread far out to the west

The word "you" is singular and refers to Jacob. Here Jacob represents his descendants. AT: "your descendants will spread out to the west" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

you will spread far out

This means the people will extend the borders of their land and occupy more territory.

to the west, to the east, to the north, and to the south

This phrases are used together to mean "all directions." AT: "in all directions" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

Through you and through your descendants will all the families of the earth be blessed

This can be stated in active form. AT: "I will bless all families on the earth through you and your descendants" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Behold, I am

"Pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important: I am"

for I will not leave you. I will do all

"for I will not leave you until I have done all"

I will keep you

"I will keep you safe" or "I will protect you"

I will bring you into this land again

"I will bring you back to this land"

translationWords

Genesis 28:16-17

awoke out of his sleep

"woke up from his sleep"

the house of God ... the gate of heaven

The phrase "the gate of heaven" explains that this place is the entrance to "the house of God" and "the entrance to where God lives." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]])

This is the gate of heaven

This speaks about the entrance to the place where God lives as if it were a literal kingdom that had a gate that someone has to open to let people in. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 28:18-19

pillar

This is a memorial pillar, that is, simply a large stone or boulder set up on its end.

poured oil upon the top of it

This action symbolizes that Jacob is dedicating the pillar to God. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. AT: "poured oil on the top of it in order to dedicate the pillar to God" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Bethel

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Bethel means 'house of God.'"

Luz

This is the name of a city. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 28:20-22

vowed a vow

"made a vow" or "solemnly promised God"

If God will ... then Yahweh will be my God

Jacob is speaking to God in the third person. This can be stated in the second person. AT: "If you will ... then you, Yahweh, will be the God that I will worship" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

on this road on which I am walking

This stands for Jacob's journey to find a wife and to return home. AT: "on this journey" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

will give me bread to eat

Here "bread" stands for food in general. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

to my father's house

Here "house" stands for Jacob's family. AT: "to my father and the rest of my family" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

a sacred stone

This means that the stone will mark the place where God appeared to him and it will be a place where people can worship God. AT: "God's house" or "God's place"

translationWords

Genesis 29

Genesis 29:intro-0

Genesis 29 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter records the conflict between Jacob's wives, Rachel and Leah. This account continues into the next chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Shepherds

Although the exact reasoning for the shepherds' unwillingness to give water to the sheep is unknown, it is probable they were being lazy. The actions of these shepherds contrast Jacob's actions.

# Kissing

It was common in the ancient Near East for relatives to greet each other with a kiss. There was nothing sexual about this type of kissing.

# Marriage

It was customary in the ancient Near East for a man to work for a woman's father in order to earn the right to marry her. It is unknown how common it was for a father to have his younger daughter marry before an older daughter. It was also sinful for Jacob to marry more than one wife. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 29:1-3

the people of the east

This means the people of Paddan Aram, which is a land east of the land of Canaan.

and, behold, three flocks of sheep were lying there by it

The word "behold" marks the beginning of another event in the larger story. Your language may have a way of doing this.

For out of that well

"For from that well." This phrase marks a change from the story to background information about how the shepherds watered the flocks. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

they would water

"the shepherds would water" or "those taking care of the sheep would water"

the well's mouth

Here "mouth" is a way of referring to an opening. AT: "the opening of the well" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 29:4-6

Jacob said to them

"Jacob said to the shepherds"

My brothers

This is a polite way to greet a stranger.

Laban son of Nahor

Here "son" refers to a male descendant. Another possible meaning is "Laban the grandson of Nahor."

and, look there, Rachel his daughter is coming with the sheep

"Now look! Rachel his daughter is coming with the sheep"

translationWords

Genesis 29:7-8

it is the middle of the day

"the sun is still high in the sky" or "the sun is still shining brightly"

for the flocks to be gathered together

This can be stated in active form. AT: "for you to gather the flocks" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

to be gathered together

This means to gather them together inside a fence for them to stay for the night. The full meaning of this can be made explicit. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

let them graze

"let them eat grass in the field"

We cannot water them

"We have to wait to water them." This has to do with timing, not permission.

until all the flocks are gathered together

This can be stated in active form. AT: "until the other shepherds gather their flocks" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

from the well's mouth

Here "mouth" is way of referring to an opening. AT: "from the well" or "from the opening of the well" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

and we will water the sheep

"then we will water the sheep"

translationWords

Genesis 29:9-10

his mother's brother

"his uncle"

the well's mouth

Here "mouth" is a way of referring to an opening. AT: "the well" or "the opening of the well" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 29:11-12

Jacob kissed Rachel

In ancient Near East, it is common to greet a relative with a kiss. However, it is normally done between men. If your language has an affectionate greeting for a relative, use that. If not, use what is appropriate.

wept loudly

Jacob weeps because he is so happy. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

her father's relative

"related to her father"

translationWords

Genesis 29:13-14

his sister's son

"his nephew"

embraced him

"hugged him"

kissed him

In ancient Near East, it is common to greet a relative with a kiss. However, it is normally done between men. If your language has an affectionate greeting for a relative, use that. If not, use what is appropriate.

Jacob told Laban all these things

"then Jacob told Laban everything he told Rachel"

my bone and my flesh

This phrase means they are directly related. AT: "my relative" or "a member of my family" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 29:15-18

Should you serve me for nothing ... my relative?

Laban uses a question to emphasize that he should pay Jacob for working for him. The question can be translated as a statement. This can also be stated in positive form. AT: "It is certainly right that I should pay you for working for me even though you are my relative." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-litotes/01.md]])

Now Laban had

The word "now" is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Laban and his daughters. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

Leah's eyes were tender

Possible meanings are 1) "Leah's eyes were pretty" or 2) "Leah's eyes were plain"

Jacob loved Rachel

Here the word "loved" refers to a romantic attraction between a man and a woman.

translationWords

Genesis 29:19-20

than that I should give her to another man

"rather than give her to another man"

and they seemed to him only a few days

"but the time seemed to him to be only a few days"

for the love he had for her

"on account of the love he had for her" or "because of his love for her"

translationWords

Genesis 29:21-22

Give me my wife, for my days have been completed—so that I may marry her!

The phrase "have been completed" can be stated in active form. The statement is emphatic. AT: Give me my wife, so that I may marry her, for I have completed the length of time that I was to work for you!"Give me Rachel so that I may marry her, for I have worked seven years for you!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

made a feast

"prepared a wedding feast." Most likely Laban had others prepare the feast. AT: "had others prepare a wedding feast" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 29:23-25

who slept with her

It is implied that Jacob did not know he was with Leah because it was dark and he could not see. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Laban gave his female servant Zilpah ... her servant

Here the author gives background information about Laban giving Zilpah to Leah. Most likely he gave Zilpah to Leah before the wedding. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

Zilpah

This is the name of Leah's female servant. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

behold, it was Leah

"Jacob was surprised to see it was Leah in bed with him." The word "behold" here shows that Jacob was surprised by what he saw.

What is this you have done to me?

Jacob uses a question to express his anger and surprise. This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. AT: "I cannot believe you did this to me!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Did I not serve you for Rachel?

Jacob uses these questions to express his hurt that Laban had tricked him. This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. AT: "I served you for seven years to marry Rachel!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 29:26-27

It is not our custom to give

"In our family we do not give"

Complete the bridal week of this daughter

"Finish celebrating Leah's bridal week"

we will give you the other also

The full meaning can be made explicit. AT: "next week we will give you Rachel also" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 29:28-30

Jacob did so, and completed Leah's week

"And Jacob did what Laban asked, and finished celebrating Leah's bridal week"

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel's female servant. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Jacob slept with Rachel

This is a polite way to say that they had marital relations. AT: "Jacob married Rachel" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

he loved Rachel

This refers to the romantic love between a man and a woman.

translationWords

Genesis 29:31-32

Leah was not loved

This can be stated in active form. AT: "Jacob did not love Leah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

not loved

This is an exaggeration to emphasize that Jacob loved Rachel more than Leah. AT: "loved less than Rachel" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-hyperbole/01.md]])

so he opened her womb

God causing Leah to be able to become pregnant is spoken of as if God is opening her womb. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

was childless

"was not able to become pregnant"

Leah conceived and bore a son

"Leah became pregnant and gave birth to a son"

she called his name Reuben

Translators may also add a footnote that says: "The name Reuben means 'See, a son.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Yahweh has looked upon my affliction

Leah was experiencing emotional pain because Jacob had rejected her. The abstract noun "affliction" can be stated as a verb. AT: "Yahweh saw that I was suffering" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 29:33-34

Then she conceived

"Then Leah became pregnant"

bore a son

"gave birth to a son"

Yahweh has heard that I am unloved

This can be stated in active form. AT: "Yahweh has heard that my husband does not love me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

she called his name Simeon

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Simeon means 'heard.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

will my husband be attached to me

"my husband will embrace me"

I have borne him three sons

"I have given birth to three sons for him"

his name was called Levi

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Levi means 'attached.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 29:35

She conceived again

"Leah became pregnant again"

bore a son

"gave birth to a son"

she called his name Judah

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Judah means 'praise.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 30

Genesis 30:intro-0

Genesis 30 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter continues the story of the conflict between Rachel and Leah.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Women and their children

In the ancient Near East, it was important for a married woman to have many children. If a woman did not have many children, people believed it brought shame upon her. This is one of the reasons why Rachel and Leah were always jealous of each other. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/jealous.md]])

# Speckled and spotted

Speckled and spotted sheep were considered to be imperfect. Therefore, they were considered to be much less valuable than the spotless sheep. Despite Jacob's fair offer, Laban once again tried to cheat him out of something he deserved. Jacob anticipated Laban's cheating.

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 30:1-2

When Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children

"When Rachel realized that she was unable to become preganant"

I will die

Rachel is exaggerating to show how upset she is about not having children. AT: "I will feel completely worthless" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-hyperbole/01.md]])

Give me children

"Cause me to become pregnant"

Jacob's anger burned against Rachel

Jacob's anger is spoken of as if it were a fire. AT: "Jacob was very angry with Rachel" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

Am I in the place of God, who has kept you from having children?

This is a rhetorical question that Jacob uses to scold Rachel. It can be translated as a statement. AT: "I am not God! I am not the one who is preventing you from having children!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 30:3-4

She said

"Rachel said"

See

"Look" or "Listen" or "Pay attention to what I am about to tell you"

there is my servant Bilhah ... I will have children by her

At that time, this was an acceptable way for a barren woman to have children that would legally belong to her. The full meaning of this may be made explicit. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel's female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:29.

on my knees

This is a way of saying that the child that Bilhah gives birth to will belong to Rachel. AT: "for me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

I will have children by her

"and in this way she will cause me to have children"

translationWords

Genesis 30:5-6

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel's female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:29.

bore Jacob a son

"gave birth to a son for Jacob"

she called his name

"Rachel gave him the name"

called his name Dan

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Dan means 'he judged.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 30:7-8

Bilhah ... conceived again

"Bilhah ... became pregnant again"

bore Jacob a second son

"gave birth to a second son for Jacob"

With mighty wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister

The phrase "wrestlings have I wrestled" is an idiom used for emphasis. It is also a metaphor that speaks of Rachel's attempts to have a child like her sister as if she were having a physical fight with Leah. AT: "I have had a great struggle to have children like my older sister, Leah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

have prevailed

"I have won" or "I have succeeded"

called his name Naphtali

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Naphtali means 'my struggle.'"

translationWords

Genesis 30:9-11

When Leah saw that

"When Leah became aware that"

she took Zilpah, her servant, and gave her to Jacob as a wife

"she gave Zilpah, her servant, to Jacob as a wife"

Zilpah

This is the name of Leah's female servant. See how you translated this in Genesis 29:24.

bore Jacob a son

"gave birth to a son for Jacob"

This is fortunate!

"How fortunate!" or "What good luck!"

called his name Gad

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Gad means 'fortunate.'"

translationWords

Genesis 30:12-13

Zilpah

This is the name of Leah's female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:24. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

bore Jacob a second son

"gave birth to a second son for Jacob"

I am happy!

"How blessed I am!" or "How happy I am!"

the daughters

"the women" or "the young women"

called his name Asher

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Asher means 'happy.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 30:14-15

Reuben went

"Reuben went out"

in the days of wheat harvest

Here the phrase "in the days of" is an idiom that refers to the season or time of year. AT: "at the time of year of the wheat harvest" or "during the wheat harvest" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

mandrakes

This is a fruit that was said to increase fertility and the desire to sleep with one's lover. AT: "love fruit" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-unknown/01.md]])

Is it a small matter to you ... my husband?

"Do you not care ... my husband?" This is a rhetorical question used to scold Rachel. This question can be translated as a statement. AT: "It is bad enough ... my husband." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Do you now want ... too?

This is a rhetorical question, used to scold Rachel. This question can be translated as a statement. AT: "Now you want ... too!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Then he will sleep

"Then Jacob will sleep" or "Then I will let Jacob sleep"

translationWords

Genesis 30:16-18

with my son's mandrakes

"for the price of my son's mandrakes." See how you translated "mandrake" in Genesis 30:14.

she conceived

"She became pregnant"

bore Jacob a fifth son

"gave birth to a fifth son for Jacob"

God has given me my wages

God rewarding Leah is spoken of as if he were a boss paying wages to someone who works for him. AT: "God has given my due" or "God has rewarded me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

She called his name Issachar

Translators may also add a footnote that says: "The name Issachar means 'there is a reward.'"

translationWords

Genesis 30:19-21

Leah conceived again

"Leah became pregnant again"

bore a sixth son to Jacob

"gave birth to a sixth son for Jacob"

She called his name Zebulun

Translators may also add a footnote that says: "The name Zebulun means 'honor.'"

called her name Dinah

This is the name of Leah's daughter. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 30:22-24

God called Rachel to mind and listened to her

The phrase "call to mind" means to remember. This does not mean God forgot about Rachel. It means he considered her request. AT: "God considered Rachel and granted to her what she wanted" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

God has taken away my shame

God causing Rachel to no longer feel ashamed is spoken of as if "shame" were an object that person could take away from someone else. The abstract noun "shame" can be stated as "ashamed." AT: "God has caused me to no longer feel ashamed" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

She called his name Joseph

Translators may also add a footnote that says: "The name Joseph means 'may he add.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Yahweh has added to me another son

Rachel's first sons were through her female servant Bilhah.

translationWords

Genesis 30:25-26

After Rachel had borne Joseph

"After Rachel gave birth to Joseph"

and let me go

"so I can go"

you know the service I have given you

Jacob is reminding Laban of their contract (Genesis Gen 29:27). The abstract noun "service" can be stated as "served." AT: "you know that I have served you long enough" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 30:27-28

Laban said to him

"Laban said to Jacob"

If now I have found favor in your eyes

The eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. AT: "If I have found favor with you" or "If you are pleased with me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

found favor

This is an idiom that means that someone is approved of by someone else. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

wait, because

"please stay, because"

I have learned by using divination

"I have discovered by my own spiritual and magical practices"

for your sake

"because of you"

Name your wages

This can be made more explicit. AT: "Tell me how much I have to pay to keep you here" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 30:29-30

Jacob said to him

"Jacob said to Laban"

how your livestock have fared with me

"how well your livestock have done since I started taking care of them"

For you had little before I came

"your herds were small before I worked for you"

and it has increased abundantly

"but now your wealth has greatly increased"

Now when will I provide for my own household also?

"Now when will I take care of my own family?" Jacob uses a question to emphasize that he wants to start providing for his own family. This question can be translated as a statement. AT: "Now I want to take care of my family!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 30:31-32

What will I pay you

"What can I pay you" or "What can I give you." This can be made more explicit. AT: "What can I pay you so that you stay and work for me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

If you will do this thing for me

The connecting word "But" can be used at the beginning to show that what Jacob is about to say contrasts with what he just said. AT: "But if you will do this thing for me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-connectingwords/01.md]])

this thing

The phrase "this thing" refers to what Jacob will propose in verse 32.

feed your flock and keep it

"feed and take care of your flock"

removing from it every speckled and spotted sheep, and every black one among the sheep, and the spotted and speckled among the goats

"and remove every sheep with spots, every black sheep, and every goat with spots"

These will be my wages

"This will be the cost of keeping me here"

translationWords

Genesis 30:33-34

My integrity will testify for me later on

The word "integrity" means "honesty." This speaks about integrity as if it were a person who could testify for or against another person. AT: "And later you will know if I have been honest with you or not" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]])

Every one that is not speckled and spotted among the goats, and black among the sheep, if any are found with me, will be considered to be stolen

This can be stated in active form. AT: "If you find any goats without spots or any sheep that are not black, you can consider them stolen" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Let it be according to your word

"Let it be as you say" or "We will do what you have said"

translationWords

Genesis 30:35-36

that were striped and spotted

"that had stripes and spots"

that were speckled and spotted

"that had spots"

every one that had white in it

"every goat that had some white in it"

all the black ones among the sheep

"all the black sheep"

gave them into the hand

Here "hand" stands for control or care. AT: "had his sons take care of them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 30:37-38

fresh poplar ... almond ... plane tree

These are all trees with white wood. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-unknown/01.md]])

peeled white streaks in them, and made the white inner wood appear that was in the sticks

"peeled off pieces of bark so that the white wood underneath would show"

the watering troughs

long open containers for holding water for animals to drink

translationWords

Genesis 30:39-40

The flocks bred

"The animals of the flocks conceived" or "The animals mated"

produced striped, speckled, and spotted young

"gave birth to babies with stripes and spots"

Jacob separated

It can be made explicit that this happened over several years. AT: "During the several years following, Jacob separated" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

face toward

"look toward"

he separated out his flocks for himself alone

"he set his flocks apart"

translationWords

Genesis 30:41-42

before the eyes of the flock

Here the flock's "eyes" represent the sheep and emphasize what they see. AT: "so that the flock could see them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

among the sticks

"in front of the sticks"

the feebler animals

"the weaker animals"

So the feebler animals were Laban's, and the stronger were Jacob's

"So the weaker offspring belonged to Laban, while the stronger offspring belonged to Jacob." You can make this even more explicit. AT: "So the weaker offspring did not have stripes or spots and so belonged to Laban, while the stronger offspring did have stripes or spots and so belonged to Jacob" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 30:43

The man

"Jacob"

became very prosperous

"greatly prospered" or "became very wealthy"

translationWords

Genesis 31

Genesis 31:intro-0

Genesis 31 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# God's blessing

When Jacob left Paddam Aram, he left very wealthy. Despite his punishment of exile from Canaan, God still blessed Jacob and his family. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/bless.md]])

# Household gods

Although a few scholars believe the possession of the household gods was a sign of inheritance, this seems unlikely. It is probable that Rachel believed these idols would bring them "good luck" and would bring them great blessing. This was sinful because they were to trust in Yahweh, who already promised to bless them. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/falsegod.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/inherit.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# Irony

Laban's sons complained that Jacob cheated them out of their father's possessions. It was their father who tried to cheat Jacob out of what he promised to give Jacob. Jacob treated his brother Esau in the same way. Jacob cheated Esau out of their father's blessing.

Links:

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Genesis 31:1-3

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the author starts to tell a new part of the story.

Jacob heard the words of Laban's sons, that they said

"Jacob heard that Laban's sons were saying"

Jacob has taken away all that was our father's

Laban's sons were exaggerating because they were angry. AT: "Everything that Jacob has taken belonged to our father" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-hyperbole/01.md]])

Jacob saw the look on Laban's face. He saw that his attitude toward him had changed

These two sentences mean basically the same thing. The second explains the look that Jacob saw on Laban's face. AT: "Jacob noticed that Laban was no longer pleased with him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]])

your fathers

"your father Isaac and your grandfather Abraham"

translationWords

Genesis 31:4-6

Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field to his flock

"Jacob sent for Rachel and Leah and told them to meet him out in the field with the flocks"

to his flock and said to them

This can be stated as two shorter sentences. AT: "to his flock. He said to them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-sentences/01.md]])

I see your father's attitude toward me has changed

"I have noticed your father is no longer pleased with me"

You know that it is with all my strength that I have served your father

The word "you" here refers to both Rachel and Leah. It also adds emphasis. AT: "You yourselves know that I have served your father with all my strength" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 31:7-9

has deceived me

"has lied to me" or "has not treated me fairly"

my wages

"what he said he would pay me"

to hurt me

Possible meanings are 1) physical harm or 2) to cause Jacob to suffer in any way.

The speckled animals

"The animals with spots"

the flock bore

"the flock gave birth to"

The striped

"The animals with stripes"

In this way God has taken away the livestock of your father and given them to me

"This is how God gave your father's animals to me"

translationWords

Genesis 31:10-11

General Information:

Jacob continues his story to his wives Leah and Rachel.

Once at the time of breeding season

"During the breeding season"

mating with the flock

Here "flock" represents only the female goats. AT: "mating with the female goats of the flock" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

were striped, speckled, and spotted

"had stripes, little spots, and big spots"

angel of God

Possible meanings are 1) God himself appeared as a man or 2) one of God's messengers appeared. Since the phrase is not well understood, it is best to simply translate it as "the angel of God," using the normal word that you use for "angel."

I said

"And I answered"

Here I am

"Yes, I am listening" or "Yes, what is it?" See how you translated this in Genesis 22:1.

translationWords

Genesis 31:12-13

General Information:

The angel of the Lord continues to talk to Jacob. (See: Genesis 31:10)

Lift up your eyes

This is a way of saying "Look up." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

that are breeding with the flock

Here "flock" stands for only the female goats. AT: "that are breeding with the female goats of the flock" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

are striped, speckled, and spotted

"have stripes and spots"

where you anointed a pillar

Jacob poured oil on the pillar to dedicate it to God. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

the land of your birth

"the land where you were born"

translationWords

Genesis 31:14-16

Rachel and Leah answered and said to him

This does not mean they talked at the same time. It emphasizes they agreed with each other.

Is there any portion or inheritance for us in our father's house?

Rachel and Leah use a question to emphasize that there is nothing left for their father to give. AT: "There is absolutely nothing left for us to inherit from our father!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Are we not treated by him as foreigners?

They use a question to show their anger about how their father treats them. This can be stated in active form. AT: "Our father treats us like a foreign women instead of daughters!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

For he has sold us

This can be made more explicit. AT: "He has sold us for his own gain" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

has also completely devoured our money

Laban completely using up the money that he should have given to his daughters is spoken of as if he were a wild beast that ate the money as if it were food. AT: "he completely used up our money" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

are now ours and our children's

"belongs to us and to our children"

Now then

Here "Now" does not mean "at this moment," but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

whatever God has said to you, do it

"do all that God has told you"

translationWords

Genesis 31:17-18

his sons

Jacob took all of his children. It only mentions the sons because they are important as his heirs. AT: "his children" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

He drove all his livestock

"He drove all his cattle." Here "livestock" is referring to all his domesticate animals.

including the livestock he had acquired in Paddan Aram

"and the other herd of cattle which he took ownership of when he was in Paddan Aram"

Then he set out to go to his father Isaac in the land of Canaan

"He went to the land of Canaan, where his father Isaac lived"

translationWords

Genesis 31:19-21

When Laban had gone to shear his sheep

"When Laban had left to cut the wool off of his sheep"

the River

This refers to the Euphrates River.

headed toward

"traveled toward"

the hill country of Gilead

"the mountains of Gilead" or "Mount Gilead"

translationWords

Genesis 31:22-23

On the third day

It was Jewish custom to count the day of departure as day one. AT: "Two days after they had left"

Laban was told

This can be stated in active form. AT: "someone told Laban" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

that Jacob had fled

Only Jacob is mentioned because he is the leader of the family. It can be made explicit that his family went with him. AT: "that Jacob had fled with his wives and children" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

So he took

"So Laban took"

pursued him

"chased after Jacob"

for a seven days' journey

Laban spent seven days walking to catch up to Jacob.

He overtook him

"He caught up to him"

translationWords

Genesis 31:24-25

Now God came to Laban the Aramean in a dream at night

The word "now" is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Laban. AT: "That night God came to Laban in a dream" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

Be careful that you speak to Jacob neither good nor bad

The phrase "good nor bad" are used together to mean "anything." AT: "Do not say anything to try and stop Jacob from leaving" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

Laban overtook Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the hill country. Laban also camped with his relatives in the hill country of Gilead

The word "now" is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Jacob and Laban. AT: "When Laban caught up with Jacob, Jacob had set up camp in the hill country. Then Laban and his relatives also camped in the hill country of Gilead" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 31:26-28

carried away my daughters like prisoners of war

Laban speaks about Jacob taking his family with him back to the land of Canaan as if Jacob took them as prisoners after a battle and is forcing them to go with him. Laban is exaggerating because he is angry and is trying to make Jacob feel guilty for what he did. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-simile/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-hyperbole/01.md]])

flee secretly

"run away in secret"

with celebration

"with joy"

with tambourine and with harps

These instruments stand for music. AT: "and with music" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

tambourine

a musical instrument with a head like a drum that can be hit and with pieces of metal around the side that sound when the instrument is shaken (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-unknown/01.md]])

to kiss my grandsons

Here "grandsons" would include all grandchildren whether male or female. AT: "to kiss my grandchildren" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-gendernotations/01.md]])

Now you have done foolishly

"You have acted foolishly"

Now

This does not mean "at this moment," but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

translationWords

Genesis 31:29-30

It is in my power to do you harm

The word "you" is plural and refers to everyone with Jacob. AT: "I have enough people with me to harm all of you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

Be careful that you speak to Jacob neither good nor bad

The words "good nor bad" are used together to mean "anything." See how you translated this in Genesis 31:24. AT: "Do not say anything to try and stop Jacob from leaving" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-merism/01.md]])

you have gone away

This "you" is singular and refers to Jacob. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-you/01.md]])

to your father's house

Here "house" stands for family. AT: "to be home with your father and the rest of your family" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

my gods

"my idols"

translationWords

Genesis 31:31-32

Because I was afraid and thought that you would take your daughters from me by force I left secretly

"I left in secret because I was afraid that you would take your daughters from me by force"

Whoever has stolen your gods will not continue to live

This can be stated in positive form. AT: "We will kill whoever has stolen your gods" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-litotes/01.md]])

In the presence of our relatives

The word "our" refers to Jacob's relatives and includes Laban's relatives. All the relatives will watch to make sure everything is fair and honest. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-inclusive/01.md]])

identify whatever with me is yours and take it

"look for whatever we have that is yours and take it"

For Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them

This changes from the story to background information about Jacob. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 31:33

the two female servants

This refers to Zilpah and Bilhah.

he did not find them

"he did not find his idols"

translationWords

Genesis 31:34-35

Now Rachel ... upon them

The word "now" is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Rachel. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

saddle

a seat placed on the back of an animal so a person can ride on it

my master

Calling someone "my master" is a way of honoring them.

that I cannot stand up before you

"because I am unable to stand up in your presence"

for I am having my period

This refers to the time of the month when a woman bleeds from her womb. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 31:36-37

He said to him

"Jacob said to Laban"

What is my offense? What is my sin, that you have hotly pursued after me?

The phrases "What is my offense" and "What is my sin" mean basically the same thing. Jacob is asking Laban to tell him what he did wrong. AT: "What have I done wrong that you should pursue me like this?" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]])

hotly pursued after me

Here the word "hotly" means Laban urgently chased Jacob intending to capture him. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

What have you found of all your household goods?

"What have you found that belongs to you?"

Set them here before our relatives

Here the word "our" refers to Jacob's relatives and includes Laban's relatives. AT: "Lay anything you have found in front of our relatives" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-inclusive/01.md]])

they may judge between us two

Here "two of us" refers to Jacob and Laban. The phrase "to judge between" means to decide which person is right in a dispute. AT: "they may judge between the two of us" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-inclusive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 31:38-40

General Information:

Jacob continues to speak to Laban.

twenty years

"20 years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

ewes

female sheep

have not miscarried

This means they have not had a pregnancy end early and unexpectedly with the lamb or kid born dead.

What was torn by beasts I did not bring to you

This can be stated in active form. AT: "When a wild animal killed one of your animals I did not bring it to you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Instead, I bore the loss of it

For Jacob to count Laban's dead animals as a loss from his own flock is spoken of as if it was a burden he would bear on his shoulders. AT: "Instead of counting it a loss from your flock, I counted it as a loss from my flock" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

There I was; in the day the heat consumed me, and the frost by night

Suffering in the hot and cold temperatures is spoken of as if the temperatures were animals that were eating Jacob. AT: "I stayed with your flocks even during hottest part of the day and the coldest part of the night" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 31:41-42

General Information:

Jacob continues to speak to Laban.

These twenty years

"These last 20 years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

fourteen years

"14 years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

changed my wages ten times

"changed what he said he would pay me ten times." See how you translated "my wages" in Genesis 31:7.

Unless the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and the one Isaac fears, had been with me

Jacob is referring to the same God not to three different gods. AT: "If the God of Abraham and Isaac, my father, had not been with me"

the God of my father

Here the word "father" refers to his parent, Isaac.

the one Isaac fears

Here the word "fears" refers to the "fear of Yahweh," which means to deeply respect him and show that respect by obeying him.

empty-handed

This stands for having nothing. AT: "with absolutely nothing" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

God has seen my oppression and how hard I worked

The abstract noun "oppression" can be stated as "oppressed." AT: "God has seen how hard I worked and how you oppressed me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 31:43-44

But what can I do today to these my daughters, or to their children whom they have borne?

Laban uses a question to emphasize that there is nothing he can do. This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. AT: "But, there is nothing I can do to bring my daughters and grandchildren back with me." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

let it be for a witness

Here the word "witness" does not refer to a person, but it is used figuratively and refers to the covenant that Jacob and Laban are making. The covenant is spoken of as if it were a person who is there when they agree to act peacefully to one another. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 31:45-47

pillar

This means that a large stone was simply set up on its end to mark the place where this important event happened.

made a pile

"stacked them on top of each other"

Then they ate there by the pile

Eating a meal together was a part of making the covenant with one another. The full meaning of this may be made explicit. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Jegar Saha Dutha

Translators may add a footnote that says: "The name Jegar Saha Dutha means 'heap of witness' in Laban's language." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Galeed

Translators may add a footnote that says: "The name Galeed means 'heap of witness' in Jacob's language. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 31:48-50

This pile is a witness between me and you

The stones do not actually bear witness as a person. AT: "This pile will be a reminder between me and you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]])

Galeed

Translators may add a footnote that says: "The name Galeed means 'heap of witness' in Jacob's language. See how you translated this in Genesis 31:47. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Mizpah

Translators may add a footnote that says: "The name Mizpah means 'watchtower.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

when we are out of sight one from another

Here "out of sight" stands for no longer being in each other's presence. AT: "when we are no longer with each other" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

although no one else is with us

Here "us" refers to Laban and Jacob. AT: "even if no one else is there to see us"

see

"look" or "remember" or "pay attention to what i am about to tell you"

translationWords

Genesis 31:51-53

This pile is a witness, and the pillar is a witness

These piles of stones were to act as a remembrance and a boundary marker for Jacob and Laban regarding their peace agreement. They are spoken of as if they are human witnesses. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]])

May the God of Abraham, and the god of Nahor, the gods of their father, judge between us

Abraham is Jacob's grandfather. Nahor is Laban's grandfather. The father of Abraham and Nahor is Terah. Not all of them worshipped Yahweh.

the Fear of his father Isaac

Here the word "Fear" refers to Yahweh, who Isaac deeply respected and showed that respect by obeying him.

translationWords

Genesis 31:54-55

called his relatives to eat a meal

Eating a meal together was part of making the covenant with one another. The full meaning of this may be made explicit. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Early in the morning ... returned home

Verse 55 is the first verse of chapter 32 in the original Hebrew text, but the last verse of chapter 31 in most modern Bibles. We suggest that you follow the numbering of Bibles in your national language.

blessed

This means expressing a desire for positive and beneficial things to happen to someone.

translationWords

Genesis 32

Genesis 32:intro-0

Genesis 32 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Jacob does not trust Yahweh

Jacob does not trust in Yahweh. Instead, he fears that his brother Esau could kill him and his family. He should have known that Yahweh would continue to bless him and protect his family. He should have trusted in Yahweh's covenant faithfulness. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/bless.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/trust.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenantfaith.md]])

# Name change

In Scripture, a change in name always occurs at a highly significant point in a person's life. The return of Jacob to Canaan was a significant event in the history of the Hebrew people.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# "A man wrestled with him"

Scholars are divided over the identity of the person Jacob wrestled with. It was probably an angel, but some believe he wrestled with Jesus before he came to earth. The translator will probably have difficulty trying to keep ambiguity in identifying this individual because the word "man" usually indicates a normal, living person. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 32:1-2

Mahanaim

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Mahanaim means 'two camps.'"

translationWords

Genesis 32:3-5

Seir

This is a mountainous area in the region of Edom. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

This is what you will say to my master Esau: This is what your servant Jacob says: 'I have been ... in your eyes.'

This has a quotation within a quotation. The direct quotation can be stated as an indirect quotation. AT: "'This is what I want you to tell my master Esau. Tell him that I have been ... in his eyes.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

my master Esau

Jacob is using polite language and refers to his brother as "my master."

your servant Jacob

Jacob is using polite language and refers to himself as "your servant."

that I may find favor in your eyes

The phrase "find favor" is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Here "eyes" are a metonym for sight, and sight is a metaphor representing his evaluation. AT: "that you may approve of me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 32:6-8

four hundred men

"400 men" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

afraid

This refers to the unpleasant feeling a person has when there is a threat of harm to himself or others.

upset

distressed, troubled

to one camp and attacks it, then the camp that is left will escape

Here "camp" refers to the people. AT: "to attack the people in one camp, then the people in the other camp will escape" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 32:9-10

God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, Yahweh

This does not refer to different gods, but to the one God they all worship. AT: "Yahweh, who is God of my grandfather Abraham and my father Isaac" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Yahweh, who said to me, 'Return to your country and to your kindred, and I will prosper you,'

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated an indirect quotation. AT: "Yahweh, you who said that I should return to my country and to my kindred, and that you would prosper me," (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

to your kindred

"to your family"

I will prosper you

"I will do good for you" or "I will treat you well"

I am not worthy of all your acts of covenant faithfulness and of all the trustworthiness that you have done for your servant

The abstract nouns "faithfulness" and "trustworthiness" can be stated as "faithful" and "loyal." AT: "I do not deserve for you to remain faithful to your covenant or for you to be loyal to me, your servant" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

your servant

This is a polite way of saying "me."

now I have become two camps

Here the phrase "I have become" is an idiom meaning what he now possesses. AT: "and now I have enough people, flocks, and possessions with me to make two camps" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 32:11-12

rescue me

"save me"

from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau

Here the word "hand" refers to power. The two phrases mean basically the same thing. The second clarifies that the brother whom Jacob intended was Esau. AT: "from the power of my brother, Esau" or "from my brother, Esau" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]])

I am afraid of him, that he will

"I am afraid that he will"

But you said, 'I will certainly make you prosper. I will make your descendants ... number.'

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated an an indirect quotation. AT: "But you said that you would certainly prosper me, and that you would make my descendants ... number" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

make you prosper

"do good to you" or "treat you well"

I will make your descendants like the sand of the sea

This speaks about the very large number of Jacob's descendants as if their number will be like the grains of sand on the seashore. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-simile/01.md]])

which cannot be numbered for their number

This can be stated in active form. AT: "which no one can count because of their number" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 32:13-16

two hundred

"200" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

twenty ... thirty ... forty ... ten

"20 ... 30 ... 40 ... 10" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

their colts

"their young"

These he gave these into the hand of his servants, every herd by itself

Here "into the hand" means to give control over them. AT: "He divided them into small herds, and gave each of his servants control over one herd" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

put a space between each of the herds

"let each herd travel at a distance from the other herds"

translationWords

Genesis 32:17-18

He instructed

"He commanded"

asks you ... that are in front of you?'

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. AT: "asks you who your master is, where you are going, and who owns these animals that are ahead of you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

To whom do you belong?

"Who is your master?"

Whose animals are these that are in front of you?

"Who owns these animals that are in front of you?"

Then you will say, 'They are your servant Jacob's. They are a gift sent to my master Esau. See, he is also coming after us.'

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. AT: "Then I want you to tell him that all of these things belong to Jacob, his servant, and he his giving them to his master, Esau. And tell him that Jacob is on the way to meet him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-quotations/01.md]])

your servant Jacob's

Jacob is referring to himself in a polite way as Esau's servant.

to my master Esau

Jacob is referring to Esau is a polite way as his master.

coming after us

Here "us" refers to the servant speaking and the other servants bringing herds to Esau. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-exclusive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 32:19-21

gave instructions to the second group

"commanded the second group"

You must also say, 'Your servant Jacob

Possible meanings are 1) "You will say also, 'Your servant Jacob'" or 2) "You will say, 'Also, Your servant Jacob.'"

I will appease him

"I will calm him down" or "I will make his anger go away"

he will receive me

"he will welcome me kindly"

So the gifts went on ahead of him

Here "gifts" stands for the servants taking the gifts. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

He himself stayed

Here "himself" emphasizes that Jacob did not go with the servants. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rpronouns/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 32:22-23

his two women servants

"his two servant wives." This means Zilpah and Bilhah.

ford

a shallow place in a river that is easy to cross

Jabbok

This is the name of a river. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

all his possessions

"all that he had"

translationWords

Genesis 32:24-26

until daybreak

"until dawn"

Jacob's hip was dislocated as he wrestled with him

This can be stated in active form. AT: "The man injured Jacob's hip as he wrestled with him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

hip

the place where the upper leg bone connects to the hip

for the dawn is breaking

"the sun will rise soon"

bless

Here "bless" means to pronounce a formal blessing on someone and to cause good things to happen to that person.

I will not let you go unless you bless me

This can be stated in positive form. AT: "Absolutely not! You must bless me first, then I will let you go" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublenegatives/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 32:27-28

Israel

Translators may add a footnote that says "The name Israel means 'He struggles with God.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

with men

Here "men" means "people" in general.

translationWords

Genesis 32:29-30

He said, "Why is it that you ask my name?"

"He said, 'Why would you ask about my name?'" This rhetorical question was meant to shock, rebuke and cause Jacob to ponder over what just happened between him and the other man he just wrestled with. AT: "Do not ask me for my name!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Peniel

Translators may add a footnote that says: "The name Peniel means 'the face of God.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

face to face

Being "face to face" means that two people are seeing each other in person, at a close distance.

and my life is delivered

This can be stated in active form. AT: "yet he spared my life" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 32:31-32

That is why to this day

This marks a change from the story to background information about the descendants of Israel. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

to this day

This means to the day that the author was writing this.

ligaments of the hip

This refers to the muscle that connects the thigh bone to the thigh socket.

hip joint

"thigh socket"

while dislocating

"while striking"

Genesis 33

Genesis 33:intro-0

Genesis 33 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Jacob's fear

Jacob feared his brother. He showed Esau great respect and sought to protect his family from Esau's power. He did not fear and trust Yahweh. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/fear.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/trust.md]])

# Favoritism

Jacob showed favoritism towards Rachel and Joseph. He arranged the family according to those he loved the most. Rachel and Joseph were the most protected from a potential attack by Esau. He would have rather had everyone else die, in order to spare their lives. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/favor.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 33:1-3

behold

The word "behold" here alerts us to pay attention to a surprising new part of the story.

four hundred men

"400 men" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Jacob divided the children ... female servants

This does not mean Jacob divided the children evenly so that each woman had the same amount of children with her. Jacob divided the children so that each one went with his or her mother. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

female servants

"servant wives." This refers to Bilhah and Zilpah.

He himself went on ahead of them

Here "himself" emphasizes that Jacob went alone in front of the others. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rpronouns/01.md]])

He bowed

Here the word "bow" means to bend over to humbly express respect and honor toward someone. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 33:4-5

meet him

"meet Jacob"

embraced him, hugged his neck, and kissed him

This can be translated as a new sentence. AT: "Esau put his arms around Jacob, hugged him, and kissed him"

Then they wept

This can be translated more explicitly. AT: "Then Esau and Jacob cried because they were happy to see each other again" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

he saw the women and the children

"he saw the women and children who were with Jacob"

The children whom God has graciously given your servant

The phrase "your servant" is a polite way for Jacob to refer to himself. AT: "These are the children God has kindly given me, your servant" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 33:6-8

female servants

"servant wives." This refers to Bilhah and Zilpah.

bowed down

This is a sign of humility and respect before another person. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

What do you mean by all these groups that I met?

The phrase "all these groups" refers to the groups of servants that Jacob sent to give gifts to Esau. AT: "Why did you send all of those different groups to meet me?"

To find favor in the sight of my master

The phrase "find favor" is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Also, sight represents judgment or evaluation. AT: "So that you, my master, would be pleased with me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

my master

The phrase "my master" is a polite way of referring to Esau. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 33:9-11

I have enough

The word "animals" or "property" is understood. AT: "I have enough animals" or "I have enough property" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-ellipsis/01.md]])

if I have found favor in your eyes

The phrase "found favor" is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Here "eyes" are a metonym for sight, and sight is a metaphor representing his evaluation. AT: "if you are pleased with me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

my gift from my hand

Here "hand" refers to Jacob. AT: "this gift that I am giving to you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

my hand, for indeed

This can be translated as a new sentence: "my hand. For certainly"

I have seen your face, and it is like seeing the face of God

The meaning of this simile is unclear. Possible meanings are 1) Jacob is happy that Esau has forgiven him like God has forgiven him or 2) Jacob is amazed to see his brother again like he was amazed to see God or 3) Jacob is humbled to be in Esau's presence like he was humbled to be in God's presence. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-simile/01.md]])

I have seen your face

Here "face" stands for Esau. It may be best to translate as "face" because of the importance of the word "face" here with "face of God" and "face to face" in Genesis 32:30. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

that was brought to you

This can be stated in active form. AT: "that my servants brought to you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

God has dealt graciously with me

"God has treated me very well" or "God has blessed me very much"

Thus Jacob urged him, and Esau accepted it

It was customary to refuse a gift first, but then to accept the gift before the giver was offended.

translationWords

Genesis 33:12-14

My master knows

This is a polite and formal way of referring to Esau. AT: "You, my master, know" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

the children are young

The meaning can be stated more explicitly. AT: "the children are too young to travel fast" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

If they are driven hard even one day

This can be stated in active form. AT: "If we force them to go too fast even for one day" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Please let my master go on ahead of his servant

This is a polite and formal way of Jacob referring to himself. AT: "My lord, I am your servant. Please go ahead of me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

at the pace of the livestock that are before me

"at the speed the animals I am looking after can go"

Seir

This is a mountainous area in the region of Edom. See how you translated this in Genesis 32:3. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 33:15-17

Why do that?

Jacob uses a question to emphasize that Esau does not need to leave men. AT: "Do not do that!" or "You do not need to do that!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

my lord

This is a polite and formal way of referring to Esau. AT: "you, my lord" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

Succoth

Translators may also add a footnote that says, "The name Succoth means 'shelters.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

built himself a house

It is implied that the house is also for his family. AT: "built a house for himself and his family" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

for his livestock

"for the animals he looked after"

translationWords

Genesis 33:18-20

General Information:

This starts a new part of the story. The author describes what Jacob did after he rested in Succoth.

When Jacob came from Paddan Aram

"After Jacob left Paddan Aram"

When Jacob ... he arrived ... He camped

This only mentions Jacob because he is the leader of the family. It is implied that his family was with him. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

He camped near

"He set up his camp near"

piece of ground

"piece of land"

Hamor

This is the name of a man. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Shechem's father

Shechem is the name of a city and the name of a man.

a hundred

"100" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

El Elohe Israel

Translators may add a footnote that says: "The name El Elohe Israel means 'God, the God of Israel.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 34

Genesis 34:intro-0

Genesis 34 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Israel

Jacob's name was changed to Israel. It is his descendants who inherited the promised blessings given to him and to Isaac and Abraham. This is the first time his descendants are collectively referred to as the people group Israel. The people group Israel is identified through the covenant of circumcision. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/inherit.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/bless.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/circumcise.md]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter
# Implicit information

Jacob's reacted to the rape of Dinah with indifference. This is possibly because she was not a daughter of Rachel. His reaction was both unwise and improper. This action brought shame on the whole family. Therefore, Jacob's sons corrected this wrong and plotted against Hamor and Shechem.

Shechem raped Dinah, but then he said he loved her. By raping her, he ensured that no one else would want to marry her. This is not love. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/wise.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/love.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

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Genesis 34:1-3

Now

Here this word is used to mark a new part of the story.

Dinah

This is the name of Leah's daughter. See how you translated this name in Genesis 30:21. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

the Hivite

This is the name of a people group. See how you translated the similar word "Hivites" in Genesis 10:17. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

the prince of the land

This is referring to Hamor not Shechem. Also, "prince" here does not mean son of a king. It means Hamor was the leader of the people in that area.

assaulted her, and slept with her

Shechem raped Dinah. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

He was drawn to Dinah

"He was very attracted to her." This speaks about Shechem loving Dinah and wanting to be with her as if something were forcing him to come to Dinah. This can be stated in active form. AT: "He wanted very much to be with Dinah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

spoke tenderly to her

This means he spoke affectionately to convince her that he loved her and that he wanted her to love him also.

translationWords

Genesis 34:4-5

Now Jacob

"Now" is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Jacob. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

Jacob heard that he

The word "he" refers to Shechem.

he had defiled

This means that Shechem had greatly dishonored and disgraced Dinah by forcing her to sleep with him.

held his peace

This is a way of saying that Jacob did not say or do anything about the matter. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 34:6-7

Hamor ... went out to Jacob

"Hamor ... went to meet Jacob"

The men were offended

"The men were very insulted" or "They were shocked"

he had disgraced Israel

Here the word "Israel" refers to every member of Jacob's family. Israel as a people group was disgraced. AT: "he had humiliated the family of Israel" or "he had brought shame on the people of Israel" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

forcing himself on Jacob's daughter

"assaulting Jacob's daughter"

for such a thing should not have been done

This can be stated in active form. AT: "for he should not have done such a terrible thing" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 34:8-10

Hamor spoke with them

"Hamor spoke with Jacob and his sons"

loves your daughter

Here the word "love" refers to romantic love between a man and a woman. AT: "loves her and wants to marry her"

give her to him as a wife

In some cultures, the parents decide whom their children will marry.

Intermarry with us

To intermarry is to marry a member of a different racial, social, religious or tribal group. AT: "Allow marriages between your people and ours"

the land will be open to you

"the land will be available to you"

translationWords

Genesis 34:11-13

Shechem said to her father

"Shechem said to Dinah's father Jacob"

Let me find favor in your eyes, and whatever you tell me I will give

The phrase "find favor" is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Also, the eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. AT: "If you will approve of me, then I will give you whatever you ask" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

bride price

In some cultures, it is customary for a man to give money, property, cattle, and other gifts to the bride's family at the time of marriage.

The sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father with deceit

The abstract noun "deceit" can be stated as the verb "lied." AT: "But the sons of Jacob lied to Shechem and Hamor when they answered them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

Shechem had defiled Dinah

This means that Shechem had greatly dishonored and disgraced Dinah by forcing her to sleep with him. See how you translated "defiled" in Genesis 34:5.

translationWords

Genesis 34:14-17

They said to them

"Jacob's sons said to Shechem and Hamor"

We cannot do this thing, to give our sister

"We cannot agree to give Dinah in marriage"

for that would be a disgrace to us

"for that would cause us shame." Here "us" refers to Jacob's sons and all the people of Israel. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-exclusive/01.md]])

give our daughters to you ... take your daughters to ourselves

This means they will allow a person from Jacob's family to marry a person who lives in Hamor's land.

translationWords

Genesis 34:18-19

Their words pleased Hamor and his son Shechem

"Hamor and his son Shechem agreed with what Jacob's sons said"

to do what they said

"to become circumcised"

Jacob's daughter

"Jacob's daughter Dinah"

because he was the most honored person in all his father's household

This can be translated as a new sentence. It can be made explicit that Shechem knew the other men would agree to be circumcised because they greatly respected him. AT: "Shechem knew all the men in his father's household would agree with him because he was the most honored among them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 34:20-21

the gate of their city

It was common for leaders to meet at the city gate to make official decisions.

These men

"Jacob, his sons, and the people of Israel"

peace with us

Here "us" includes Hamor, his son and all the people they spoke with at the city gate. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-inclusive/01.md]])

let them live in the land and trade in it

"let them live and trade in the land"

for, really, the land is large enough for them

Shechem uses the word "really" to add emphasis to his statement. "because, certainly, the land is large enough for them" or "because, indeed, there is plenty of land for them"

take their daughters ... give them our daughters

This refers to marriages between the women of one group and the men of the other group. See how you translated similar phrases in Genesis 34:9.

translationWords

Genesis 34:22-23

General Information:

Hamor and Shechem his son continue to talk to the city elders.

Only on this condition will the men agree to live with us and become one people: If every male among us is circumcised, as they are circumcised

"Only if every man among us is circumcised, as the men of Israel are circumcised, will they agree to live among us and unite with us as one people"

Will not their livestock and their property—all their animals be ours?

Shechem uses a question to emphasize that Jacob's livestock and property will belong to the people of Shechem. This can be translated as a statement. AT: "All of their animals and property will be ours." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 34:24-26

Every male was circumcised

This can be stated in active form. AT: "So Hamor and Shechem had someone circumcise all the men" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

On the third day

"third" is the ordinal number for three. It can be stated without the ordinal number. AT: "After two days" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-ordinal/01.md]])

when they were still in pain

"when the men of the city were still in pain"

each took his sword

"took their swords"

they attacked the city

Here "city" stands for the people. AT: "they attacked the people of the city" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

security, and they killed all the males

This can be translated as a new sentence. "security. Simeon and Levi killed all the men of the city"

translationWords

Genesis 34:27-29

the dead bodies

"the dead bodies of Hamor, Shechem, and their men"

looted the city

"stole everything in the city that was valuable"

because the people had defiled their sister

Shechem alone had defiled Dinah, but Jacob's sons considered Shechem's entire family and everyone in the city responsible for this act.

had defiled

This means that Shechem had greatly dishonored and disgraced Dinah by forcing her to sleep with him. See how you translated "defiled" in Genesis 34:5.

They took their flocks

"Jacob's sons took the people's flocks"

all their wealth

"all their possessions and money"

All their children and their wives, they captured

"They captured all their children and wives"

translationWords

Genesis 34:30-31

brought trouble on me

Causing someone to experience trouble is spoken of as if trouble were an object that is brought and placed on a person. AT: "caused great problems for me" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

to make me stink to the inhabitants of the land

Causing the people in the surrounding areas to hate Jacob is spoken of as if Jacob's sons made him smell bad physically. This can be translated as a new sentence. AT: "You have made me repulsive to the people who live in the land" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

I am few in number ... against me and attack me, then I will be destroyed, I and my household

Here the words "I" and "me" refer to all of Jacob's household. Jacob only says "I" or "me" since he is the leader. AT: "My household is small ... against us and attack us, then they will destroy all of us" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

gather themselves together against me and attack me

"form an army and attack me" or "form an army and attack us"

then I will be destroyed

This can be stated in active form. AT: "they will destroy me" or "they will destroy us" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Should Shechem have dealt with our sister as with a prostitute?

Simeon and Levi use a question to emphasize that Shechem did what was wrong and deserved to die. AT: "Shechem should not have treated our sister as if she were a prostitute!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 35

Genesis 35:intro-0

Genesis 35 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Name change

In Scripture, a change in name always occurs at a highly significant point in a person's life. The return of Jacob to Canaan was a significant event in the history of the Hebrew people.

# Covenant

The covenant God made with Abraham is repeated here. It indicates that all of Jacob's descendants will inherit the promises of this covenant. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenant.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/inherit.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/promise.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 35:1-3

go up to Bethel

The phrase "go up" is used because Bethel is higher in elevation than Shechem.

Build an altar there to God

God speaks about himself in the third person. AT: "Build an altar there to me, your God" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md]])

said to his household

"said to his family"

Put away the foreign gods that are among you

"Throw away your idols" or "Get rid of your false gods"

purify yourselves, and change your clothes

This was the custom of cleansing oneself morally and physically before going to worship God.

change your clothes

Putting on a new clothes was a sign that they had made themselves clean before approaching God. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

in the day of my distress

"in the time of my distress" or "when I was in trouble"

translationWords

Genesis 35:4-5

So they gave

"so everyone in Jacob's household gave" or "so all of his family and servants gave"

that were in their hand

Here "in their hand" stands for what they own. AT: "that were in their possession" or "that they had" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

the rings that were in their ears

"their earrings." Possible meanings are 1) the gold in the earrings could have been used to make more idols or 2) they took these earrings from the city of Shechem after they attacked it and killed all the people. The earrings would have reminded them of their sin.

God made panic to fall on the cities

God causing the people of the cities to be afraid of Jacob and his family is spoken of as if panic were an object that fell on the cities. The abstract noun "panic" can be stated as "afraid." AT: "God made the people in the surrounding cities afraid of Jacob and those with him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

on the cities

Here "cities" stands for the people who live in the cities. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

the sons of Jacob

It is implied that no one attacked anyone in Jacob's family. But two of the sons, Simeon and Levi had attacked the Canaanites relatives of Shechem after he seized and slept with Jacob's daughter. Jacob was afraid they would seek revenge in Genesis 34:30. AT: "Jacob's family" or "Jacob's household" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 35:6-8

Luz

This is the name of a city. See how you translated this in Genesis 28:19. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

El Bethel

Translators may add a footnote that says: "The name El Bethel means 'God of Bethel.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

there God had revealed himself to him

"there God made himself known to Jacob"

Deborah

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Rebekah's nurse

A nurse is a woman who takes care of another woman's child. The nurse was highly honored and important to the family.

She was buried down from Bethel

This can be stated in active form. AT: "They buried her down from Bethel" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

down from Bethel

The phrase "down from" is used because they buried her in a place that was lower in elevation than Bethel.

Allon Bakuth

Translators may add a footnote that says: "The name Allon Bakuth means 'Oak tree where there is weeping.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 35:9-10

When Jacob came from Paddan Aram

It can be made explicit that they were in Bethel. AT: "After Jacob left Paddan Aram, and while he was in Bethel" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

blessed

Here "bless" means to pronounce a formal blessing on someone and to cause good things to happen to that person.

but your name will no longer be called Jacob

This can be stated in active form. AT: "but your name will no longer be Jacob" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 35:11-13

God said to him

"God said to Jacob"

Be fruitful and multiply

God told Jacob to produce children so that there would be many of them. The word "multiply" explains how he was to be "fruitful." See how you translated this in Genesis 1:22. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

A nation and a company of nations will come from you

Here "nation" and "nations" refer to Jacob's descendants who will establish these nations. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

God went up from him

Here "went up" is used because where God dwells is typically thought of as being up or above the world. AT: "God left him"

translationWords

Genesis 35:14-15

pillar

This is a memorial pillar which was simply a large stone or boulder set up on its end.

He poured out a drink offering over it and poured oil on it

This is a sign that he is dedicating the pillar to God. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-symaction/01.md]])

Bethel

Translators may also add a footnote that says "The name Bethel means 'house of God.'"

translationWords

Genesis 35:16-20

Ephrath

This is another name for the town of Bethlehem.

She had hard labor

"She was having a very difficult time giving birth to the child"

While she was in hardest labor

"When the labor pain was at its worst"

midwife

a person who helps a woman when she is giving birth to a child

As she was dying, with her dying breath

A "dying breath" is a person's last breath before he or she dies. AT: "Just before she died, as she was taking her last breath" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Ben-Oni

Translator may add a footnote that says "The name Ben-Oni means 'son of my sorrow.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Benjamin

Translator may add a footnote that says "The name Benjamin means 'son of the right hand.'" The phrase "right hand" indicates a place of special favor.

was buried

This can be stated in active form. AT: "they buried her" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

on the way

"alongside the road"

It is the marker of Rachel's grave to this day

"It marks Rachel's grave still to this day"

to this day

"up to the present time." This means to the time that the author was writing this.

translationWords

Genesis 35:21-22

Israel traveled on

It is implied that Israel's family and servants are with him. The full meaning of this information can be made explicit. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel's female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:29. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Now Jacob had twelve sons

This sentence begins a new paragraph, which continues into the following verses.

twelve sons

"12 sons" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 35:23-25

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel's female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:29. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 35:26-27

Zilpah

This is the name of Leah's female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:24. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

who were born to him in Paddan Aram

It is implied that this does not include Benjamin who was born in the land of Canaan near Bethlehem. It only mentions Paddan Aram since that is where most of them were born. The full meaning of this can be made explicit. AT: "who were born to him in Paddan Aram, except Benjamin who was born in the land of Canaan" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Jacob came to Isaac

Here "came" can be stated as "went." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-go/01.md]])

Mamre

This was another name for the city of Hebron. It may have been named after Mamre, the friend of Abraham who lived there. See how you translated this in Genesis 13:18. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Kiriath Arba

This is the name of a city. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:02. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 35:28-29

one hundred eighty years

"180 years" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Isaac breathed his last and died

"Isaac took his last breath and died." The phrases "breathed his last" and "died" mean basically the same thing. See how you translated a similar phrase in Genesis 25:08. AT: "Isaac died" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]])

breathed his last

This is a polite way of saying a person died. See how you translated this in Genesis 25:8. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

was gathered to his ancestors

This means that after Isaac died, his soul went to the same place as his relatives who died before him. This can be stated in active form. AT: "he joined his family members who had already died" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

an old man full of days

The phrases "old man" and "full of days" mean basically the same thing. They emphasize that Isaac lived a very long time. AT: "after he had lived a very long time and was very old" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36

Genesis 36:intro-0

Genesis 36 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# Esau's descendants

Esau's descendants became known as the Edomite people group. They also become a great nation. This nation is prominent in the rest of the Old Testament. God graciously blessed Esau and he had many descendants. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/grace.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/bless.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 36:1-3

These were the descendants of Esau (also called Edom)

"These are the descendants of Esau, who is also called Edom." This sentence introduces the account of Esau's descendants in Genesis 36:1-8. AT: "This is an account of the descendants of Esau, who is also called Edom" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Adah ... Oholibamah

These are names of Esau's wives. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Elon the Hittite

"Elon the descendant of Heth" or "Elon a descendant of Heth." This is the name of a man. See how you translate this in Genesis 26:34. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Anah ... Zibeon ... Nebaioth

These are names of men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Hivite

This refers to a larger group of people. See how you translated it in Genesis 10:17.

Basemath

This is the name of one of Esau's wives. See how you translated this in Genesis 26:34. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Nebaioth

This is the name of one of Ishmael's sons. See how you translated this in Genesis 28:9. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:4-5

Adah ... Basemath ... Oholibamah

These are names of Esau's wives. See how you translated these in Genesis 36:2-3. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Eliphaz ... Reuel ... Jeush ... Jalam ... Korah

These are names of Esau's sons. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:6-8

which he had gathered in the land of Canaan

This refers to all of the things that he had accumulated while living in the land of Canaan. AT: "which he had accumulated while living in the land of Canaan" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

went into a land

This means to moved to another place and live there. AT: "went to live in another land" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

their possessions

"Esau's and Jacob's possessions"

could not support them because of their livestock

The land was not large enough to support all of the livestock that Jacob and Esau owned. AT: "was not big enough to support all of their livestock" or "was not big enough for both Esau's flocks and Jacob's flocks" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

where they had settled

The word "settled" means to move somewhere and live there. AT: "where they had moved to" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:9-12

These were the descendants of Esau

This sentence introduces the account of Esau's descendants in Genesis 36:9-43. AT: "This is an account of the descendants of Esau" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

in the hill country of Seir

This means that they lived in the hill country of Seir. The full meaning of this may be made explicit. AT: "who lived in the hill country of Seir" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Eliphaz ... Reuel

These are names of Esau's sons. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:4. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Adah ... Basemath

These are names of Esau's wives. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:2-3. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz ... Amalek

These are names of the sons of Eliphaz. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Timna

This is the name of Eliphaz's concubine. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:13-14

Reuel ... Jeush, Jalam, and Korah

These are names of Esau's sons. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:4-5. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Nahath ... Zerah ... Shammah ... Mizzah

These are names of Reuel's sons. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Anah ... Zibeon

These are the names of men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Basemath ... Oholibamah

These are names of Esau's wives. See how you translated these in Genesis 36:2-3. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:15-16

Eliphaz

This is the name of one of Esau's sons. See how you translated his name in Genesis 36:4. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz, Korah, Gatam, and Amalek

These are names of Eliphaz's sons. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Adah

This is the name of one of Esau's wives. See how you translated her name in Genesis 36:2-3. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:17-19

Reuel ... Jeush, Jalam, Korah

These are the names of Esau's sons. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:4-5. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, Mizzah

These are the names of Reuel's sons. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:13. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

in the land of Edom

This means that they lived in the land of Edom. AT: "who lived in the land of Edom" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Basemath ... Oholibamah

These are the names of Esau's wives. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:2-3. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Anah

This the name of a man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 36:2. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:20-22

Seir

The word "Seir" is the name of a man and of a country.

the Horite

The word "Horite" refers to a people group. See how you translated it in Genesis 14:6.

the inhabitants of the land

"who lived in the land of Seir, which is also called Edom"

Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan ... Hori and Heman

These are names of men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Timna

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:23-24

Shobal ... Zibeon

These are names of men. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:20. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam ... Aiah and Anah

These are names of men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:25-28

Anah ... Dishon ... Ezer ... Dishan

These are names of men. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:20-21.

Oholibamah

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran ... Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan ... Uz and Aran

These are names of men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Genesis 36:29-30

the Horites

This is the name of a people group. See how you translated this in Genesis 14:6. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, and Anah, Dishon, Ezer, Dishan

These are the names of men. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:20-21. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

in the land of Seir

This means that they lived in the land of Seir. AT: "of those who lived in the land of Seir" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:31-33

Bela ... Beor ... Jobab ... Zerah

These are names of men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

the name of his city

This means that this was the city where he lived. AT: "the name of the city where he lived" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Dinhabah ... Bozrah

These are names of places. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:34-36

Jobab

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 36:33. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Husham ... Hadad ... Bedad ... Samlah

These are names of men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Husham who was of the land of the Temanites

This means that Husham lived in the land of the Temanites. AT: "Husham who lived in the land of the Temanites" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Avith ... Masrekah

These are names of places. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Temanites

descendants of a man named Teman (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

The name of his city

This means that this was the city where he lived. AT: "The name of the city where he lived" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Samlah of Masrekah

"Samlah from Masrekah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:37-39

Samlah

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 36:36. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

then Shaul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his place

Shaul lived in Rehoboth. Rehoboth was by the Euphrates river. This information may be stated clearly. AT: "then Shaul reigned in his place. He was from Rehoboth which is by the Euphrates River" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Shaul ... Baal-Hanan ... Akbor ... Hadar ... Matred ... Me Zahab

These are names of men. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Rehoboth ... Pau

These are names of places. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

The name of his city

This means that this was the city where he lived. AT: "The name of the city where he lived" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

the daughter of Matred, the granddaughter of Me Zahab

"she was the daughter of Matred, and the granddaughter of Me Zahab"

Mehetabel

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 36:40-43

the heads of clans

"the leaders of the clans"

according to their clans and their regions, by their names

The clans and the regions were named after the heads of the clans. AT: "the names of their clans and the regions where they lived were named after them. These are their names" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Timna, Alvah, Jetheth, Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon, Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar, Magdiel, and Iram

These are names of people groups. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

their settlements

"their dwelling places" or "the places they lived"

This was Esau

This list is said "to be" Esau, which means that it is the whole list of his descendants. AT: "This is the list of the descendants of Esau" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 37

Genesis 37:intro-0

Genesis 37 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins to record the account of Jacob's sons. The rest of the book of Genesis focuses on Jacob's sons, especially Joseph. This chapter also references Jacob as "Israel" beginning in this chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter
# Favoritism

Jacob's favoritism became a great problem for his sons. They are always jealous of Joseph because he is the favorite son. The beautiful garment Jacob gave to Joseph greatly strained the relationship between Joseph and his brothers. Joseph dreams he will rule all of his brothers, even though he is not the oldest son. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/favor.md]])

# God's power

The account of Joseph focuses on the power of God. God is able to protect his people despite the evil actions of some. He also is able to continue to bless them despite their circumstances. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/peopleofgod.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/bless.md]])

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 37:1-2

the land where his father was staying, in the land of Canaan

"in the land of Canaan where his father had lived"

These were the events concerning Jacob

This sentence introduces the account of Jacob's children in Genesis 37:1-50:26. Here "Jacob" refers to his whole family. AT: "This is the account of Jacob's family" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

seventeen years old

"17 years old" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel's female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:29. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Zilpah

This is the name of Leah's female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:24. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

wives

These women were servants of Leah and Rachel whom they had given to Jacob to produce children.

an unfavorable report about them

"a bad report about his brothers"

translationWords

Genesis 37:3-4

Now

This word is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Israel and Joseph. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

loved

This refers to brotherly love or love for a friend or family member. This is natural human love between friends or relatives.

of his old age

This means that Joseph was born when Israel was an old man. AT: "who was born when Israel was an old man" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

He made him

"Israel made Joseph"

a beautiful garment

"a beautiful robe"

would not speak kindly to him

"could not speak in a courteous manner to him"

translationWords

Genesis 37:5-6

Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told his brothers about it. They hated him even more

This is a summary of the events that will happen in 37:6-11.

They hated him even more

"And Joseph's brothers hated him even more than they hated him before"

Please listen to this dream which I dreamed

"Please listen to this dream that I had"

translationWords

Genesis 37:7-8

General Information:

Joseph tells his brothers about his dream.

Behold

The word "behold" here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

we were

The word "we" refers to Joseph and includes all of his brothers. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-inclusive/01.md]])

tying bundles of grain

When grain is reaped it is tied into bundles and stacked until it is time to separate the grain from the straw.

behold

Here the word "behold" here shows that Joseph was surprised by what he saw.

my bundle rose and stood upright ... your bundles came around and bowed down

Here the bundles of grain are standing and kneeling as if they were people. These bundle represent Joseph and his brothers. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-personification/01.md]])

Will you really reign over us? Will you actually rule over us?

Both of these phrases mean basically the same thing. Joseph's brothers are using questions to mock Joseph. They can be written as statements. AT: "You will never be our king, and we will never bow down to you!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-parallelism/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

reign over us

The word "us" refers to Joseph's brothers but not Joseph. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-exclusive/01.md]])

for his dreams and for his words

"because of his dreams and what he said"

translationWords

Genesis 37:9-11

He dreamed another dream

"Joseph had another dream"

eleven stars

"11 stars" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

his father rebuked him. He said to him

"Israel scolded him, saying"

What is this dream that you have dreamed? Will your mother ... to the ground to you?

Israel uses questions to correct Joseph. This can be written as statements. AT: "This dream you had is not real. Your mother, brothers, and I will not bow down before you!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

jealous

This means being angry because someone else is successful or more popular.

kept the matter in mind

The means that he kept thinking about the meaning of Joseph's dream. AT: "kept thinking about what the dream might mean" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 37:12-14

Are not your brothers tending the flock in Shechem?

Israel uses a question to begin a conversation. This can be written as a statement. AT: "You brothers are tending the flock in Shechem." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

Come

Here it is implied that Israel is asking Joseph to prepare himself to leave and go see his brothers. AT: "Get ready" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

I am ready

He is ready to leave. "I am ready to go" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

He said to him

"Israel said to Joseph"

bring me word

Israel wants Joseph to come back and tell him about how his brother and flocks are doing. AT: "come tell me what you find out" or "give me a report" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

out of the Valley

"from the Valley"

translationWords

Genesis 37:15-17

A certain man found Joseph. Behold, Joseph was wandering in a field

"A certain man found Joseph wandering in a field"

Behold

This marks the beginning of another event in the larger story. It may involve different people than the previous events. Your language may have a way of doing this.

What do you seek?

"What are you looking for?"

Tell me, please, where

"Please tell me where"

tending the flock

"shepherding their flock"

Dothan

This is the name of a place that is about 22 kilometers from Shechem. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 37:18-20

They saw him from a distance

"Joseph's brothers saw him while he was far away"

they plotted against him to kill him

"they made plans to kill him"

this dreamer is approaching

"here comes the one who has the dreams"

Come now, therefore

This wording shows that the brothers acted upon their plans. AT: "So now" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

wild animal

"dangerous animal" or "ferocious animal"

devoured

to eagerly have eaten

We will see what will become of his dreams

His brothers planned to kill him, therefore it is ironic that they would speak of his dream coming true, since he would be dead. AT: "That way we will make sure his dreams do not come true" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-irony/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 37:21-22

heard it

"heard what they were saying"

from their hand

The phrase "their hand" refers to the brothers' plan to kill him. AT: "from them" or "from their plans" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

Let us not take his life

The phrase "take his life" is a euphemism for killing someone. AT: "Let us not kill Joseph" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

Shed no blood

The negation can be placed on the verb. Also, "shedding blood" is a euphemism for killing someone. AT: "Do not spill any blood" or "Do not kill him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-litotes/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

lay no hand upon him

This means not to harm or injure him. AT: "do not harm him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

that he might rescue him

This can be translated as a new sentence: "Rueben said this so that he might rescue Joseph"

out of their hand

The phrase "their hand" refers to the brothers' plan to kill him. AT: "from them" or "from their plans" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

to bring him back

"and return him"

translationWords

Genesis 37:23-24

It came about that when

This phrase is used here to mark an important event in the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

they stripped him of his beautiful garment

"they tore his beautiful garment off of him"

beautiful garment

"beautiful robe." See how you translated this in Genesis 37:3.

translationWords

Genesis 37:25-26

They sat down to eat bread

"Bread" represents food in general. AT: "They sat down to eat food" or "Joseph's brothers sat down to eat" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

They lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan

Here looking up is spoken of as if a person literally lifted up his eyes. Also, the word "behold" is used here to draw the reader's attention to what the men saw. AT: "They looked up and they suddenly saw a caravan" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

bearing

carrying

spices

seasonings

balm

an oily substance with a sweet smell used for healing and protecting skin. "medicine"

traveling to carry them down to Egypt

"bringing them down to Egypt." This can be made more explicit. AT: "bringing them down to Egypt to sell them" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

What profit is it if we kill our brother and cover up his blood?

This can be written as a statement. AT: "We do not gain a profit by killing our brother and covering up his blood" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

cover up his blood

This is a figure of speech referring to hiding Joseph's death. AT: "hide his murder" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 37:27-28

to the Ishmaelites

"to these men who are descendants of Ishmael"

not lay our hands upon him

This means not to harm or injure him. AT: "not hurt him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

he is our brother, our flesh

The word "flesh" is a metonym that stands for a relative. AT: "he is our blood relative" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md]])

His brothers listened to him

"Judah's brothers listened to him" or "Judah's brothers agreed with him"

Midianite ... Ishmaelites

Both names refer to the same group of traders that Joseph's brothers meet.

for twenty pieces of silver

"for the price of 20 pieces of silver" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-numbers/01.md]])

carried Joseph into Egypt

"took Joseph to Egypt"

translationWords

Genesis 37:29-30

Reuben returned to the pit, and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit

"Reuben returned to the pit, and was surprised to see that Joseph was not there." The word "behold" here shows that Reuben was surprised to find out Joseph was gone.

He tore his clothes

This is an act of deep distress and grief. This can be written more clearly. AT: "He was so grieved that he tore his clothes" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

The boy is not there! And I, where can I go?

Reuben uses questions for emphasis the problem that Joseph was missing. These can be written as statements. AT: "The boy is gone! I cannot go back home now!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 37:31-33

Joseph's garment

This refers to the beautiful garment that his father made for him.

the blood

"the goat's blood"

they brought it

"they brought the garment"

has devoured him

"has eaten him"

Joseph has certainly been torn to pieces

Jacob thinks that a wild animal has torn Joseph's body apart. AT: "It has certainly torn Joseph to pieces" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 37:34-36

Jacob tore his garments

This is an act of deep distress and grief. This can be written more clearly. AT: "Jacob was so grieved that he tore his garments" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

put sackcloth upon his loins

Here "loins" refers to the middle part of the body or the waist. AT: "put on sackcloth" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

rose up

Here the childrens' coming to their father is spoke of as "rising up." AT: "came to him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

but he refused to be comforted

This can be stated in active form. AT: "but he would not let them comfort him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Indeed I will go down to Sheol mourning

The means that he be mourning from now until when he dies. AT: "Indeed when I die and go down to Sheol I will still be mourning" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

The Midianites sold him

"The Midianites sold Joseph"

the captain of the bodyguard

"the leader of the soldiers who guarded the king"

translationWords

Genesis 38

Genesis 38:intro-0

Genesis 38 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter focuses on Jacob's son Judah.

Special concepts in this chapter
# "Spilling his seed"

Onan was to provide for his brother's widow and give her an heir. This phrase indicates that he used Tamar to fulfill his own sexual desires rather than help her. This was sinful. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]])

# God preserves Judah's line

The Canaanite woman, Tamar, deceived her father-in-law, Judah, into having sexual relations with her. If it had not been for this act, Judah would not have any descendants to carry on his family line. Although her actions were wrong, God used them to protect his people. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/peopleofgod.md]])

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 38:1-2

It came about at that time that Judah

This introduces a new part of the story that focuses on Judah. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah

Hirah is the name of a man who lived in the village of Adullam. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

whose name was Shua

Shua is a Canaanite woman who married Judah. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 38:3-5

She became pregnant

"Judah's wife became pregnant"

He was named Er

This can be written in active form. AT: "His father named him Er" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Er ... Onan ... Shelah

These are the names of Judah's sons. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

called his name

"named him"

Kezib

This is the name of a place. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Genesis 38:6-7

Er

This is the name of one of Judah's sons. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:3. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

was wicked in the sight of Yahweh

The phrase "in the sight" refers to Yahweh seeing Er's wickedness. AT: "was wicked and Yahweh saw it" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Yahweh killed him

Yahweh killed him because he was wicked. This can be made clear. AT: "So Yahweh killed him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 38:8-10

Onan

This is the name of one of Judah's sons. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:4. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Do the duty of a brother-in-law to her

This refers to a custom that when the oldest brother dies before he and his wife have a son, the next oldest brother would marry and have sexual relations with the widow. When the widow gave birth to the first son, that son was considered the son of the oldest brother and he would receive the oldest brother's inheritance.

was evil in the sight of Yahweh

The phrase "in the sight" refers to Yahweh seeing Onan's wickedness. AT: "was evil and Yahweh saw it" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Yahweh killed him also

Yahweh killed him because what he did was evil. This can be made clear. AT: "So Yahweh killed him also" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 38:11

his daughter-in-law

"his oldest son's wife"

in your father's house

This means her to live in here father's house. AT: "and live in your father's house" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

until Shelah, my son, grows up

Judah intends for Tamar to marry Shelah when he grows up. AT: "and when Shelah, my son, grows up, he can marry you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Shelah

This is the name of one of Judah's sons. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:5. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

For he feared, "He might also die, just like his brothers

Judah feared that if Shelah married Tamar he would also die like his brothers did. AT: "For he feared, 'If he marries her he may also die like his brothers did" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 38:12-14

Shua's

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:2. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Judah was comforted and

"When Judah was no longer grieving, he"

his sheepshearers at Timnah

"Timnah, where his men were shearing sheep"

Timnah ... Enaim

These are names of a places. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite

"His friend Hiram, from Adullam, went with him"

Hirah the Adullamite

"Hiram" is the name of a man, and "Adullam" is the name of a village where he lived. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:1. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Tamar was told

This can be stated in active form. AT: "Someone told Tamar" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Look, your father-in-law

"Listen." Here the word "look" is used to get Tamar attention.

your father-in-law

"your husband's father"

of her widowhood

"that widows wear"

veil

a very thin material used to cover a woman's head and face

wrapped herself

This means that she hid herself with her clothing so that people would not recognize her. Traditionally, part of women's clothing were large pieces of cloth they wrapped themselves with. AT: "wrapped herself in her clothing so that people would not recognize her" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

by the road

"along the road" or "on the way"

she had not been given to him as a wife

This can be stated in active form. AT: "Judah had not given her to Shelah as a wife" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 38:15-16

because she had covered her face

Judah did not think she was a prostitute just because her face was covered but also because she was sitting in the gate. AT: "because she had covered her head and sat where prostitutes often sat" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

He went to her by the road

Tamar was sitting by the road. AT: "He went to where she was sitting by the road" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Come, please

"Come with me, please" or "Come now, please"

When Judah saw her

"When Judah saw Tamar"

his daughter-in-law

"his son's wife"

translationWords

Genesis 38:17-18

from the flock

"from my flock of goats"

seal and cord ... staff

A "seal" is similar to a coin with a design engraved on it, used to imprint melted wax. The "cord" was put through the seal so the owner could wear it around his neck. A staff was long wooden stick that helped in walking over rough ground.

she became pregnant by him

This can be stated in active form. AT: "he caused her to become pregnant" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 38:19-20

veil

This was a very thin material used to cover a woman's head and face. See how you translated these in Genesis 38:14.

clothing of her widowhood

"clothing that widows wear." See how you translated these in Genesis 38:14.

Adullamite

a person who lives in the village of Adullam. See how you translated this in Genesis 38:1. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

receive the pledge

This can be stated in active form. AT: "take back the pledge"(See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

from the woman's hand

Here "hand" emphasizes that they were in here possession. The woman's hand refers to the woman. AT: "from the woman" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-synecdoche/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 38:21-23

Adullamite

a person who lives in the village of Adullam. See how you translated this in Genesis 38:1. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

the men of the place

"some of the men who lived there"

cultic prostitute

"prostitute who serves in the temple"

Enaim

This is the name of a place. See how you translated this in Genesis 38:14. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

that we not be put to shame

When people found out what had happened they would ridicule Judah and laugh at him. This can be made clear and stated in active form. AT: "or else people will laugh at us when they find out what happened" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 38:24-26

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

it was told to Judah

This can be stated in active form. AT: "someone told Judah" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Tamar your daughter-in-law

"Tamar, your oldest son's wife"

she is pregnant by it

Here the word "it" refers to the "prostitution" that she committed. This can be stated in active form. AT: "it has made her pregnant" or "she is pregnant" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Bring her here

"Bring her out"

let her be burned

This can be stated in active form. AT: "we will burn her to death" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

When she was brought out

This can be stated in active form. AT: "When they brought her out" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

her father-in-law

"her husband's father"

seal and cords and staff

A "seal" is similar to a coin with a design engraved on it, used to make an impression in melted wax. The "cord" was put through the seal so the owner could wear it around his neck. A staff was long wooden stick that helped in walking over rough ground. See how you translated this in Genesis 38:18.

Shelah

This is the name of one of Judah's sons. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:5. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 38:27-28

It came about at the time

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

behold

The word "behold" alerts us to the surprise that Tamar was carrying twins, which was previously unknown.

It came about as she was giving birth

This phrase "It came about" marks an important event in the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

one put out a hand

"one of the babies put out his hand"

midwife

This is a person who helps a woman when she is giving birth to a child. See how you translated this in Genesis 35:17.

scarlet thread

"bright red thread"

on his hand

"around his wrist"

translationWords

Genesis 38:29-30

behold

The word "behold" here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

How you have broken out!

This shows the midwife's surprise to seeing the second baby come out first. AT: "So this is how you break your way out first!" or "You have burst out first!" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

he was named

This can be stated in active form. AT: "she named him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Perez

This is the name of a boy. Translators may add a footnote that says: "The name Perez means 'breaking out.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Zerah

This is the name of a boy. Translators may add a footnote that says: "The name Zerah means 'scarlet or bright red.'" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/translate-names/01.md]])

Genesis 39

Genesis 39:intro-0

Genesis 39 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# God's power

The account of Joseph focuses on the power of God. God is able to protect his people despite the evil actions of some. He also is able to continue to bless them despite their circumstances. This is a sign of Yahweh's covenant faithfulness. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/peopleofgod.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/bless.md]], [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sign.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/covenantfaith.md]])

# Joseph's character

Genesis just recorded a period of time where Joseph's ancestors and brothers struggled with sin. Joseph's character in this chapter is upright. He chose to do what was right, even when it could cause him harm. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/sin.md]])

Links:

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Genesis 39:1-2

Joseph was brought down to Egypt

Travelling to Egypt is always considered as going "down" in contrast to going "up" to the promised land. This can be stated in active form. AT: "The Ishmaelites had taken Joseph to Egypt" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

Yahweh was with Joseph

This means that Yahweh helped Joseph and was always with him. AT: "Yahweh guided Joseph and helped him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

He lived in the house

Here the author speaks of working in the master's house as if it were living in the master's house. Only the most trusted servants were permitted to work in their master's house. AT : "he worked in the house" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

his Egyptian master

Joseph was now Potiphar's slave.

translationWords

Genesis 39:3-4

His master saw that Yahweh was with him

This means that the master saw how Yahweh was helping Joseph. AT: "His master saw that Yahweh was helping him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

that Yahweh prospered everything that he did

"Yahweh caused everything that Joseph did to prosper"

Joseph found favor in his sight

"To find favor" means to be approved by someone. The idiom "in his sight" refers to a person's opinion. Possible meanings are 1) AT: "Potiphar was pleased with Joseph" or 2) AT: "Yahweh was pleased with Joseph" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

He served Potiphar

This means that he was Potiphar's personal servant.

Potiphar made Joseph manager over his house, and everything that he possessed

"Potiphar put Joseph in charge of his household and everything that belonged to Potiphar"

put under his care

When something is "put under someone's care," it means that the person is responsible for its care and safe-keeping. AT: "he had Joseph care for" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 39:5-6

It came about from the time that he made him manager over his house and over everything he possessed, that Yahweh blessed the Egyptian's house because of Joseph

You may need to use the words "Joseph" and "the Egyptian" before using pronouns to refer to them. "The Egyptian made Joseph manager over his house and over everything he possessed, and it came about from the time that that Yahweh blessed the Egyptian's house because of Joseph"

It came about

This phrase is used here to tell the reader that these two verses are background information for the next event. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

he made him manager over his house and over everything he possessed

"Potiphar put Joseph in charge of his household and everything that belonged to him"

blessed

Here "blessed" means to cause good and beneficial things to happen to the person or thing that is being blessed.

The blessing of Yahweh was on

Here the author speaks of the blessing that Yahweh gave as if it were a physical covering put over something. AT: "Yahweh blessed" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

everything that Potiphar had in the house and in the field

This refers his household and his crops and livestock. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. AT: "Potiphar's household and all of his crops and livestock" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

Potiphar put everything that he had under Joseph's care

When something is "put under someone's care," it means that the person is responsible for its care and safe-keeping. AT: "So Potiphar put Joseph in charge of everything that he had" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

He did not have to think about anything except the food that he ate

He did not have to worry about anything in his household; he only had to make decisions about what he wanted to eat. This can be stated in positive form. AT: "Potiphar only had to think about what he wanted to eat. He did not have to worry about anything else in his house" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublenegatives/01.md]])

Now

The word "now" marks a break in the story line as the author gives background information about Joseph. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-background/01.md]])

handsome and attractive

Both of the words have same meaning. They refer to Joseph's pleasing appearance. He was likely good-looking and strong. AT: "handsome and strong" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublet/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 39:7-9

It came about after this that

"And so." This phrase is used here to mark a new event. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

Look

"Listen." Joseph uses this word to get Potiphar's wife's attention.

my master does not pay attention to what I do in the house

"my master has no concern about his household with me in charge." This can be written in positive form. AT: "my master trusts me with his household" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-doublenegatives/01.md]])

he has put everything that he owns under my care

When something is "put under someone's care," it means that the person is responsible for its care and safe-keeping. AT: "he has put me in charge of everything that belongs to him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

No one is greater in this house than I am

Here the author speaks of authority as if it were greatness. AT: "I have more authority in this house than anyone else" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

He has not kept back anything from me but you

This can be stated in positive form. AT: "He has given me everything except you" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-litotes/01.md]])

How then can I do this great wickedness and sin against God?

Joseph uses a question for emphasis. This can be written as a statement. AT: "I certainly cannot do such a wicked thing and sin against God." (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-rquestion/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 39:10-12

She spoke to Joseph day after day

This means that she kept asking him to sleep with her. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. AT: "She kept on asking Joseph to sleep with her" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

to be with her

"to be near her"

It came about

"And so." This phrase is used here to mark a new event in the story. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

None of the men of the house

"None of the other men who worked in the house"

fled, and went outside

"and quickly ran outside" or "and quickly ran out of the house"

translationWords

Genesis 39:13-15

It came about ... that she called

"Then ... she called." The phrase "it came about" is used here to mark the next event in the story. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

had fled outside

"had quickly ran out of the house"

the men of her house

"the men who worked in her house"

See

"Look" or "Listen" or "Pay attention to what I am about to tell you."

He came in to me to sleep with me

Here Potiphar's wife is accusing Joseph of trying to seize her and sleep with her.

It came about when he heard me scream, that he

"When he heard me scream, he." The phrase "it came about" is used here to mark the next event in the story. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

translationWords

Genesis 39:16-18

his master

"Joseph's master." This refers to Potiphar.

She told him this explanation

"She explained it like this"

brought to us

The word "us" refers to Potiphar, his wife, and includes the rest of the household. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-inclusive/01.md]])

came in to mock me

"came in to make a fool of me." Here, the word "mock" is a euphemism for "to seize and to sleep with." AT: "came into where I was and tried to force me to sleep with him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-euphemism/01.md]])

It came about that

"Then." Potiphar's wife uses this phrase to mark the next event in the account she is telling him about Joseph trying to sleep with her. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

fled outside

"ran quickly out of the house"

translationWords

Genesis 39:19-20

It came about that

"And so." This phrase is used here to mark a new event in the story. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

his master

"Joseph's master." This refers to Potiphar. This information can be made explicit. AT: "Joseph's master, Potiphar" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-explicit/01.md]])

heard the explanation his wife told him

"heard his wife explain to him." The word "his" and "him" here refer to Potiphar.

he became very angry

"Potiphar became very angry"

the place where the king's prisoners were confined

This can be stated in active form. AT: "the place where the king put his prisoners" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-activepassive/01.md]])

He was there

"Joseph stayed there"

translationWords

Genesis 39:21-23

But Yahweh was with Joseph

This refers to how Yahweh took care of Joseph and was kind to him. AT: "But Yahweh was kind to Joseph" or "But Yahweh took care of Joseph" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

showed covenant faithfulness to him

The abstract noun "faithfulness" can be stated as "faithful" or "faithfully." AT: "was faithful to his covenant with him" or "faithfully loved him" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md]])

He gave him favor in the sight of the prison warden

This means Yahweh caused the prison warden to approve of Joseph and to treat him well. AT: "Yahweh caused the prison warden to be pleased with Joseph" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

the prison warden

"the prison manager" or "the man in charge of the prison"

gave into Joseph's hand

Here "hand" represents Joseph's power or trust. AT: "put Joseph in charge of" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-metaphor/01.md]])

Whatever they did there, Joseph was in charge of it

"Joseph was in charge of everything they did there"

because Yahweh was with him

This refers to how Yahweh helped Joseph and guided him. AT: "because Yahweh guided Joseph" (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/figs-idiom/01.md]])

Whatever he did, Yahweh prospered

"Yahweh caused everything that Joseph did to prosper"

translationWords

Genesis 40

Genesis 40:intro-0

Genesis 40 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter
# God's power

The account of Joseph focuses on the power of God. God is able to protect his people despite the evil actions of some. He also is able to continue to bless them despite their circumstances. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/peopleofgod.md]] and [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/bless.md]])

# Interpretation of dreams

The interpretation of dreams was important in the ancient Near East. It was seen as possible only through divine power. Yahweh gave Joseph the power to interpret dreams in order to bring himself glory and to protect Joseph and the Hebrew people. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_tw/src/master/bible/kt/glory.md]])

Links:

<< | >>

Genesis 40:1-3

It came about that

This phrase is used here to mark a new event in the story. (See: [[https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_ta/src/master/translate/writing-newevent/01.md]])

the cupbearer

This is the person who brought drinks to the king.

king's baker

This is the person who made food for the king.

offended their master

"upset their master"

the chief of the cupbearers and the chief of the bakers

"the leading cupbearer and the leading baker"

He put them in custody in the house of the captain of the guard

"He put them in the prison that was in the house that was overseen by the captain of the guard"

He put them

The king did not put them in prison but rather he commanded for them to be imprisoned. AT: "He had them put" or "H