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Luke

Luke front

Introduction to the Gospel of Luke

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the Book of Luke
  1. Dedication to Theophilus (1:1-4)
  2. Prologue

    • The birth of John the Baptist (1:5-80)

    • The birth and youth of Jesus (2:1-51)

    • The ministry of John the Baptist (3:1-20)

    • The baptism, genealogy, and temptation of Jesus (3:21-4:13)

  3. The teaching and healing ministry of Jesus in Galilee (4:14-9:50)
  4. Jesus teaches along his journey to Jerusalem

    • Judgment by God, and people’s judgments about Jesus (9:51-13:21)

    • Who will be part of the kingdom of God (13:22-17:10)

    • Responding to Jesus by welcoming or rejecting him (17:11-19:27)

  5. Jesus in Jerusalem

    • Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem (19:28-44)

    • Jesus teaches in the temple: conflict over his identity and authority (19:45-21:38)

    • Jesus’ death, burial, and resurrection (22:1-24:53)

What is the Gospel of Luke about?

The Gospel of Luke is one of four books in the New Testament that describe the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. These books are called “gospels,” which means “good news.” Their authors wrote about different aspects of who Jesus was and what he did. Luke wrote his gospel for a person named Theophilus and dedicated it to him. Luke wrote an accurate description of the life and teachings of Jesus so that Theophilus would be certain that what he had been taught about Jesus was true. However, Luke expected that what he wrote would encourage all followers of Jesus.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “The Gospel of Luke” or “The Gospel according to Luke.” Or they may choose a different title, such as “The Good News about Jesus that Luke Wrote.” (See: How to Translate Names)

Who wrote the Book of Luke?

This book does not give the name of its author. However, the same person who wrote this book also wrote the Book of Acts, which is also dedicated to Theophilus. In parts of the book of Acts, the author uses the word “we.” This indicates that the author traveled with Paul. Most scholars think that Luke was this person traveling with Paul. Therefore, since early Christian times, most Christians have recognized Luke as the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the book of Acts.

Luke was a medical doctor. His way of writing shows that he was an educated man. He was probably a Gentile. Luke himself probably did not witness what Jesus said and did. But he tells Theophilus in his dedication that he talked to many people who did.

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

The kingdom of God

“The kingdom of God” is a major concept in the Gospel of Luke. It is very rich in meaning. It includes the idea of eternal life in the presence of God, but it also includes the idea of what the earth will be like in the future when God rules everything, and the idea of life on earth right now, when and where God’s wishes are carried out fully. The unifying concept behind all of these ideas is that of God ruling and of people embracing God’s rule over their lives. Wherever the expression “the kingdom of God” occurs, translation notes will suggest communicating the idea behind the abstract noun “kingdom” with some phrase that uses the verb “rule.” UST models this approach consistently. (See: Abstract Nouns)

Why does Luke write so much about the final week of Jesus’ life?

Luke wrote much about Jesus’ final week. He wanted his readers to think deeply about Jesus’ final week and his death on the cross. He wanted people to understand that Jesus willingly died on the cross so that God could forgive them for sinning against him. (See: sin, sinful, sinner, sinning)

What are the roles of women in the Gospel of Luke?

Luke described women in a very positive way in his gospel. For example, he often showed women being more faithful to God than most men. (See: faithful, faithfulness, trustworthy)

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

What are the Synoptic Gospels?

The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are called the Synoptic Gospels because they tell the story of many of the same events. The word “synoptic” means to “see together.”

Passages are considered “parallel” when they are the same or almost the same among two or three gospels. When translating parallel passages, translators should use the same wording and make them as similar as possible.

Why does Jesus refer to himself as the “Son of Man”?

In the gospels, Jesus calls himself the “Son of Man.” This is a reference to Daniel 7:13-14. In that passage, there is a person who is described as like a “son of man.” That means that the person was someone who looked like a human being. God gave authority to this “son of man” to rule over the nations forever. All people will worship him forever.

Jews of Jesus’ time did not use “Son of Man” as a title for anyone. But Jesus used it for himself to help them understand who he truly was. (See: Son of Man, son of man)

Translating the title “Son of Man” can be difficult in many languages. Readers may misunderstand a literal translation. Translators can consider alternatives, such as “The Human One.” It may also be helpful to include a footnote to explain the title.

Major issues in the text of the Book of Luke

ULT follows the readings of the most accurate ancient manuscripts of the Bible. However, there may already be older versions of the Bible in the translators’ regions that follow the readings of other manuscripts. In the most significant cases, the General Notes to the chapters in which these differences occur will discuss them and recommend approaches. (See: Textual Variants)

Luke 1

Luke 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Dedication to Theophilus (1:1-4)
  2. The angel Gabriel announces to Zechariah that his wife Elizabeth is going to bear a son, John the Baptist (1:5-25)
  3. The angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she is going to become the mother of Jesus (1:26-38)
  4. Mary goes to visit Elizabeth (1:39-56)
  5. John the Baptist is born (1:57-80)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. ULT does this with the poetry in Mary’s song about becoming the mother of Jesus in 1:46-55 and Zechariah’s song about the birth of his son John the Baptist in 1:68-79.

Special concepts in this chapter

“He will be called John”

Most people in the ancient Near East would give a child the same name as someone in their families. People were surprised that Elizabeth and Zechariah named their son John because there was no one else in their family with that name.

Luke 1:1

περὶ τῶν πεπληροφορημένων ἐν ἡμῖν πραγμάτων

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “about those things that have happened among us” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐν ἡμῖν

Luke dedicates this book to a man named Theophilus. It is no longer known exactly who he was. But since Luke says in 1:4 that he wants Theophilus to know that the things he has been taught are reliable, it appears that he was a follower of Jesus. So here the word us would include him. (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

Luke 1:2

οἱ…αὐτόπται…γενόμενοι

The term eyewitness describes someone who saw something happen personally, “with their own eyes.” The term describes such a person figuratively by reference to something associated with sight, the eye. Alternate translation: “who … saw these things personally” (See: Metonymy)

ὑπηρέται…τοῦ λόγου

Here, word figuratively describes the things that the people who brought the message conveyed by using words. Alternate translation: “servants of the message” (See: Metonymy)

ὑπηρέται…τοῦ λόγου

The people who brought this message were actually serving God by doing that. But Luke describes them figuratively as servants of the word, as if they were serving the message from God. Alternate translation: “served God by telling people his message” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 1:3

παρηκολουθηκότι ἄνωθεν πᾶσιν ἀκριβῶς

Luke provides this background information to explain that he was careful to find out exactly what happened. He probably talked to different people who saw what happened to make sure that what he wrote down about these events was correct. Alternate translation: “because I have conducted careful research and interviews” (See: Background Information)

σοι…κράτιστε Θεόφιλε

If your language has a formal form of you that it uses to address a superior respectfully, it would be appropriate to use that form here. There are many other places in the book of Luke where your language might use formal you, and these notes will not address all of them. Rather, as you translate, use formal and informal you in the way that would be most natural in your language. The notes will address a few cases where a careful decision should be made between the two forms. (See: Forms of ‘You’ — Formal or Informal)

κράτιστε Θεόφιλε

Luke is dedicating this work to Theophilus, and within his dedication, this is the conventional personal greeting. If it would be more customary in your language and culture, you could put this greeting in 1:1 at the start of the dedication, at the very beginning of the book. Alternate translation: “To most excellent Theophilus”

κράτιστε

Luke uses the term most excellent to address Theophilus in a way that shows honor and respect. This may mean that Theophilus was an important government official. In your translation, it would be appropriate to use the form of address that your culture uses for people of high status. Alternate translation: “Honorable”

Θεόφιλε

This name means “friend of God.” It may describe this man’s character, or it may have been his actual name. Most translations treat it as a name. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 1:4

ὧν κατηχήθης λόγων

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “what people have taught you” (See: Active or Passive)

ὧν κατηχήθης λόγων

Luke assumes that Theophilus will know that he means what he has been taught about Jesus. Alternate translation: “what people have taught you about Jesus” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 1:5

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου βασιλέως τῆς Ἰουδαίας

This time reference introduces a new event. Alternate translation: “During the time when King Herod ruled over Judea” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις

Here, Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular period of time. Alternate translation: “During the time when” (See: Idiom)

Ἡρῴδου

This is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

Ἰουδαίας

Judea is the name of a kingdom. (It was not an independent kingdom at this time. Herod ruled it as a vassal of the Roman Empire.) (See: How to Translate Names)

ἐγένετο…ἱερεύς τις

This phrase introduces a new character in a story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Ζαχαρίας

Zechariah is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

ἐξ ἐφημερίας Ἀβιά

Luke assumes that his readers will know that this expression refers one of the different groups of priests who each served in the temple for a certain number of days at a time, and that the name of the group means that Abijah was the ancestor of these priests. Alternate translation: “who belonged to the group of priests who were descended from Abijah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Ἀβιά

Abijah is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

γυνὴ αὐτῷ ἐκ τῶν θυγατέρων Ἀαρών

Here, the word daughters figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “his wife was a descendant of Aaron” (See: Metaphor)

ἐκ τῶν θυγατέρων Ἀαρών

This means implicitly that she, like Zechariah, was descended from the line of priests going back to Aaron, the first high priest. Alternate translation: “his wife also came from the line of priests” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Ἐλεισάβετ

Elizabeth is the name of a woman. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 1:6

ἐναντίον τοῦ Θεοῦ

Luke uses this expression to mean “where God could see them.” Seeing, in turn, figuratively means attention and judgment. Alternate translation: “in God’s judgment” (See: Metaphor)

πορευόμενοι ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ἐντολαῖς καὶ δικαιώμασιν τοῦ Κυρίου

The term walking figuratively means “obeying.” Alternate translation: “obeying … everything that the Lord had commanded” (See: Metaphor)

πάσαις ταῖς ἐντολαῖς καὶ δικαιώμασιν τοῦ Κυρίου

The words commandments and statutes mean similar things. Luke uses the two terms together to make a comprehensive statement. You do not need to repeat both words in your translation if that might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “everything that the Lord had commanded” (See: Doublet)

Luke 1:7

καὶ

This word indicates a contrast, showing that what follows is the opposite of what would be expected. People expected that if they did what was right, God would allow them to have children. Although this couple did what was right, they did not have any children. (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

ἀμφότεροι προβεβηκότες ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις αὐτῶν

To have moved forward or to have advanced means figuratively to have aged. Alternate translation: “they had both grown old” (See: Idiom)

ἀμφότεροι προβεβηκότες ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις αὐτῶν

Here, Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time, the lifetimes of Zechariah and Elizabeth. Alternate translation: “they had both grown old” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:8

ἐγένετο δὲ

This phrase marks a shift from the background information that Luke has been providing about the participants to the first event in their story. If your language has a similar expression that it uses to introduce an event, you can use it here in your translation. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτὸν, ἐν τῇ τάξει τῆς ἐφημερίας αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the results that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “because it was his group’s turn, Zechariah was serving as a priest” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτὸν…ἔναντι τοῦ Θεοῦ

The expression before God, that is, “in front of God,” means that Zechariah was offering his service as a priest in the presence of God. Alternate translation: “while Zechariah was serving God as a priest” (See: Metaphor)

ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτὸν

The pronoun his refers to Zechariah. Alternate translation: “while Zechariah was serving as a priest” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἐν τῇ τάξει τῆς ἐφημερίας αὐτοῦ

This is background information that explains why Zechariah was serving as a priest at this time. Alternate translation: “because it was his group’s turn to serve” (See: Background Information)

Luke 1:9

κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἱερατείας, ἔλαχε

Luke is providing background information about how the priests selected members of their group to perform specific duties. Alternate translation: “The priests chose him in their customary way, by casting a lot” (See: Background Information)

ἔλαχε

A lot was a marked stone that was thrown or rolled on the ground in order to help decide something. The priests believed that God would guide the lot and show them which priest he wanted them to choose for a particular duty. If your culture has a similar object, you can use the word for that in your language here. Alternate translation: “by casting a marked stone” (See: Translate Unknowns)

τοῦ θυμιᾶσαι, εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν ναὸν τοῦ Κυρίου

ULT puts these phrases in the chronological order of what Zechariah needed to do. If it would be clearer in your language, you could put them in logical order instead. Alternate translation: “to burn incense, and so he went into the temple to do that” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

τοῦ θυμιᾶσαι

The word incense describes a substance that gives off a sweet smell when it is burned. The priests were to burn it as an offering to God each morning and evening on a special altar inside the temple. If your language has a word for this substance, you can use it here. Alternate translation: “to burn a substance that would create a sweet smell as an offering to God” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 1:10

πᾶν τὸ πλῆθος…τοῦ λαοῦ

This expression, if taken literally, could mean every single one of the Jews, but it is actually a generalization that Luke is using to emphasize how big this crowd was. Alternate translation: “A large number of people” (See: Hyperbole)

ἔξω

This word refers implicitly to the enclosed area or courtyard that surrounded the temple. Alternate translation: “in the courtyard outside the temple building” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τῇ ὥρᾳ τοῦ θυμιάματος

The word hour figuratively means “time.” This could mean either the morning or evening time for the incense offering. Alternate translation: “when it was time to offer the incense” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 1:11

δὲ

This word indicates that the event it introduces took place at the same time as the event the story has just related. If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this relationship by using a phrase such as “right at that time.” (See: Connect — Simultaneous Time Relationship)

ὤφθη…αὐτῷ

When Luke says that the angel appeared, this does not mean that Zechariah simply saw the angel in a vision. Rather, this expression indicates that the angel was actually present with Zechariah. Alternate translation: “suddenly was there with Zechariah” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:12

ἐταράχθη Ζαχαρίας…φόβος ἐπέπεσεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν

These two phrases mean similar things. Luke is using them together to emphasize how afraid Zechariah was. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “Zechariah became very afraid” (See: Parallelism)

ἰδών

The implication is that Zechariah was afraid because the angel appeared glorious and powerful. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. (Luke has just said that Zechariah was righteous and blameless, so it would be good not to leave your readers with the impression that he had done something wrong and was afraid that the angel was going to punish him for it.) Alternate translation: “when he saw how glorious and powerful the angel was” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

φόβος ἐπέπεσεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν

Luke is using the expression fell upon figuratively to speak of fear as if it attacked and overcame Zechariah. Alternate translation: “this made him very afraid” (See: Metaphor)

φόβος ἐπέπεσεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν

Luke describes Zechariah’s fear figuratively as if it were something that could actively attack and overpower him. Alternate translation: “this made him very afraid” (See: Personification)

Luke 1:13

μὴ φοβοῦ

While the angel speaks these words in the form of a command, he is actually telling Zechariah something to help and encourage him. Alternate translation: “You do not need to be afraid” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

εἰσηκούσθη ἡ δέησίς σου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who has done the action. Alternate translation: “God has heard your prayer” (See: Active or Passive)

εἰσηκούσθη ἡ δέησίς σου

This is an idiom that means that God is going to give Zechariah what he has been asking for. Alternate translation: “God is going to give you what you have been asking for” (See: Idiom)

καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννην

The angel is using a statement as a command in order to tell Zechariah what to do. Alternate translation: “and you are to name him John” (See: Statements — Other Uses)

καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννην

The expression call his name is an idiom that means to give a child a name. Alternate translation: “name him John” (See: Idiom)

Ἰωάννην

John is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 1:14

ἔσται χαρά σοι καὶ ἀγαλλίασις

The words joy and gladness mean the same thing. The angel uses them together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “you will be very happy” (See: Doublet)

ἐπὶ τῇ γενέσει αὐτοῦ

The word at introduces the reason why many people will rejoice. Alternate translation: “because he has been born” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

Luke 1:15

ἔσται γὰρ μέγας

The word for introduces the reason why people will rejoice at John's birth. Alternate translation: “This will be because they will be able to tell that he is going to be a great man” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἔσται γὰρ μέγας ἐνώπιον τοῦ Κυρίου

This expression means “in front of the Lord,” that is, “where the Lord can see him.” Sight, in turn, figuratively represents attention and judgment. Alternate translation: “God will consider him to be very important” (See: Metaphor)

οὐ μὴ πίῃ

The phrase must never translates two negative words in Greek. The angel uses them together to emphasize how important it is that the child not drink wine or strong drink. If your language can use two negatives together for emphasis without them cancelling each other to create a positive meaning, it would be appropriate to use that construction here. (See: Double Negatives)

Πνεύματος Ἁγίου πλησθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit will fill him” (See: Active or Passive)

Πνεύματος Ἁγίου πλησθήσεται

The angel speaks figuratively as if John would be a container that the Holy Spirit would fill. He means that the Holy Spirit will empower and influence John. Be sure that in your translation, this does not sound similar to what an evil spirit might do to in taking control of a person. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit will empower him” (See: Metaphor)

ἔτι ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς αὐτοῦ

Alternate translation: “while he is still in his mother’s womb”

Luke 1:16

πολλοὺς τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐπιστρέψει ἐπὶ Κύριον

To turn a person back figuratively means to lead them to repent and obey the Lord once again. Alternate translation: “he will cause many of the people of Israel to repent and obey the Lord” (See: Metaphor)

πολλοὺς τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ

Here, the word sons figuratively means “descendants.” This expression envisions all of the Israelites as if they were their ancestor Jacob, who was also known as Israel. Alternate translation: “many of the people of Israel” (See: Metaphor)

Ἰσραὴλ

Israel is the name of a man. Luke uses it many times in this book. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 1:17

αὐτὸς προελεύσεται ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ

To go before is an idiom that indicates that before the Lord comes, John will announce to the people that the Lord is going to come to them. Alternate translation: “John will announce that the Lord is coming” (See: Idiom)

ἐν πνεύματι καὶ δυνάμει Ἠλεία

In this context, the words spirit and power mean similar things. The angel may be using them together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “with the same great power that Elijah had” (See: Doublet)

ἐν πνεύματι καὶ δυνάμει Ἠλεία

Alternatively, the angel may be expressing a single idea by using two words connected with and. The term power may tell what kind of spirit Elijah had. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the meaning with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “in the powerful spirit of Elijah” (See: Hendiadys)

Ἠλεία

Elijah is the name of a man, a great prophet of Israel. It occurs several times in this book. (See: How to Translate Names)

ἐπιστρέψαι καρδίας πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα

The angel speaks of hearts as if they were living things that could be turned to go in a different direction. This expression figuratively means to change someone’s attitude toward something. Alternate translation: “to make fathers care about their children once again” (See: Personification)

ἐπιστρέψαι καρδίας πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα

The angel uses the relationship between fathers and children figuratively to represent all relationships. Luke relates in 3:10-14 how John encouraged reconciliation in a variety of different relationships. Alternate translation: “to restore broken relationships” (See: Synecdoche)

ἐπιστρέψαι καρδίας πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα

It is assumed that readers will know that this is what the prophet Malachi had said Elijah would do before the Lord came. The implication in context is that John will fulfill this prophecy by using the same empowerment that Elijah had. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to restore broken relationships, just as the prophet Malachi said Elijah would do before the Lord came” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀπειθεῖς ἐν φρονήσει δικαίων

Gabriel is using the term wisdom in the Old Testament sense as a moral term that refers to choosing the way in life that God has shown to be best. The people who make this choice are righteous, meaning that God considers them to be living in the right way. Alternate translation: “to lead people who are disobeying God to choose his ways and become people who live right” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀπειθεῖς…δικαίων

Gabriel is using the adjectives disobedient and righteous as nouns in order to indicate groups of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate these words with equivalent phrases. Alternate translation: “people who are disobeying God … people who live right” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

λαὸν κατεσκευασμένον

You could state explicitly in your translation what the people will be prepared to do. Alternate translation: “a people who will be prepared to believe his message” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 1:18

κατὰ τί γνώσομαι τοῦτο

Zechariah is implicitly asking for a sign as proof. Alternate translation: “What sign can you show me to prove that this will happen” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

γάρ

This word introduces the reason why Zechariah wants a sign. He and his wife are both too old to have children, so he is finding it hard to believe what the angel has told him. (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

προβεβηκυῖα ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις αὐτῆς

Zechariah is using two idioms. As in 1:7, to be advanced means figuratively to have aged, and days figuratively refers a particular period of time, in this case the lifetime of Elizabeth. Alternate translation: “my wife has also grown old” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:19

ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν

Together the words answering and said mean that the angel responded to the question that Zechariah asked. Alternate translation: “the angel responded” (See: Hendiadys)

ἐγώ εἰμι Γαβριὴλ, ὁ παρεστηκὼς ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

Gabriel says this in the form of a statement, but he means it as a rebuke to Zechariah. The presence of an angel coming directly from God should be enough proof for him. Alternate translation: “You should have believed me, Gabriel, coming to you straight from God!” (See: Statements — Other Uses)

Γαβριὴλ

Gabriel is the name of an angel. (See: How to Translate Names)

ὁ παρεστηκὼς ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

To stand before or “in front of” a master, that is, in the presence of that master, figuratively means to be available to serve them at all times in any capacity. Alternate translation: “I serve God personally” (See: Metaphor)

ἀπεστάλην λαλῆσαι πρὸς σὲ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “God sent me to speak to you” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 1:20

καὶ ἰδοὺ

The term behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. Though it literally means “look” or “see,” in this case seeing figuratively means giving notice and attention. Alternate translation: “Pay attention!” (See: Metaphor)

ἔσῃ σιωπῶν καὶ μὴ δυνάμενος λαλῆσαι

The implication is that God will make this happen, to show that Zechariah should have believed what Gabriel told him. Alternate translation: “God will make you completely unable to speak” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

σιωπῶν καὶ μὴ δυνάμενος λαλῆσαι

These two phrases mean the same thing. Gabriel uses the repetition to emphasize how complete the silence of Zechariah will be. Alternate translation: “completely unable to speak” (See: Doublet)

οὐκ ἐπίστευσας τοῖς λόγοις μου

Gabriel uses the term words figuratively to describe the content of his message by reference to something associated with it, the words he used to communicate it. Alternate translation: “you did not believe what I told you” (See: Metonymy)

οἵτινες πληρωθήσονται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “which will happen” (See: Active or Passive)

εἰς τὸν καιρὸν αὐτῶν

This is an idiom that means “the time that pertains to them.” Alternate translation: “at the appointed time” or “at the time that God has chosen” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:21

καὶ

This word marks a shift in the story from what happened inside the temple to what happened outside. Alternate translation: “While that was happening” or “While the angel and Zechariah were talking” (See: Connect — Simultaneous Time Relationship)

Luke 1:22

ἐπέγνωσαν ὅτι ὀπτασίαν ἑώρακεν ἐν τῷ ναῷ. καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν διανεύων αὐτοῖς, καὶ διέμενεν κωφός

If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “He kept on making signs to them but said nothing. So they concluded that he must have seen a vision while he was in the temple” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἐπέγνωσαν ὅτι ὀπτασίαν ἑώρακεν ἐν τῷ ναῷ

Gabriel was actually present with Zechariah in the temple. He explains in 1:19 that God sent him there. The people, not knowing this, assumed that Zechariah had seen a vision. While the Greek says that they “perceived” this, it means that they thought they recognized what had happened. Alternate translation: “they thought that he had seen a vision” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 1:23

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ὡς ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τῆς λειτουργίας αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “when Zechariah had finished his time of service at the temple” (See: Active or Passive)

αἱ ἡμέραι τῆς λειτουργίας αὐτοῦ

Here, Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “his time of service at the temple” (See: Idiom)

ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ

This expression indicates implicitly that Zechariah did not live in Jerusalem, where the temple was located. Luke indicates in 1:39 that Zechariah and Elizabeth lived instead in a city in the hill country of Judah, the area to the south of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “he traveled back to his hometown” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 1:24

δὲ

This word indicates that the events the story will now relate came after the events it has just described. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: Connect — Sequential Time Relationship)

μετὰ δὲ ταύτας τὰς ἡμέρας

Here, Luke uses the term days to refer figuratively to a particular period of time, specifically, the time when Zechariah was serving in the temple. Alternate translation: “after Zechariah had finished serving at the temple” (See: Idiom)

περιέκρυβεν ἑαυτὴν μῆνας πέντε

This expression means that Elizabeth did not leave her house during that time. She seems to state the reason for this in the next verse. She had felt disgraced because she was not able to have children. But if she stayed in her house for five months, the next time people saw her, her pregnancy would show, and it would be clear that she was able to have children. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “She did not leave her house for five months so that by the next time people saw her, it would be clear that she was going to have a baby” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 1:25

οὕτως μοι πεποίηκεν Κύριος

This is a positive exclamation. Elizabeth is very happy with what the Lord has done for her. If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this by making it a separate sentence and indicating with the conventions of your language that it is an exclamation. Alternate translation: “What a marvelous thing the Lord has done for me” (See: Exclamations)

οὕτως μοι πεποίηκεν Κύριος

It is implicit that Elizabeth is referring to the fact that the Lord has allowed her to become pregnant. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “What a marvelous thing the Lord has done for me by allowing me to become pregnant” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐπεῖδεν

Here, the expression looked upon is an idiom that means “shown regard for” or “treated well.” Alternate translation: “he treated me kindly” (See: Idiom)

ἀφελεῖν ὄνειδός μου ἐν ἀνθρώποις

By disgrace, Elizabeth means the shame she felt because she was not able to have children. Alternate translation: “so that I no longer have to feel ashamed when I am around other people because I cannot have children” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 1:26

ἐν…τῷ μηνὶ τῷ ἕκτῳ

Luke assumes that readers will recognize that this does not mean the sixth month of the year, but the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy. If you think there could be some confusion about this, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “after Elizabeth had been pregnant for six months” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τῷ μηνὶ τῷ ἕκτῳ

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “month 6” (See: Ordinal Numbers)

ἀπεστάλη ὁ ἄγγελος Γαβριὴλ ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God sent the angel Gabriel” (See: Active or Passive)

Γαλιλαίας

Galilee is the name of a region. It occurs many times in this book. (See: How to Translate Names)

Ναζαρὲτ

Nazareth is the name of a city. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 1:27

ἀνδρὶ, ᾧ ὄνομα Ἰωσὴφ

This introduces Joseph as a new character in the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Ἰωσὴφ

Joseph is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

ἐξ οἴκου Δαυεὶδ

In this expression, the word house describes all the people descended from a particular person. The term views all of those descendants figuratively as if they were one household living together. Alternate translation: “who was a descendant of King David” (See: Metaphor)

ἐξ οἴκου Δαυεὶδ

This is background information that helps identify Joseph further. It is important for readers to know because it means that as 1:32 indicates, Jesus, as the adoptive son of Joseph, will be an eligible successor to King David as the Messiah. Alternate translation: “who came from the royal line of David” (See: Background Information)

τὸ ὄνομα τῆς παρθένου Μαριάμ

This introduces Mary as a new character in the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Μαριάμ

Mary is the name of a woman. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 1:28

χαῖρε

This word was used as a greeting. Alternate translation: “Greetings” (See: Idiom)

κεχαριτωμένη

Alternate translation: “you who have received great grace” or “you who have received special kindness”

ὁ Κύριος μετὰ σοῦ

The expression with you is an idiom that indicates favor and acceptance. Alternate translation: “The Lord is pleased with you” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:29

ἐπὶ τῷ λόγῳ

Luke is using the term words figuratively to mean what Gabriel said by using words. Alternate translation: “by what he said” or “when he said this” (See: Metonymy)

διελογίζετο ποταπὸς εἴη ὁ ἀσπασμὸς οὗτος

Alternate translation: “she wondered why an angel would greet her in this way”

Luke 1:30

μὴ φοβοῦ, Μαριάμ; εὗρες γὰρ χάριν παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “God is showing you his kindness, Mary, so you do not need to be afraid” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

μὴ φοβοῦ

While the angel speaks these words in the form of a command, he is actually telling Mary something that he thinks will help and encourage her. Alternate translation: “You do not need to be afraid” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

εὗρες…χάριν παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God is showing you his kindness” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 1:31

καὶ ἰδοὺ

As in 1:20, behold is a term that focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: Metaphor)

συνλήμψῃ ἐν γαστρὶ, καὶ τέξῃ υἱόν

The phrase conceive in your womb might seem to express unnecessary extra information, and so if you represent all of it in your language, that might not seem natural. However, the details are important here. The expression emphasizes that Jesus was a human son born of a human mother. So be sure to translate this expression in a way that conveys that. (See: Making Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information Explicit)

καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦν

As in 1:13, Gabriel is using a statement as a command in order to tell Mary what to do. Alternate translation: “you are to name him Jesus” (See: Statements — Other Uses)

καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦν

As in 1:13, call his name is an idiom that means to give a child a name. Alternate translation: “name him Jesus” (See: Idiom)

Ἰησοῦν

This is a man’s name. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 1:32

Υἱὸς Ὑψίστου κληθήσεται

To be called is an idiom that means “to be.” (This idiom occurs three times in this episode and in a few other places in the book, such as 1:76, 2:23, and 15:19.) Alternate translation: “He will be the Son of the Most High” (See: Idiom)

Υἱὸς Ὑψίστου κληθήσεται

Gabriel is not saying only that Son of the Most High is a title by which Jesus will be known. Instead, just as the previous verse described how Jesus was a human son born of a human mother, his statement here indicates that Jesus was also the divine Son of a divine Father. You may want to show this by employing capitalization or whatever other convention your language uses to indicate divinity. Alternate translation: “He will be the Son of the Most High” (See: Translating Son and Father)

Υἱὸς Ὑψίστου κληθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “He will be the Son of the Most High” (See: Active or Passive)

Ὑψίστου

This is an idiomatic way of referring to God, as the fuller expression “the Most High God” in 8:38 shows. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the phrase that way in order to explain its meaning. Or, you could simply reproduce the phrase in the simpler form in which it occurs here in order to show your readers one of the ways in which the people of this time referred to God. Alternate translation: “the Most High God” (See: Idiom)

δώσει αὐτῷ…τὸν θρόνον Δαυεὶδ, τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ

The throne figuratively represents a king’s authority to rule. Alternate translation: “will give him authority to rule as king as his ancestor David did” (See: Metonymy)

δώσει αὐτῷ…τὸν θρόνον Δαυεὶδ, τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ

Here, the term father figuratively means “ancestor,” but since a line of kings is in view, it also indicates that Jesus will be a successor to David. Alternate translation: “will give him authority to rule as a successor to his ancestor David” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 1:33

βασιλεύσει…εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας; καὶ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ, οὐκ ἔσται τέλος

These two phrases mean similar things. Gabriel uses them together to emphasize how certain it is that Jesus will always rule. Because Gabriel is making a proclamation, he is speaking in a form much like poetry. Hebrew poetry was based on this kind of repetition, and it would be good to show this to your readers by including both phrases in your translation rather than combining them. However, if the repetition might be confusing, you could connect the phrases with a word other than and, in order to show that the second phrase is repeating the first one, not saying something additional. Alternate translation: “he will rule … forever, yes, his kingship will always continue” (See: Parallelism)

τὸν οἶκον Ἰακὼβ

In this expression, the word house figuratively describes all the people descended from a particular person, in this case Jacob, who was also known as Israel. Alternate translation: “the people descended from Jacob” (See: Metaphor)

Ἰακὼβ

Jacob is the name of a man. Luke uses it a few more times in this book. (See: How to Translate Names)

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας

This is an idiom. The term ages means long periods of time. Alternate translation: “forever” (See: Idiom)

τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ, οὐκ ἔσται τέλος

This is a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “his kingship will always continue” (See: Litotes)

τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ, οὐκ ἔσται τέλος

The abstract noun kingship refers to the action of a king reigning. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind this word with a verb such as “reign.” Alternate translation: “he will always reign” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 1:34

πῶς ἔσται τοῦτο

The implication is that even though Mary did not understand how this could happen, she did not doubt that it would happen. This is clear from the way that Gabriel responds positively and encouragingly to her, by contrast to the way he rebuked Zechariah in 1:18 for his similar-sounding question. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this explicitly. Alternate translation: “I believe you, though I do not understand how this could happen” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἄνδρα οὐ γινώσκω

Mary uses a polite expression to say that she had not engaged in sexual activity. Alternate translation: “I have never had sexual relations with a man” (See: Euphemism)

Luke 1:35

ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν

Together the words answering and said mean that the angel responded to the question that Mary asked. Alternate translation: “the angel responded” (See: Hendiadys)

Πνεῦμα Ἅγιον ἐπελεύσεται ἐπὶ σέ, καὶ δύναμις Ὑψίστου ἐπισκιάσει σοι

These two phrases mean similar things. Once again Gabriel is speaking in a form much like Hebrew poetry. It would be good here as well to show this to your readers by including both phrases in your translation rather than combining them. However, if the repetition might be confusing, you could connect the phrases with a term other than and, in order to show that the second phrase is repeating and clarifying the meaning of the first one, not saying something additional. Alternate translation: “The Holy Spirit will come to you, yes, the power of God will cover you like a shadow” (See: Parallelism)

δύναμις Ὑψίστου ἐπισκιάσει σοι

It was the power of God that would supernaturally cause Mary to become pregnant even while she still remained a virgin. It is not clear exactly how this happened, since Gabriel speaks figuratively as if God’s power had a shadow in order to describe it. But make sure that your translation does not imply that there was any physical or sexual union involved. This was a miracle. It might work well to retain Gabriel’s language and change the metaphor to a simile. Alternate translation: “the power of the Most High will cover you like a shadow” (See: Metaphor)

Ὑψίστου

See how you translated the expression the Most High in 1:32. Alternate translation: “the Most High God” (See: Idiom)

διὸ καὶ τὸ γεννώμενον Ἅγιον κληθήσεται, Υἱὸς Θεοῦ

As in 1:32, to be called is an idiom that means “to be.” Alternate translation: “Therefore, this holy baby will be the Son of God” (See: Idiom)

διὸ καὶ τὸ γεννώμενον Ἅγιον κληθήσεται, Υἱὸς Θεοῦ

Gabriel is not saying only that Son of God is a title by which Jesus will be known. Instead, this is a further statement that Jesus would be the divine Son of a divine Father. (Gabriel says therefore, indicating that this will be the result of the process he has just described.) You may want to show this by employing capitalization or whatever other convention your language uses to indicate divinity. Alternate translation: “Therefore, this holy baby will be the Son of God” (See: Translating Son and Father)

τὸ γεννώμενον Ἅγιον κληθήσεται, Υἱὸς Θεοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “this holy baby will be the Son of God” (See: Active or Passive)

τὸ γεννώμενον Ἅγιον κληθήσεται, Υἱὸς Θεοῦ

Depending on how the Greek is understood, this could be another parallel statement. Alternate translation: “The one who will be born will be holy. Yes, he will be the Son of God” (See: Parallelism)

Luke 1:36

ἰδοὺ

Behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. Alternate translation: “Consider this” (See: Metaphor)

καὶ αὐτὴ συνείληφεν υἱὸν ἐν γήρει αὐτῆς

Make sure that your translation does not make it does not sound as if both Mary and Elizabeth were old when they conceived. Alternate translation: “she has also become pregnant with a son, even though she is already very old”

οὗτος μὴν ἕκτος ἐστὶν αὐτῇ

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “she is now in the sixth month of her pregnancy” (See: Idiom)

τῇ καλουμένῃ στείρᾳ

This is a further use of the idiom also found in 1:32 and 1:35 in which “to be called” means “to be.” Alternate translation: “who was not able to have children” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:37

ὅτι

This word indicates that the sentence it introduces explains the reason for what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “This shows that” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

οὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ πᾶν ῥῆμα

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this double negative as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “God is able to do anything he says” (See: Double Negatives)

οὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ πᾶν ῥῆμα

Here, the term word has two possible meanings: (1) Since Mary uses the same term figuratively in the next verse to describe the message that Gabriel has brought from God, Gabriel may be using it to mean that message as well. Alternate translation: “God is able to do anything he says” (2) Gabriel may be using the term in a general sense to mean “thing.” Alternate translation: “everything is possible with God” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 1:38

ἰδοὺ

Here, behold means more literally “look,” that is, “Look at me,” by which Mary means, “This is who I am.” Alternate translation (not followed by a comma): “I am” (See: Metaphor)

ἡ δούλη Κυρίου

By describing herself as a servant, Mary is responding humbly and willingly. She is not boasting about being in the Lord’s service. Choose an expression in your language that will show her humility and obedience to the Lord. Alternate translation: “someone who will gladly serve the Lord in any way he wishes” (See: Metaphor)

γένοιτό μοι

Once again Mary is expressing her willingness for the things to happen that the angel has told her about. Alternative translation: “I am willing for these things to happen to me”

κατὰ τὸ ῥῆμά σου

Here, the term word figuratively describes the message that Gabriel has brought. Alternate translation: “just as you have said” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 1:39

δὲ…ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις

This time reference sets the stage for a new episode in the story. Alternate translation: “Around that same time” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις

Here, Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “Around that same time” (See: Idiom)

ἀναστᾶσα

This is an idiom that means not just that Mary stood up, but that she took action to get an enterprise under way. Alternate translation: “started out” (See: Idiom)

τὴν ὀρινὴν

This was an area of high hills extending south from the Jerusalem area to the Negev desert. Alternate translation: “the hilly area south of Jerusalem” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 1:40

εἰσῆλθεν εἰς

The implication is that Mary finished her journey before she went into Zechariah’s house. You can state this clearly. Alternate translation: “Once she arrived, she went inside” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 1:41

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. One method that is natural in some languages is to introduce this event without such a phrase. UST often models this approach. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ αὐτῆς

The pronoun her refers to Elizabeth. Alternate translation: “in Elizabeth’s womb” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἐσκίρτησεν

Luke says that Elizabeth’s baby leaped, but this was not literally possible. The expression refers figuratively to the baby making a sudden movement in response to the sound of Mary’s voice. Alternate translation: “moved suddenly” (See: Metaphor)

ἐπλήσθη Πνεύματος Ἁγίου ἡ Ἐλεισάβετ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit filled Elizabeth” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐπλήσθη Πνεύματος Ἁγίου ἡ Ἐλεισάβετ

Luke speaks figuratively as if Elizabeth was a container that the Holy Spirit filled. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit empowered Elizabeth” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 1:42

ἀνεφώνησεν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ καὶ εἶπεν

The expression exclaimed … and said expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word exclaimed indicates that what was said was an exclamation. Alternate translation: “she said loudly and excitedly” (See: Hendiadys)

φωνῇ μεγάλῃ

This is an idiom that means Elizabeth raised the volume of her voice. Alternate translation: “loudly” (See: Idiom)

ἐν γυναιξίν

The expression among women is an idiom that means “more than any other woman.” You could say that as an alternate translation. (See: Idiom)

ὁ καρπὸς τῆς κοιλίας σου

Elizabeth speaks figuratively of Mary’s baby as if he were the fruit that a plant or tree produces. Alternate translation: “the baby you are carrying” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 1:43

καὶ πόθεν μοι τοῦτο, ἵνα ἔλθῃ ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Κυρίου μου πρὸς ἐμέ?

Elizabeth is not asking for information. She is using a question form to show how surprised and happy she is that Mary has come to visit her. Alternate translation: “How wonderful it is that the mother of my Lord has come to visit me!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

πόθεν μοι τοῦτο

The expression whence is this to me means “where did this come from to me.” It is an idiom for describing something as wonderful and unexpected. Alternate translation (not followed by a comma): “how wonderful it is” (See: Idiom)

ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Κυρίου μου

Elizabeth is referring to Mary in the third person. You could make this clear by adding the word “you” in your translation, as UST does. (See: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_ta/src/branch/master/translate/figs-123person/01.md)

Luke 1:44

ἰδοὺ γὰρ

The term behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. This phrase alerts Mary to pay attention to Elizabeth’s surprising statement that follows. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: Metaphor)

ὡς ἐγένετο ἡ φωνὴ τοῦ ἀσπασμοῦ σου εἰς τὰ ὦτά μου

Elizabeth is using the term ears to mean hearing, and hearing figuratively means recognition. Alternate translation: “as soon as I heard your voice and realized that it was you” (See: Metaphor)

ἐσκίρτησεν ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει

As in 1:41, leaped is a figurative way of referring to sudden movement. Alternate translation: “moved suddenly because he was so happy” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 1:45

ἡ πιστεύσασα…τοῖς λελαλημένοις αὐτῇ παρὰ Κυρίου

Elizabeth is speaking to Mary, and these phrases describe Mary, but Elizabeth nevertheless speaks of her in the third person. She does this perhaps as a sign of respect, since she has just identified Mary as “the mother of my Lord.” Alternate translation: “you who believed … the message that the Lord sent you”(See: First, Second or Third Person)

ἔσται τελείωσις τοῖς λελαλημένοις αὐτῇ παρὰ Κυρίου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “that the Lord would do everything he sent the angel to tell you” (See: Active or Passive)

ἔσται τελείωσις τοῖς λελαλημένοις αὐτῇ παρὰ Κυρίου

Here, instead of the word “by,” Elizabeth uses the word from because Mary actually heard the angel Gabriel speak (see 1:26), but the things he spoke ultimately came from the Lord. Alternate translation: “that the Lord would do everything he sent the angel to tell you” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 1:46

μεγαλύνει ἡ ψυχή μου

The word soul refers to the inmost part of a person. Here, Mary uses it to refer to all of herself. Mary is saying that her worship comes from deep inside her. Alternate translation: “From the depths of my being, I praise” (See: Synecdoche)

Luke 1:47

ἠγαλλίασεν τὸ πνεῦμά μου

The word spirit also refers to the inner part of a person. Alternate translation: “yes, with everything inside of me, I rejoice” (See: Synecdoche)

ἠγαλλίασεν τὸ πνεῦμά μου

This statement is parallel to the one in the previous verse. Mary is speaking in poetry. Hebrew poetry was based on this kind of repetition, and it might be good to show that to your readers by including both phrases in your translation rather than combining them. Alternate translation: “yes, with everything inside of me, I rejoice” (See: Parallelism)

ἠγαλλίασεν

Mary is speaking idiomatically as if something she is presently doing happened in the past. Alternate translation: “is celebrating” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:48

ὅτι

This word introduces the reason for what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “And this is why” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἐπέβλεψεν ἐπὶ

As in 1:25, looked upon is an idiom that means “shown regard for.” Alternate translation: “he has kindly chosen” (See: Idiom)

τὴν ταπείνωσιν τῆς δούλης αὐτοῦ

Mary is speaking of her low condition figuratively to mean herself. Alternate translation: “me to serve him, even though I am not very important” (See: Metonymy)

ἰδοὺ γὰρ

The term behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. Alternate translation: “Just think!” (See: Metaphor)

πᾶσαι αἱ γενεαί

Mary uses the term generations figuratively to mean the people who will be born in all future generations. Alternate translation: “the people of all future generations” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 1:49

ὁ δυνατός

Here, Mary is describing God figuratively by one of his attributes. She means that “God, who is powerful,” has done great things for her. (See: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_ta/src/branch/master/translate/figs-metonymy/01.md)

ἅγιον τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ

Mary is using the term name figuratively to mean God’s reputation, and the reputation figuratively represents God himself. Alternate translation: “he deserves to be treated with complete respect” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 1:50

εἰς γενεὰς καὶ γενεὰς

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “extends to every generation” (See: Idiom)

τοῖς φοβουμένοις αὐτόν

In this context, to fear does not mean to be afraid, but to show respect and reverence. Alternate translation: “those who honor him” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:51

ἐποίησεν κράτος ἐν βραχίονι αὐτοῦ

Mary is using the term arm figuratively to represent God’s power. Alternate translation: “He has demonstrated that he is very powerful” (See: Metonymy)

διεσκόρπισεν

The word scattered figuratively describes how thoroughly God has defeated all who opposed him. The word creates a picture of God’s enemies fleeing in every direction, unable to arrange an organized retreat. Alternate translation: “he has completely defeated” (See: Metaphor)

ὑπερηφάνους διανοίᾳ καρδίας αὐτῶν

The term hearts figuratively represents the will and affections of these people. Alternate translation: “who cherish proud thoughts” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 1:52

καθεῖλεν δυνάστας ἀπὸ θρόνων

A throne is a chair that a ruler sits on, and it is a symbol associated with authority. If a ruler is brought down from his throne, that means he no longer has the authority to reign. Alternate translation: “He has deposed rulers” (See: Metonymy)

καὶ

This word indicates a contrast between what this phrase describes and what the previous phrase described. Try to make the contrast between these opposite actions clear in your translation. Alternate translation: “but”(See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

ὕψωσεν ταπεινούς

In this word picture, people who are more important are depicted as higher up than people who are less important. Alternate translation: “he has given important roles to humble people” (See: Metaphor)

ταπεινούς

Mary is using this adjective as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “humble people” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

Luke 1:53

καὶ

This word once again indicates a contrast between what this phrase describes and what the previous phrase described. Try to make the contrast between these opposite actions as clear as possible in your translation here as well. (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

Luke 1:54

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could combine 1:54 and 1:55 into a verse bridge, as UST does, in order to keep the information about Israel together. (See: Verse Bridges)

Ἰσραὴλ

Mary is referring figuratively to all of the people of Israel as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “the Israelites” (See: Personification)

παιδὸς αὐτοῦ

The term servant refers figuratively to the special role that God gave to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “his chosen people” (See: Metaphor)

μνησθῆναι ἐλέους

In this context, the phrase to remember his mercy figuratively refers to God thinking about a person or group and considering what action he can take on their behalf. It does not suggest that God had ever forgotten to be merciful. Alternate translation: “in order to be merciful” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:55

καθὼς ἐλάλησεν πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν

Here, the word fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “just as he promised to our ancestors” (See: Metaphor)

Ἀβραὰμ

Abraham is the name of a man. It occurs several times in this book. (See: How to Translate Names)

τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ

The term seed figuratively means “offspring.” It is a word picture. Just as plants produce seeds that grow into many more plants, so people can have many offspring. Alternate translation: “to his descendants” (See: Metaphor)

εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα

This is an idiom. See how you translated the similar expression in 1:33. Alternate translation: “forever” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:56

καὶ

Luke uses this word to indicate that the event of Mary returning home happened after the event of Mary staying with Elizabeth for three months. Alternate translation: “then” (See: Connect — Sequential Time Relationship)

ἔμεινεν…Μαριὰμ σὺν αὐτῇ ὡς μῆνας τρεῖς, καὶ ὑπέστρεψεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτῆς

The first instance of the word her in this verse refers to Elizabeth, and the second instance refers to Mary. Be sure that it is clear in your translation that Mary returned to her own home. She did not stay for three months, leave for a time, and then return to Elizabeth’s home. Alternate translation: “Mary stayed with Elizabeth for about three months, and then Mary went back to her own house” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 1:57

δὲ

Luke uses this word to indicate that this event took place after the events he has just described. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: Connect — Sequential Time Relationship)

ἐπλήσθη ὁ χρόνος

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the time came” (See: Active or Passive)

τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν

Your language may require you to state the object of deliver. Alternate translation: “for her to deliver her baby” or “for her to have her baby”

Luke 1:58

ἐμεγάλυνεν…τὸ ἔλεος αὐτοῦ μετ’ αὐτῆς

Luke speaks figuratively as if God had made his mercy bigger towards Elizabeth. Alternate translation: “had shown great kindness to her” (See: Metaphor)

ἐμεγάλυνεν…τὸ ἔλεος αὐτοῦ μετ’ αὐτῆς

The implication is that God’s great kindness to Elizabeth was to enable her to have a baby. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “had shown great kindness to her by enabling her to have a baby” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 1:59

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ὀγδόῃ

This expression refers to the eighth day of the baby’s life, reckoning the day he was born as the first day. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could translate this expression according to the way your own culture reckons time. Alternate translation: “when the baby was one week old” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ὀγδόῃ

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “on day 8” (See: Ordinal Numbers)

ἦλθον περιτεμεῖν τὸ παιδίον

In this culture, family and friends often came to celebrate with the family when a baby was circumcised. This ceremony showed that the baby was a member of the community that was in a special relationship with God. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the family and friends of Zechariah and Elizabeth came for the baby’s circumcision ceremony, when he would be acknowledged as a member of the Israelite community” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐκάλουν αὐτὸ ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ, Ζαχαρίαν

As in 1:13 and 1:31, to call the name of a child is an idiom meaning to give a child a name. Alternate translation: “they were going to give him the same name as his father, Zechariah” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:60

ἀποκριθεῖσα ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ εἶπεν

Together the words answering and said mean that John’s mother responded to the intention of her family and friends to name the baby Zechariah. Alternate translation: “his mother responded” (See: Hendiadys)

κληθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “we are going to name him John” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 1:61

οὐδείς ἐστιν ἐκ τῆς συγγενείας σου, ὃς καλεῖται τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ

The expression this name means specifically the name John. If it would be clearer for your readers, you could put the actual name in your translation. Alternate translation: “None of your relatives is named John” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

καλεῖται τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “has the name John” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 1:62

ἐνένευον…τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ

Zechariah may have been unable both to speak and to hear, but Gabriel only told him that he would be unable to speak, so it is more likely that the people simply assumed he could not hear because he was not speaking. If you think your readers might wonder why the people made signs to Zechariah, you could offer an explanation. Alternate translation: “because Zechariah was not speaking, the people thought he could not hear either, so they made signs to him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὸ τί ἂν θέλοι καλεῖσθαι αὐτό

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “to ask him what name he wanted to give the baby” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 1:63

αἰτήσας

It may be helpful to suggest how Zechariah was asking, since he could not speak. Alternate translation: “making signs with his hands to show that he wanted” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

πινακίδιον

This was a wooden tablet covered with wax. A person would use a stylus (that is, something with a sharp point) to write in the wax. The wax could later be smoothed out and the tablet could be used again. If your readers might not recognize this object, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “something to write on” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 1:64

ἀνεῴχθη…τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ…καὶ ἡ γλῶσσα αὐτοῦ

These two phrases mean the same thing. Luke uses them together for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “he became able to speak once again” (See: Parallelism)

ἀνεῴχθη…τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ…καὶ ἡ γλῶσσα αὐτοῦ

Each of these phrases figuratively describes the act of speaking by referring to something associated with speech coming into action, specifically, the mouth opening and the tongue moving about freely. Alternate translation: “he became able to talk once again” (See: Metonymy)

ἀνεῴχθη…τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ…καὶ ἡ γλῶσσα αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. You could also say who did the action. Alternate translation: “he became able to talk once again” or “God enabled him to speak once again” or, if you want to use the figurative language, “God opened his mouth and freed his tongue” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 1:65

καὶ

This word introduces the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “As a result” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἐγένετο ἐπὶ πάντας φόβος

As in 1:12, Luke here describes fear figuratively as if it were something that could actively come upon people. Alternate translation: “all those who lived around them were in awe” (See: Personification)

ἐγένετο ἐπὶ πάντας φόβος, τοὺς περιοικοῦντας αὐτούς

In this context, fear does not mean to be afraid, but to have respect and reverence. Alternate translation: “all those who lived around them were in awe” (See: Idiom)

ἐγένετο ἐπὶ πάντας φόβος

It may be helpful to state clearly why the people responded in this way. Alternate translation: “all those who lived around them were in awe of God because of what he had done in the lives of Zechariah and Elizabeth” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

πάντας…τοὺς περιοικοῦντας αὐτούς…ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ὀρεινῇ

Here Luke uses the word all twice as an generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “the people who lived around them … widely throughout that area” (See: Hyperbole)

διελαλεῖτο πάντα τὰ ῥήματα ταῦτα

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “people talked about all these matters” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 1:66

ἔθεντο πάντες οἱ ἀκούσαντες, ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῶν

Luke is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need to be complete. Alternate translation: “all who heard these things stored them in their hearts” (See: Ellipsis)

ἔθεντο…ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῶν

Luke is speaking figuratively of hearts as places where thoughts and memories can be stored safely. His expression describes people thinking things over carefully in order to understand them and retain them. Alternate translation: “thought carefully about these matters” (See: Metaphor)

τί ἄρα τὸ παιδίον τοῦτο ἔσται?

The people who said this were likely not asking a question, expecting someone to tell them what the child would become. Rather, they were making a statement about what the events of the child’s birth had led them to believe about his destiny. So you could translate this as a statement or as an exclamation. Alternate translation: “What a great man this child will become!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

χεὶρ Κυρίου ἦν μετ’ αὐτοῦ

In this expression, the hand figuratively represents strength and power. Alternate translation: “the Lord’s power was helping him” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 1:67

Ζαχαρίας…ἐπλήσθη Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “The Holy Spirit filled Zechariah” (See: Active or Passive)

Ζαχαρίας…ἐπλήσθη Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

Luke speaks figuratively as if Zechariah were a container that the Holy Spirit filled. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit inspired Zechariah” (See: Metaphor)

ἐπροφήτευσεν λέγων

Consider natural ways of introducing direct quotations in your language. Alternate translation: “prophesied, and he said” (See: Quotations and Quote Margins)

Luke 1:68

ὁ Θεὸς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ

Luke is referring figuratively to the Israelites as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel” (See: Personification)

ὁ Θεὸς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state the relationship between God and Israel more explicitly. Alternate translation: “the God whom the people of Israel worship” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐπεσκέψατο…τῷ λαῷ αὐτοῦ

Here, the term visited is an idiom. Alternate translation: “he has come to help … his people” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:69

ἤγειρεν κέρας σωτηρίας ἡμῖν

In this context, raised up means brought into existence or enabled to act. Alternate translation: “he has brought us a horn of salvation” (See: Metaphor)

ἤγειρεν κέρας σωτηρίας ἡμῖν

An animal’s horn is associated with its strength, and so Zechariah is using the term figuratively as a symbol for a ruler by association with the power and authority a ruler has. Alternate translation: “he has brought us a ruler who will have the power to save us” (See: Metonymy)

ἐν οἴκῳ Δαυεὶδ, παιδὸς αὐτοῦ

David’s house figuratively represents his family and all of his descendants. Alternate translation: “who is a descendant of his servant David” (See: Metonymy)

ἐν οἴκῳ Δαυεὶδ, παιδὸς αὐτοῦ

The implication is that as a descendant of David, this ruler will be an eligible successor to him as the Messiah. Alternate translation: “who is from the royal line of his servant David” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Δαυεὶδ, παιδὸς αὐτοῦ

David was not actually a servant, he was a king. Here the emphasis in the word servant is on how David served God faithfully in that capacity. Alternate translation: “who is from the royal line of David, who served him faithfully” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 1:70

ἐλάλησεν διὰ στόματος τῶν ἁγίων…προφητῶν αὐτοῦ

God speaking by the mouth of the prophets represents God inspiring them to say what he wanted them to say. Alternate translation: “he inspired his holy prophets to say” (See: Metonymy)

ἀπ’ αἰῶνος

This is an idiom. See how you translated the similar expression in 1:33. Alternate translation: “a long time ago” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:71

σωτηρίαν ἐξ ἐχθρῶν ἡμῶν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun salvation with a verb such as “save” or “rescue.” It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “He will save us from our enemies” or “He will rescue us from our enemies” (See: Abstract Nouns)

ἐξ ἐχθρῶν ἡμῶν, καὶ ἐκ χειρὸς πάντων τῶν μισούντων ἡμᾶς

These two phrases mean basically the same thing. Zechariah may be using repetition for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “from the domination of our enemies who hate us” (See: Doublet)

χειρὸς

The hand figuratively represents the power that a person uses the hand to exercise. Alternate translation: “domination” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 1:72

ποιῆσαι ἔλεος μετὰ τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν, καὶ μνησθῆναι διαθήκης ἁγίας αὐτοῦ

The two phrases in this verse say basically the same thing. Hebrew poetry was based on this kind of repetition, and it would be good to show this to your readers by including the content of both phrases in your translation. Alternate translation: “to show kindness to our ancestors by fulfilling the special agreement he made with them” (See: Parallelism)

ποιῆσαι ἔλεος μετὰ τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν, καὶ μνησθῆναι διαθήκης ἁγίας αὐτοῦ

If the connection between these phrases might be confusing, you could say explicitly how God was showing mercy to the ancestors. Alternate translation: “to show kindness to our ancestors by fulfilling for us the special agreement he made with them, because we are their descendants” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ποιῆσαι ἔλεος μετὰ τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν

Here, the term fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “to show kindness to our ancestors” (See: Metaphor)

καὶ μνησθῆναι διαθήκης ἁγίας αὐτοῦ

In this context, the term remember figuratively describes God thinking about the Israelites and considering what action he can take on their behalf. It does not suggest that God had forgotten about them. Alternate translation: “by fulfilling the special agreement he made” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:73

Ἀβραὰμ, τὸν πατέρα ἡμῶν

Here, the term father figuratively means “ancestor.” Alternate translation: “our ancestor Abraham” (See: Metaphor)

τοῦ δοῦναι ἡμῖν

Zechariah is using the term grant, meaning to “give,” in an idiomatic sense. Alternate translation: “to make it possible for us” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 1:74

ἐκ χειρὸς ἐχθρῶν ῥυσθέντας

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who has done the action. Alternate translation: “after he has rescued us from the power of our enemies” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐκ χειρὸς ἐχθρῶν

The hand figuratively represents the power that a person uses the hand to exercise. Alternate translation: “from the domination of our enemies” (See: Metonymy)

ἀφόβως

The implication is that if the Israelites were still under enemy domination, they would be afraid of what their enemies might do to them if they worshiped and obeyed the Lord. Alternate translation: “without being afraid of what our enemies might do to us” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 1:75

ἐν ὁσιότητι καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ

If it would be clearer in your language, you can express the ideas behind the abstract nouns holiness and righteousness with adjectives. Alternate translation: “doing what is holy and righteous” (See: Abstract Nouns)

ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ

This is an idiom that means “in his presence,” and that suggests being in relationship with God. Alternate translation: “in relationship with him” (See: Idiom)

πάσαις ταῖς ἡμέραις ἡμῶν

Here Zechariah uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular period of time. Alternate translation: “for our whole lives” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:76

καὶ σὺ δέ, παιδίον

Zechariah uses this phrase to begin his direct address to his son. In your translation, you can indicate the change from Zechariah talking about God to Zechariah talking to John in the way that is most appropriate and natural in your language. It may be clearest to indicate this change explicitly. Alternate translation: “Then Zechariah said to his son John, ‘And as for you, my child’” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

προφήτης…κληθήσῃ

As in 1:32, to be called is an idiom that means “to be.” Review the note there if that would be helpful. Zechariah is not saying that John will simply have the reputation of being a prophet. Alternate translation: “you … will be a prophet” (See: Idiom)

προφήτης…κληθήσῃ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “you … will be a prophet” (See: Active or Passive)

Ὑψίστου

See how you translated the expression the Most High in 1:32. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translation: “of the Most High God” (See: Idiom)

προπορεύσῃ…ἐνώπιον Κυρίου

As in 1:17, to go before is an idiom that indicates that before the Lord comes, John will announce to the people that the Lord is going to come to them. Alternate translation: “you will announce that the Lord is coming,” (See: Idiom)

ἑτοιμάσαι ὁδοὺς αὐτοῦ

Zechariah is using the imagery of paths figuratively to indicate that John will prepare the people to listen to the Lord’s message and believe it. Alternate translation: “to get the people ready for him” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 1:77

τοῦ δοῦναι γνῶσιν σωτηρίας τῷ λαῷ αὐτοῦ, ἐν ἀφέσει ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the ideas behind the abstract nouns salvation and forgiveness with the verbs “save” and “forgive.” Alternate translation: “to teach God’s people that he wants to save them by forgiving their sins” (See: Abstract Nouns)

τοῦ δοῦναι γνῶσιν σωτηρίας τῷ λαῷ αὐτοῦ

The phrase to give … knowledge is a figurative description of teaching. Alternate translation: “to teach God’s people that he wants to save them” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 1:78

ἀνατολὴ ἐξ ὕψους

Zechariah speaks of the coming of the Savior as if it will be a sunrise that will light up the earth. Alternate translation: “the Savior who comes from God” (See: Metaphor)

ἐξ ὕψους

Zechariah uses the term heaven to refer to God figuratively by association, since heaven is the abode of God. Alternate translation: “from God” (See: Metonymy)

ἐπισκέψεται ἡμᾶς

As in 1:68, visit is an idiom. Alternate translation: “will come to help us” (See: Idiom)

Luke 1:79

ἐπιφᾶναι τοῖς…καθημένοις

As in 1:78, light figuratively represents truth. Just as Zechariah described the Savior as like a sunrise in that verse, here he is describing the spiritual truth that the Savior will bring as if it will light up the earth. Alternate translation: “to show the truth to people who are” (See: Metaphor)

τοῖς ἐν σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις

To sit in a place is an idiom that means to be in that place. Alternate translation: “on people who are in darkness, yes, even in deep darkness” (See: Idiom)

τοῖς ἐν σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις

The shadow of death is an idiom that describes deep darkness. Alternate translation: “on people who are in darkness, yes, even in deep darkness” (See: Idiom)

τοῖς ἐν σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις

Since light figuratively represents truth, darkness represents the absence of spiritual truth. Alternate translation: “on people who do not know the truth, who do not know it at all” (See: Metaphor)

τοῖς ἐν σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις

These two phrases work together to emphasize the deep spiritual darkness that people are in before God shows them mercy. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine the phrases. Alternate translation: “on people who do not know the truth at all” (See: Doublet)

κατευθῦναι τοὺς πόδας ἡμῶν εἰς ὁδὸν εἰρήνης

Zechariah is using the word guide figuratively to mean “teach,” and the expression the path of peace figuratively to represent living at peace with God. Alternate translation: “to teach us how to live at peace with God” (See: Metaphor)

κατευθῦναι τοὺς πόδας ἡμῶν εἰς ὁδὸν εἰρήνης

Zechariah is using the term feet figuratively to represent the whole person. Alternate translation: “to teach us how to live at peace with God” (See: Synecdoche)

Luke 1:80

δὲ

This word introduces the next part of the story. In this verse, Luke describes a few transitional events in order to move quickly from the birth of John to the beginning of his ministry as an adult. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐκραταιοῦτο πνεύματι

This could mean: (1) This refers to the inner part of a person, as in 1:47. Alternate translation: “he developed a strong character” (2) This refers to how God kept the promise that Gabriel made to Zechariah in 1:15, that the Holy Spirit would empower his son. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit empowered him”

ἦν ἐν ταῖς ἐρήμοις

This expression means implicitly that John went to live there. Luke does not say at what age John did this. Alternate translation: “he went to live in the wilderness” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἕως ἡμέρας ἀναδείξεως αὐτοῦ

The term until does not indicate a stopping point. John continued to live out in the wilderness even after he started preaching publicly. In your translation, be sure that this is clear to your readers. Alternate translation: “through the time when he began to preach in public”

ἡμέρας ἀναδείξεως αὐτοῦ

Here, Luke uses the term day figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “the time when he began to preach in public” (See: Idiom)

πρὸς τὸν Ἰσραήλ

Luke is referring to all of the Israelites figuratively as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “to the people of Israel” (See: Personification)

Luke 2

Luke 2 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus is born in the city of Bethlehem (2:1-20)
  2. Joseph and Mary dedicate Jesus, and Simeon and Anna speak about him (2:21-40)
  3. Jesus goes to Jerusalem with his parents for Passover (2:41-52)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. ULT does this with the poetry in the song of the angels about Jesus’ birth in 2:14 and in Simeon’s song about Jesus in 2:29-32.

Important textual issues in this chapter

“his father and mother”

In 2:33, the most accurate ancient manuscripts read “his father and mother.” ULT follows that reading. Some other ancient manuscripts read “Joseph and his mother.” That reading indicates that Joseph was not the biological father of Jesus, since Mary conceived him as a virgin. However, Joseph was the adoptive father of Jesus, and so the reading “his father and mother” is not incorrect. If a translation of the Bible exists in your region, you may wish to use the reading that it has. If a translation of the Bible does not exist in your region, you may wish to use the reading in ULT. (See: Textual Variants)

Luke 2:1

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις

This time reference introduces a new event. Alternate translation: “around that same time” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις

Here, Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular period of time. Alternate translation: “around that same time” (See: Idiom)

ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to show that this is the beginning of an account. If your language has a way of showing the start of an account, you may use that in your translation. If not, you may choose not to represent this phrase. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐξῆλθεν δόγμα παρὰ

The decree did not go out by itself, even though Luke speaks figuratively as if it did. Messengers likely proclaimed the emperor’s command throughout the empire. Alternate translation: “sent out messengers with a decree ordering” (See: Personification)

Καίσαρος Αὐγούστου

Caesar was the title of the emperor of the Roman Empire. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “King Augustus, who ruled the Roman Empire” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Αὐγούστου

Augustus is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

ἀπογράφεσθαι πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην

Luke assumes that his readers will know that this was for tax purposes. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “that all the people living in the Roman Empire had to list their names on the tax rolls” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὴν οἰκουμένην

The term world refers specifically to the part of the world that Caesar Augustus ruled. It is actually describing the people living in that part of the world figuratively by association to where they lived. Alternate translation: “the people living in the Roman Empire” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 2:2

Κυρηνίου

Quirinius is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

Συρίας

Syria is the name of one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 2:3

ἐπορεύοντο πάντες

Luke describes the registration as already in progress in order to account for why Joseph and Mary had to travel at this time, late in her pregnancy. Alternate translation: “everyone was going” (See: Background Information)

εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ πόλιν

The phrase his own city refers to the city where a person’s family had originally lived. A person might have since moved to a different city. Alternate translation: “to the city that their families came from” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀπογράφεσθαι

Alternate translation: “to provide their names for the tax rolls” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 2:4

δὲ

This word introduces the results of what the previous sentences described. Alternate translation: “And so” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἀνέβη

Luke says went up because Joseph had to go up into the mountains to travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem. Alternate translation: “traveled” (See: Idiom)

εἰς πόλιν Δαυεὶδ, ἥτις καλεῖται Βηθλέεμ

Bethlehem was known as the city of David because King David had come from there. Luke includes this detail because it indicates why Bethlehem was important, even though it was a small town. Not only had the line of David’s dynasty originated there, the prophet Micah had said that the future Messiah would be born there. Alternate translation: “to the town known as Bethlehem, where King David had come from” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἥτις καλεῖται Βηθλέεμ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whose name is Bethlehem” (See: Active or Passive)

εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐξ οἴκου καὶ πατριᾶς Δαυείδ

Luke is expressing a single idea by using two terms, house and family line, connected with and. The term family line indicates the significance of Joseph being a descendant of David. It means that any son of his, natural or adopted, would be an eligible successor to King David as the Messiah. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the meaning of these two terms with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “he was descended from the royal line of David” (See: Hendiadys)

εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐξ οἴκου καὶ πατριᾶς Δαυείδ

As in 1:27, the word house figuratively describes all the people descended from a particular person. Alternate translation: “he was descended from the royal line of David” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 2:5

ἀπογράψασθαι σὺν Μαριὰμ, τῇ ἐμνηστευμένῃ αὐτῷ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “Because Mary was engaged to Joseph, she had to travel with him so that he could list their names together” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

Μαριὰμ, τῇ ἐμνηστευμένῃ αὐτῷ

In this culture, an engaged couple was considered legally married, although there would not have been physical intimacy between them until after the wedding. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain that. Alternate translation: “Mary, who was engaged to him and who was therefore considered his legal wife” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τῇ ἐμνηστευμένῃ αὐτῷ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “who had promised to marry him” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 2:6

ἐγένετο δὲ

This phrase marks the beginning of the next event in the story. If your language has a similar expression that it uses to introduce an event, you can use it in your translation. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ

The word they refers to Joseph and Mary being in Bethlehem. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “while Mary and Joseph were in Bethlehem” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the time came for Mary to give birth” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι

Here Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “the time came” (See: Idiom)

τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν

Your language may require you to state the object of deliver. Alternate translation: “for her to deliver her baby” or “for her to have her baby”

Luke 2:7

ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν, καὶ ἀνέκλινεν αὐτὸν ἐν φάτνῃ, διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could put the second phrase before the first one, since it gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “because there was no guest room available for them, she wrapped cloths tightly around him and put him in a box that held hay for animals” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν

In some cultures, mothers help their babies feel secure by wrapping them tightly in cloth or in a blanket. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly Alternate translation: “wrapped cloths tightly around him to make him feel secure” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀνέκλινεν αὐτὸν ἐν φάτνῃ

A manger was a box or frame in which people put hay or other food for animals to eat. It was most likely clean, and it may have had something soft and dry like hay in it that would have provided a cushion for the baby. In this culture, animals were often kept near a home to keep them safe and so that their owners could feed them easily. Mary and Joseph stayed in a space that was ordinarily used for animals for those reasons. Alternate translation: “put him in a box that held hay for animals” (See: Translate Unknowns)

διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι

There was probably no room because so many people had come to Bethlehem to register. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “there was no other place available for them to stay, because so many people had come there to register” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι

The inn could mean a place of lodging where travelers stayed overnight. However, Luke uses the same term in 22:11 to refer to a room in a house. So it could also mean “guest room.” Alternate translation: “there was no other place available for them to stay, because so many people had come there to register” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 2:8

καὶ

Luke uses and to introduce background information about some new characters. You can translate it with the word or phrase that serves the same purpose in your language. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Background Information)

ποιμένες ἦσαν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ τῇ αὐτῇ

This phrase introduces new characters into the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. Alternate translation: “there were some shepherds living in that area” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Luke 2:9

ἄγγελος Κυρίου

Alternate translation: “a heavenly messenger sent from the Lord”

ἐπέστη αὐτοῖς

Alternate translation: “came to the shepherds”

δόξα Κυρίου περιέλαμψεν αὐτούς

The implication is that a bright light appeared at the same time as the angel, expressing the magnificent presence of God that was accompanying his messenger. The glory of God is associated with light in the Bible, for example, “Arise, shine; for your light has come, and the glory of Yahweh has risen on you,” Isaiah 60:1. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “a bright light shone all around them, showing the glorious presence of God” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “they were extremely afraid” or “they were terrified” (See: Idiom)

Luke 2:10

μὴ φοβεῖσθε

As in 1:13, while the angel speaks these words in the form of a command, he is really telling the shepherds something to help and encourage them. Alternate translation: “You do not need to be afraid” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

ἰδοὺ γὰρ

The term behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Now listen to this” (See: Metaphor)

εὐαγγελίζομαι ὑμῖν χαρὰν μεγάλην, ἥτις ἔσται παντὶ τῷ λαῷ

Alternate translation: “I have come to announce good news that will make all the people very happy”

παντὶ τῷ λαῷ

This could mean: (1) The angel may mean all people. That is the reading of UST. Alternate translation: “all people everywhere” (2) This may be a figurative generalization that refers specifically to the Jewish people who would welcome Jesus as the Messiah. Alternate translation: “your people” (See: Hyperbole)

Luke 2:11

ἐτέχθη ὑμῖν σήμερον Σωτὴρ, ὅς ἐστιν Χριστὸς, Κύριος, ἐν πόλει Δαυείδ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “a Savior, who is Christ the Lord, has been born for you today in the city of David!” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐν πόλει Δαυείδ

This means Bethlehem. See the explanation in the note to 2:4. Alternate translation: “in Bethlehem” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὅς ἐστιν Χριστὸς, Κύριος

Christ is the Greek word for “Messiah.” Alternate translation: “who is the Messiah, the Lord” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 2:12

τοῦτο ὑμῖν τὸ σημεῖον

The implication is that God has provided this sign. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “God has given you this sign” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὑμῖν τὸ σημεῖον

This could mean: (1) It may be a sign that would help the shepherds recognize the baby. Alternate translation: “this sign to help you find the newborn Messiah” (2) It may be a sign to prove that what the angel was saying was true. Alternate translation: “the sign to prove that what I am telling you is true” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐσπαργανωμένον

See how you translated this expression in 2:7. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translation: “with cloths wrapped tightly around him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

κείμενον ἐν φάτνῃ

See how you translated the term manger in 2:7. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translation: “lying in a box that holds hay for animals” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 2:13

πλῆθος στρατιᾶς οὐρανίου

This phrase could refer to a literal army of angels, or it could be speaking figuratively of a large organized group of angels. Alternate translation: “a large group of angels from heaven” (See: Metaphor)

αἰνούντων τὸν Θεὸν καὶ λεγόντων

Luke is expressing a single idea by using two verbs connected with and. The angels said these words in order to praise God. Alternate translation: “who praised God by saying” (See: Hendiadys)

Luke 2:14

δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις Θεῷ

This could mean: (1) The angels may be describing where God should receive honor. In that case in the highest would mean “in the highest place,” that is, “in heaven,” and the phrase would parallel “on earth.” Alternate translation: “Give honor to God in heaven” (2) The angels may be describing what kind of honor God should receive. Alternate translation: “Give the highest honor to God”

ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκίας

This could mean: (1) This may be referring to God’s good pleasure with people. Alternate translation: “among people with whom God is pleased” (2) This may be referring to people who show good pleasure or “good will” to one another. Alternate translation: “among people of good will”

ἀνθρώποις

Here, the term men has a generic meaning that includes all people. Alternate translation: “people” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

Luke 2:15

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to mark a shift in the story, to what the shepherds did after the angels left. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for this purpose. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

διέλθωμεν…ἴδωμεν…ἡμῖν

The shepherds are speaking to one another, so if your language distinguishes between exclusive and inclusive us, use the inclusive form here. (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

Luke 2:16

ἦλθον σπεύσαντες

The two verbs went and hastening express a single idea. The word hastening tells how they went. Alternate translation: “they went quickly” (See: Hendiadys)

κείμενον ἐν τῇ φάτνῃ

See how you translated the term manger in 2:7. Alternate translation: “lying in a box that holds hay for animals” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 2:17

τοῦ ῥήματος τοῦ λαληθέντος αὐτοῖς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “what the angels had told them” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 2:18

τῶν λαληθέντων ὑπὸ τῶν ποιμένων πρὸς αὐτούς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “what the shepherds told them” Alternate translation: (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 2:19

συμβάλλουσα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῆς

In this expression, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “reflecting on what they meant” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 2:20

ὑπέστρεψαν οἱ ποιμένες

This means that they returned to their flock. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the shepherds went back to take care of their sheep” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

δοξάζοντες καὶ αἰνοῦντες τὸν Θεὸν

The terms glorifying and praising mean similar things. Luke is using them together for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these terms. Alternate translation: “excitedly praising God” (See: Doublet)

καθὼς ἐλαλήθη πρὸς αὐτούς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “just as the angel had told them” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 2:21

ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν ἡμέραι ὀκτὼ τοῦ περιτεμεῖν αὐτόν

The law that God gave to Jewish believers told them to circumcise a baby boy on the eighth day of his life. As in 1:59, the day on which the baby was born was considered to be the first day. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could translate this expression according to the way your own culture reckons time. Alternate translation: “when the baby was one week old, and according to the Jewish law it was time to circumcise him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν ἡμέραι ὀκτὼ

This time reference also introduces a new event. Alternate translation: “after eight days had gone by” or “when the baby was one week old” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐπλήσθησαν ἡμέραι ὀκτὼ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “after eight days had gone by” or “when the baby was one week old” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐκλήθη τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “his parents Joseph and Mary named him Jesus” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐκλήθη τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦς

As in 1:13, to “call a name” is an idiom that means to give a child a name. Alternate translation: “his parents Joseph and Mary named him Jesus” (See: Idiom)

τὸ κληθὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀγγέλου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “which was the name that the angel had told Mary to give him” (See: Active or Passive)

πρὸ τοῦ συνλημφθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ

In your language, it might seem that the phrase conceived in the womb expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you can abbreviate it. Alternate translation: “before he was conceived” (See: Making Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information Explicit)

Luke 2:22

ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ αὐτῶν κατὰ τὸν νόμον Μωϋσέως

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “after they had waited the number of days that the law of Moses required for their purification” (See: Active or Passive)

αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ αὐτῶν

The law of Moses said that a woman would become ceremonially clean again 33 days after her newborn son had been circumcised. After that, she could enter the temple. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “33 more days, the time that the law of Moses required for Mary to become ceremonially clean again after childbirth” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Μωϋσέως

Moses is the name of a man, the great law-giver of Israel. It occurs several times in this book. (See: How to Translate Names)

ἀνήγαγον αὐτὸν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα

Luke says that they brought him up to Jerusalem, even though Bethlehem is actually at a higher elevation, because that was the customary way of speaking about going to Jerusalem, since that city is up on a mountain. Alternate translation: “they took him to Jerusalem” (See: Idiom)

παραστῆσαι τῷ Κυρίῳ

Luke will explain more in the next two verses about why Mary and Joseph did this, but if it would be helpful to your readers, you could make the purpose more explicit here. Alternate translation: “so that they could bring him into the temple and perform the required ceremony acknowledging God’s claim on firstborn children who were male” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 2:23

καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν νόμῳ Κυρίου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “just as the law of the Lord commands” (See: Active or Passive)

πᾶν ἄρσεν διανοῖγον μήτραν, ἅγιον τῷ Κυρίῳ κληθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “You are to set apart for the Lord every firstborn child who is a boy” (See: Active or Passive)

πᾶν ἄρσεν διανοῖγον μήτραν

To open the womb is an idiom that refers to being the first baby to come out of the womb. This commandment applied to both people and animals, but here a baby boy is specifically in view. Alternate translation: “Every firstborn offspring who is a male” or “Every firstborn child who is a boy” (See: Idiom)

ἅγιον τῷ Κυρίῳ κληθήσεται

As in 1:32, be called is an idiom that means “to be.” Alternate translation: “will be set apart for the Lord” (See: Idiom)

ἅγιον τῷ Κυρίῳ κληθήσεται

Here, the law of Moses is using a future statement to give a command. Alternate translation: “is to be set apart for the Lord” (See: Statements — Other Uses)

Luke 2:24

τὸ εἰρημένον ἐν τῷ νόμῳ Κυρίου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “what the law of the Lord says” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 2:25

ἰδοὺ

Luke uses the term behold to call the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: Metaphor)

ἄνθρωπος ἦν ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ, ᾧ ὄνομα Συμεών

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Συμεών

Simeon is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος δίκαιος καὶ εὐλαβής

The terms righteous and devout mean similar things. Luke uses the two terms together to emphasize what a godly man Simeon was. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine them. Alternate translation: “he was a godly man” (See: Doublet)

προσδεχόμενος

This is an idiomatic usage of the term waiting. It does not mean passively waiting for something to happen, but eagerly anticipating something that someone wants to happen. Alternate translation: “eagerly anticipating” or “looking forward to” (See: Idiom)

παράκλησιν τοῦ Ἰσραήλ

This phrase refers by association to the one who would bring consolation, meaning “comfort,” to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “the one who would come and comfort the people of Israel” or “the one who would come to help the people of Israel” (See: Metonymy)

παράκλησιν τοῦ Ἰσραήλ

Luke assumes that readers will know that this is a reference to the Messiah. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the Messiah, who would come to help the people of Israel” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τοῦ Ἰσραήλ

Luke is referring to all of the Israelites figuratively as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “of the people of Israel” (See: Personification)

Πνεῦμα ἦν Ἅγιον ἐπ’ αὐτόν

The word upon creates a spatial metaphor that means that the Spirit of God was with Simeon in a special way. The Spirit gave him knowledge and direction for his life, as the next two verses show. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit guided him in special ways” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 2:26

καὶ

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Connect — Background Information)

ἦν αὐτῷ κεχρηματισμένον ὑπὸ τοῦ Πνεύματος τοῦ Ἁγίου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit had shown him” or “the Holy Spirit had told him” (See: Active or Passive)

μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον πρὶν

To see death is an idiom that means “to die.” Alternate translation: “that he would not die before” (See: Idiom)

μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον πρὶν

Here, Luke is using a figure of speech that expresses a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “he would live until” (See: Litotes)

Luke 2:27

ἦλθεν ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “he came as the Holy Spirit directed him” (See: Idiom)

ἦλθεν…εἰς τὸ ἱερόν

Your language may say “went” in contexts such as this. Alternate translation: “he went … into the temple” (See: Go and Come)

εἰς τὸ ἱερόν

Since only priests could enter the temple building, this means the temple courtyard. Luke is using the word for the entire building to refer to one part of it. Alternate translation: “into the temple courtyard” (See: Synecdoche)

τοὺς γονεῖς

This means the parents of Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could use their names here. Alternate translation: “Mary and Joseph” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτοὺς κατὰ τὸ εἰθισμένον τοῦ νόμου περὶ αὐτοῦ

The phrase to do according to the custom of the law refers to the ceremony of dedication that Luke described in 2:22-25. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “to perform the ceremony of dedication that the law of God required” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 2:28

καὶ

Luke uses this word to indicate that this event took place after the event he has just described. That is, Simeon took Jesus in his arms after his parents brought him into the temple for the dedication ceremony. Alternate translation: “then” (See: Connect — Sequential Time Relationship)

αὐτὸς ἐδέξατο αὐτὸ εἰς τὰς ἀγκάλας

If it would be clearer in your language, you could specify by name the people to whom these pronouns refer. Alternate translation: “Simeon picked up the baby Jesus and held him in his arms” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 2:29

νῦν ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου…ἐν εἰρήνῃ

Simeon is actually using this statement to make a request. Alternate translation: “Now please let me die in peace” (See: Statements — Other Uses)

ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου

Simeon refers to himself as God’s servant in order to show humility and respect. Alternate translation: “please let me die” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου

Simeon uses a mild expression to refer to death. Alternate translation: “please let me die” (See: Euphemism)

σου…σου

Here, the word your is singular because Simeon is addressing God. If your language has a formal form of your that it uses to address a superior respectfully, you may wish to use that form here and in 2:30 and 2:32, and the corresponding formal form for “you” in 2:31. However, it might be more natural in your language for someone who knows God well, as Simeon did, to address God using the informal form. Use your best judgment about what form to use. (See: Forms of ‘You’ — Formal or Informal)

κατὰ τὸ ῥῆμά σου

Simeon is referring to the promise that God made that he would live to see the Messiah. Simeon describes that promise by association with the word or saying by which God made it. Alternate translation: “as you promised” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 2:30

εἶδον οἱ ὀφθαλμοί μου

Simeon uses one part of himself, his eyes, to represent all of himself figuratively in the act of seeing. Alternate translation: “I have personally seen” or “I, myself, have seen” (See: Synecdoche)

τὸ σωτήριόν σου

This expression refers by association to the person who would bring salvation, that is, the infant Jesus, whom Simeon was holding. Alternate translation: “the Savior whom you have sent” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 2:31

ὃ ἡτοίμασας

If you said “Savior” in the previous phrase at the end of 2:30, then here you will want to say something like “whom you have prepared” or “the one you have sent.” If you said salvation in the previous phrase, then here you could say something like “which you have brought about” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

κατὰ πρόσωπον πάντων τῶν λαῶν

The term face figuratively represents the presence of a person. Simeon is saying that God has sent the Savior or brought about salvation right where everyone is present. Alternate translation: “in the presence of all the peoples” (See: Metaphor)

κατὰ πρόσωπον πάντων τῶν λαῶν

The implication of God sending the Savior or bringing about salvation into the presence of everyone is that this has been done for their benefit. Alternate translation: “for the benefit of all peoples” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 2:32

φῶς εἰς ἀποκάλυψιν ἐθνῶν καὶ δόξαν λαοῦ σου, Ἰσραήλ

This expression means that the child will help the Gentiles to understand. Simeon compares Jesus’ role to that of a physical light that enables people to see solid objects. Alternate translation: “This child will enable the Gentiles to understand, just as light allows people to see things clearly and he will bring honor to the people of Israel, who belong to you” (See: Metaphor)

φῶς εἰς ἀποκάλυψιν ἐθνῶν καὶ δόξαν λαοῦ σου, Ἰσραήλ

It may be helpful to state explicitly what the child will help the Gentiles to understand. Alternate translation: “This child will enable the Gentiles to understand what you expect of them and he will bring honor to the people of Israel, who belong to you” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 2:33

ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ μήτηρ

See the discussion of textual issues at the end of the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to use this reading in your translation or a different reading, “Joseph and his mother.” (See: Textual Variants)

τοῖς λαλουμένοις περὶ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “the things that Simeon said about him” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 2:34

εἶπεν πρὸς Μαριὰμ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ

In your translation, make sure that this does not sound as if Mary is the mother of Simeon. Alternate translation: “said to Mary, the child’s mother”

ἰδοὺ

Simeon uses this expression to tell Mary that what he is about to say is extremely important to her. Alternate translation: “Now this is important” (See: Metaphor)

οὗτος κεῖται εἰς πτῶσιν καὶ ἀνάστασιν πολλῶν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ

The word downfall represents people turning away from God by association with the way they will be ruined as a result. The expression rising up represents people drawing closer to God, by association with they way they will prosper as a result. Alternate translation: “God will use this child to challenge many people of the people of Israel to decide definitively for or against him” (See: Metonymy)

οὗτος κεῖται εἰς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God intends to use this child to” (See: Active or Passive)

πολλῶν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ

Simeon refers to to all of the Israelites figuratively as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “many of the people of Israel” or “many in the nation of Israel” (See: Personification)

σημεῖον

The implication is that the life and ministry of Jesus will be an indication that God is at work to fulfill his purposes through the people of Israel. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “an indication of God’s activity” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀντιλεγόμενον

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “that many people will speak against” (See: Active or Passive)

ἀντιλεγόμενον

Simeon figuratively describes the opposition that Jesus will face by association with one expression of it, people speaking against him and his ministry. But this represents a wider range of hostile activities. Alternate translation: “that many people will oppose” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 2:35

καὶ σοῦ δὲ αὐτῆς τὴν ψυχὴν διελεύσεται ῥομφαία

Simeon speaks figuratively of the bitter grief pangs that Mary will experience as if they were a sword stabbing all the way into her inner being. Alternate translation: “and you will experience deep pangs of grief yourself” (See: Metaphor)

ἂν ἀποκαλυφθῶσιν ἐκ πολλῶν καρδιῶν διαλογισμοί

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “so that many people will reveal what they secretly think” (See: Active or Passive)

ἂν ἀποκαλυφθῶσιν ἐκ πολλῶν καρδιῶν διαλογισμοί

In this expression, hearts figuratively represent people’s inner thoughts and inclinations. Alternate translation: “so that many people will reveal what they secretly think” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 2:36

καὶ ἦν Ἅννα προφῆτις

Luke is introducing a new participant into the story. Alternate translation: “There was also a woman named Anna there in the temple. She was a prophetess” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Ἅννα

Anna is the name of a woman. (See: How to Translate Names)

Φανουήλ

Phanuel is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

αὕτη προβεβηκυῖα ἐν ἡμέραις πολλαῖς

As in 1:7, to have moved forward or to have advanced means figuratively to have aged. Alternate translation: “She was very old” (See: Idiom)

αὕτη προβεβηκυῖα ἐν ἡμέραις πολλαῖς

Luke uses the term days figuratively to mean time in general. Alternate translation: “She was very old” (See: Idiom)

ἀπὸ τῆς παρθενίας αὐτῆς

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “after she married him” (See: Idiom)

Luke 2:37

αὐτὴ χήρα ἕως ἐτῶν ὀγδοήκοντα τεσσάρων

This could mean: (1) Anna had been a widow for 84 years. Alternate translation: “but then her husband had died and she had not remarried, and 84 years had gone by since” (2) Anna was a widow who was now 84 years old. Alternate translation: “but her husband had died and she had not remarried, and now she was 84 years old”

ἣ οὐκ ἀφίστατο τοῦ ἱεροῦ

Luke is expressing a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “who was always in the temple” (See: Litotes)

ἣ οὐκ ἀφίστατο τοῦ ἱεροῦ

This is a generalization that means that Anna spent so much time in the temple that it seemed as though she never left it. Alternate translation: “who was always in the temple” or “who was continually in the temple” (See: Hyperbole)

νηστείαις καὶ δεήσεσιν λατρεύουσα

The term serving is an idiom that means “worshiping.” Alternate translation: “worshiping God by going without food and praying” (See: Idiom)

νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν

Luke is using the two parts of a day figuratively to mean the entire day, that is, all the time. Alternate translation: “all the time” (See: Merism)

Luke 2:38

ἐπιστᾶσα

The implication is that Anna came up to Mary and Joseph. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “she approached them” or “she went over to Mary and Joseph”

αὐτῇ τῇ, ὥρᾳ

Here, Luke uses the term hour figuratively to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “right at that same time” (See: Idiom)

πᾶσιν τοῖς

The term all is a generalization that means many. Alternate translation: “to many others” (See: Hyperbole)

τοῖς προσδεχομένοις

See how you translated this in 2:25. Alternate translation: “who were eagerly anticipating” or “who were looking forward to” (See: Idiom)

λύτρωσιν Ἰερουσαλήμ

Luke is using the word redemption figuratively to mean the person who would bring redemption. Alternate translation: “the one who would redeem Jerusalem” or “the person who would bring God’s blessings and favor back to Jerusalem” (See: Metonymy)

Ἰερουσαλήμ

Luke is referring to all of the people of Israel figuratively by the name of their capital city, Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 2:39

πάντα τὰ κατὰ τὸν νόμον Κυρίου

Alternate translation: “everything that the law of the Lord required them to do”

εἰς πόλιν ἑαυτῶν Ναζαρέτ

This expression means that they lived in Nazareth. Alternate translation: “the town of Nazareth, where they lived” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 2:40

ἐκραταιοῦτο

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “became stronger” (See: Active or Passive)

πληρούμενον σοφίᾳ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “learning what was wise” (See: Active or Passive)

χάρις Θεοῦ ἦν ἐπ’ αὐτό

As in 2:25, upon is a spatial metaphor. Alternate translation: “God blessed him in special ways” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 2:41

καὶ

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Connect — Background Information)

οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ

Alternate translation: “Jesus’ parents” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 2:42

καὶ

Luke uses this word to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “So” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἀναβαινόντων αὐτῶν

Jerusalem was on top of a mountain, so Israelites customarily spoke of going up to Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “they traveled” (See: Idiom)

κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἑορτῆς

Alternate translation: “when it was time for the feast”

τῆς ἑορτῆς

Implicitly this means the Feast of Passover. It was called a feast because it involved eating a ceremonial meal. Alternate translation: “of the Feast of Passover” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 2:43

τελειωσάντων τὰς ἡμέρας

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “after they had celebrated the feast for the required number of days” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 2:44

νομίσαντες δὲ

Alternate translation: “But since they thought”

ἦλθον ἡμέρας ὁδὸν

Alternate translation: “they traveled as far as people walk in one day”

καὶ ἀνεζήτουν αὐτὸν

The word translated and at the beginning of this phrase indicates that this event happened after the previous event that the story described. Alternate translation: “then they looked for him” (See: Connect — Sequential Time Relationship)

καὶ ἀνεζήτουν αὐτὸν

The implication is that Jesus’ parents looked for him among their friends and relatives once the whole group that was traveling together had stopped for the night. That way they could easily go around among everyone. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “and once the group had stopped for the night, then they looked for him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 2:46

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

Since only priests could enter the temple building, this implicitly means the temple courtyard. Luke is using the word for the entire building to refer to one part of it. Alternate translation: “in the temple courtyard” (See: Synecdoche)

ἐν μέσῳ τῶν διδασκάλων

Alternate translation: “among the teachers” or “surrounded by the teachers”

τῶν διδασκάλων

Alternate translation: “the religious teachers” or “the experts in the Jewish law” or “those who taught people about God”

Luke 2:47

ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες οἱ ἀκούοντες αὐτοῦ

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say explicitly why they marveled. Alternate translation: “all those who heard him, unable to understand how a twelve-year-old boy with no formal religious education could answer so well, were amazed” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐπὶ τῇ συνέσει καὶ ταῖς ἀποκρίσεσιν αὐτοῦ

Luke may be expressing a single idea by using two words connected with and. The term understanding may tell what characterized Jesus’ answers. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the meaning with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “at his wise answers” or “at the understanding with which he answered” (See: Hendiadys)

Luke 2:48

καὶ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν

Alternate translation: “When Mary and Joseph found Jesus there” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

τί ἐποίησας ἡμῖν οὕτως?

Mary is using the question form to rebuke Jesus indirectly for not going back home with them, causing them to worry about him. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate her words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “you should not have done this to us!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἰδοὺ

Mary uses behold to get Jesus to focus his attention on what she is about to say. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: Metaphor)

ὁ πατήρ σου κἀγὼ, ὀδυνώμενοι ζητοῦμεν σε

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the passive verbal form have been tormented with an adverb. Alternate translation: “your father and I have been searching for you anxiously” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 2:49

καὶ

Luke uses this word to draw a contrast between how readers might have expected Jesus to respond in this situation and how he actually responded. He did not say he was sorry for causing his parents so much worry. Instead, he told them that they should have known where to find him. Alternate translation: “But” (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

τί ὅτι ἐζητεῖτέ με?

Jesus is making a statement, not really asking a question. He is using the question form to challenge his parents respectfully. Alternate translation: “You should not have had to search for me” (See: Rhetorical Question)

οὐκ ᾔδειτε ὅτι ἐν τοῖς τοῦ πατρός μου δεῖ εἶναί με?

Once again Jesus is making a statement rather than actually asking a question. He is using the question form to challenge his parents respectfully. Alternate translation: “You should have known that I would be involved in my Father’s business” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἐν τοῖς τοῦ πατρός μου

This could mean: (1) Jesus may be saying that he needed to be involved in the things that God was concerned about. Alternate translation: “involved in my Father’s business” (2) Jesus may be referring to the temple as a place that was dedicated to God. Alternate translation: “in my Father’s temple” or “here in the temple”

τοῦ πατρός μου

At age 12, Jesus, the Son of God, understood that God was his real Father. (See: Translating Son and Father)

Luke 2:50

τὸ ῥῆμα ὃ ἐλάλησεν αὐτοῖς

The term word refers figuratively to what Jesus told his parents by using words. Alternate translation: “the answer that he gave them” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 2:51

καὶ κατέβη μετ’ αὐτῶν

Jerusalem was on top of a mountain, so Israelites customarily spoke of going down when they traveled from Jerusalem to some other place. Alternate translation: “Jesus went back home with Mary and Joseph” (See: Idiom)

ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος αὐτοῖς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “he obeyed them” or “he was obedient to them” (See: Active or Passive)

διετήρει πάντα τὰ ῥήματα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῆς

As in 2:19, the heart here figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “carefully remembered all these things” or “reflected carefully on what all these things meant” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 2:52

Ἰησοῦς προέκοπτεν τῇ σοφίᾳ, καὶ ἡλικίᾳ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the ideas behind the abstract nouns wisdom and stature with adjectives. These two terms refer to mental and physical growth. Alternate translation: “Jesus steadily became wiser and stronger” (See: Abstract Nouns)

χάριτι παρὰ Θεῷ καὶ ἀνθρώποις

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun favor with verbs. The phrase in favor with God and people refers to spiritual and social growth. Alternate translation: “God blessed him more and more, and people admired him more and more” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 3

Luke 3 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. John the Baptist begins preaching and baptizing (3:1-22)
  2. The list of Jesus’ ancestors (3:23-38)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. ULT does this with the poetry in 3:4-6, which Luke is quoting from the Old Testament about John the Baptist.

Special concepts in this chapter

Justice

John’s instructions to the soldiers and tax collectors in Luke 3:12-15 are things that a person who wanted to live rightly would find reasonable and willingly do. (See: just, justice, unjust, injustice, justify, justification and Luke 3:12-15)

Genealogy

A genealogy is a list that records a person’s ancestors or descendants. Such lists were very important in determining who had the right be king, because the king’s authority was usually passed down or inherited from his father. It was also common for other important people to have a recorded genealogy.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphor

Prophecy often involves the use of metaphors to express its meaning. Spiritual discernment is needed for proper interpretation of the prophecy. The prophecy that Luke quotes in 3:4-6 from Isaiah 40:3-5 is an extended metaphor that describes the ministry of John the Baptist. See the individual notes to 3:4-6 for recommendations about how to translate this passage. (See: prophet, prophecy, prophesy, seer, prophetess and Metaphor)

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“Herod locked up John in prison”

This statement could cause confusion because Luke says that John was imprisoned, and then he implies that John was still able to baptize Jesus. But Luke makes this statement in anticipation of Herod’s imprisonment of John. It describes something that was still in the future at the time of the other events in the narrative. See the first note to 3:19 for a further explanation.

Luke 3:1

ἐν ἔτει δὲ πεντεκαιδεκάτῳ τῆς ἡγεμονίας Τιβερίου Καίσαρος

This verse and the beginning of the next one are an extended time reference that introduces a new event. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Everything that the angels and inspired people had said about John and Jesus began to come true during the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν ἔτει δὲ πεντεκαιδεκάτῳ

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “in year 15” (See: Ordinal Numbers)

Τιβερίου Καίσαρος

As in 2:1, Caesar is the title of the emperor of the Roman Empire. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “King Tiberius, who ruled the Roman Empire” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Τιβερίου

Tiberius is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

Ποντίου Πειλάτου…Ἡρῴδου…Φιλίππου…Λυσανίου

These are the names of men. Here, the Herod mentioned is not the same one as in 1:5. Rather, it is his son. Luke makes further mention of him many times in this book. (See: How to Translate Names)

τῆς Ἰουδαίας…τῆς Γαλιλαίας…τῆς Ἰτουραίας καὶ Τραχωνίτιδος…τῆς Ἀβειληνῆς

These are names of territories. Like Galilee, the name Judea occurs many times in this book. (See: How to Translate Names)

τετραρχοῦντος

In the Roman Empire, a tetrarch was the governor of one of four divisions of a country or province. If it would be clearer in your language, you could use a general term. Alternate translation: “ruler” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 3:2

ἐπὶ ἀρχιερέως Ἅννα καὶ Καϊάφα

Usually there would only have been one high priest, but at this point the Romans were appointing the high priests for Judea, and there had been some intrigue surrounding Annas. One Roman official had appointed him some years earlier, but ten years after that, another official deposed him and named his son-in-law Caiaphas high priest instead. However, the Jews still recognized Annas’ claim to the position. It would probably be best to state the matter as simply as possible for your readers. Alternate translation: “while Annas and Caiaphas were both serving as the high priest” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐγένετο ῥῆμα Θεοῦ

Luke speaks of God’s message figuratively as if it were a living thing that could come to a person at God's bidding. Alternate translation: “God gave a message” (See: Personification)

ἐγένετο ῥῆμα Θεοῦ

The term word figuratively describes the message that God gave John to say by using words. Alternate translation: “God gave a message” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 3:3

καὶ

Luke uses this word to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “As a result” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

τοῦ Ἰορδάνου

Jordan is the name of a river. Alternate translation: “the Jordan River” (See: How to Translate Names)

κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the ideas behind the abstract nouns baptism, repentance, and forgiveness with other phrases. Alternate translation: “preaching that people should let him immerse them in the river to show that they wanted to live a new life and that they wanted God to forgive their sins” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 3:4

ὡς γέγραπται ἐν βίβλῳ λόγων Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “As the book says that records the sayings of the prophet Isaiah” (See: Active or Passive)

λόγων Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου

Luke is using the term words figuratively to refer to the sayings that Isaiah used words to articulate. Alternate translation: “the sayings of the prophet Isaiah” (See: Metonymy)

φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ

From this phrase through to the end of 3:6, Luke quotes from the book of Isaiah. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: Quote Markings)

φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ

The term voice refers figuratively to what this person is saying by association with the means they are using to say it. Alternate translation: “Someone is calling out in the wilderness and saying” (See: Metonymy)

ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου; εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ

Everything from this phrase through to the end of 3:6 is a quotation within a quotation. Luke is quoting from the book of Isaiah, and Isaiah is quoting the words of the person calling out in the wilderness. It would be best to indicate that by punctuating this material as a second-level quotation, since Luke is quoting from Scripture. However, if your language does not put one direct quotation within another, you could translate this material as an indirect quotation. (See: Quotes within Quotes)

ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου; εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ

These two phrases mean similar things. They are both telling people to make a good road for the Lord to travel on. Hebrew poetry was based on this kind of repetition, and it would be helpful to show this to your readers by including both phrases in your translation rather than combining them. However, if the repetition might be confusing, you could connect the phrases with another phrase that would show the relationship between them. Alternate translation: “Prepare a good road for the Lord to travel on, and do this by making sure that it follows a straight path” (See: Parallelism)

ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου

This is a figurative way of telling people to get ready to listen to the Lord’s message when it comes. They are to do this by giving up their sins. Alternate translation: “Give up your sins so that you will be ready to listen to the Lord’s message when it comes” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 3:5

πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται, καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται

This is a continuation of the figurative description of making a good road that began in the previous verse. When people prepare the road for an important person who is coming, they make sure that the road is level by taking material from high places and using it to fill in low places. However, this is also a description of the effects that the coming of the Lord will have on people. It is a statement similar to the one Mary makes in 1:52, “He has thrown down rulers from their thrones and he has raised up the lowly.” Metaphors in Scripture can have more than one reference like this. So we recommend that you translate the words directly and not provide a non-figurative explanation, even if your language does not customarily use such figures of speech. If you want to explain the meanings of the metaphor, we recommend that you do that in a footnote rather than in the Bible text. (See: Metaphor)

πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Since people would be doing this action in one sense of the metaphor, but God would be doing the action in another sense of the metaphor, it might be best not to be specific about who will do the action. Alternate translation: “Someone will fill in every valley” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, following the same principle as for the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “and someone will make every mountain and hill low” (See: Active or Passive)

ἔσται τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείαν, καὶ αἱ τραχεῖαι εἰς ὁδοὺς λείας

This too is both a continuation of the figurative description of making a good road and a description of the effects that the coming of the Lord will have on people. Something that is crooked becoming straight and something that is rough becoming smooth can be seen as metaphors for repentance and a change in a person’s way of life. And so we recommend once again that you translate the words directly and not provide a non-figurative explanation in the text of your translation. (See: Metaphor)

Luke 3:6

πᾶσα σὰρξ

Luke is describing people figuratively by reference to something associated with them, the flesh they are made of. Alternate translation: “all people” (See: Metonymy)

ὄψεται

The term see is a figurative way of referring to recognition and understanding. Alternate translation: “will recognize” or “will understand” (See: Metaphor)

ὄψεται…τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun salvation with a verb such as “save.” Alternate translation: “will understand how God saves people” (See: Abstract Nouns)

τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ

After this phrase, Isaiah ends his quotation from the person who is calling out in the wilderness. If you decided in 3:4 to mark these words as a second-level quotation, indicate the end of that quotation here with whatever convention your language uses. (See: Quotes within Quotes)

τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ

After this phrase, Luke also ends his quotation from the book of Isaiah. If you decided in 3:4 to mark this as a first-level quotation, indicate that ending here with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the end of a first-level quotation. (See: Quote Markings)

Luke 3:7

βαπτισθῆναι ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “for him to baptize them” (See: Active or Passive)

γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν

The expression offspring of is an idiom that means a person shares the qualities of something. John is using dangerous poisonous snakes to represent evil. Alternate translation: “You evil people” (See: Idiom)

γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν

If your readers would not recognize the name vipers, which refers to dangerous poisonous snakes, you could say something more general. Alternate translation: “You are evil, like poisonous snakes” or “You are evil, like poisonous animals” (See: Translate Unknowns)

τίς ὑπέδειξεν ὑμῖν φυγεῖν ἀπὸ τῆς μελλούσης ὀργῆς?

John is making a statement, not asking a question. He does not expect the people in the crowds to tell him who warned them. Instead, he is using the question form to challenge the people to think about what they believe baptism will do for them. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You cannot escape from God’s wrath just by being baptized!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἀπὸ τῆς μελλούσης ὀργῆς

John is using the word wrath to refer figuratively to God’s punishment. This is by association with the way that punishment is an expression of God’s wrath or displeasure over sin. Alternate translation: “from the punishment that God is sending” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 3:8

ποιήσατε…καρποὺς ἀξίους τῆς μετανοίας

John is figuratively comparing a person’s behavior to fruit. Just as a plant is expected to produce fruit that is appropriate for that kind of plant, a person who says that he has repented is expected to live righteously. Alternate translation: “do the good things that will show that you have stopped sinning” (See: Metaphor)

ἀξίους τῆς μετανοίας

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun repentance with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “that will show that you have stopped sinning” (See: Abstract Nouns)

μὴ ἄρξησθε λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ

We have Abraham as our father is a quotation within a quotation. Luke is quoting John’s words to the crowd, and John is quoting something that the crowds might wrongly think. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “do not try to reassure yourselves with the thought that Abraham is your father” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ

Here, Father figuratively means “ancestor.” Alternate translation: “Abraham is our ancestor” (See: Metaphor)

πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ

John is suggesting something the people might say about themselves, as opposed to others, so if your language distinguishes between exclusive and inclusive “we” and “us,” use the exclusive form here. (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ

Here, the word father figuratively means “ancestor.” Alternate translation: “Abraham is our ancestor” (See: Metaphor)

πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ

If it would be unclear to your readers why they would say this, you may also add the implied information: Alternate translation: “Abraham is our ancestor, so God would not punish us” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

δύναται ὁ Θεὸς ἐκ τῶν λίθων τούτων ἐγεῖραι τέκνα τῷ Ἀβραάμ

The expression raise up is a spatial metaphor. It envisions that if God did turn the stones into people who were descendants of Abraham, then the people would be standing up in front of everyone, no longer lying in the riverbed as the stones were. Alternate translation: “God is able create descendants for Abraham out of these stones” (See: Metaphor)

τέκνα τῷ Ἀβραάμ

Here, the word children figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “descendants for Abraham” (See: Metaphor)

ἐκ τῶν λίθων τούτων

John was probably referring to actual stones lying along the Jordan River. Alternate translation: “from these stones here”

Luke 3:9

ἤδη…ἡ ἀξίνη πρὸς τὴν ῥίζαν τῶν δένδρων κεῖται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the person who is going to cut down the tree has already placed his ax against the roots” (See: Active or Passive)

ἡ ἀξίνη πρὸς τὴν ῥίζαν τῶν δένδρων κεῖται

This is a figurative way of saying that punishment is just about to begin. Alternate translation: “God is even now getting his punishment ready” (See: Metaphor)

πᾶν…δένδρον μὴ ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλὸν, ἐκκόπτεται καὶ εἰς πῦρ βάλλεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with active forms. Alternate translation: “this person will chop down every tree that does not produce good fruit and throw it into the fire” (See: Active or Passive)

πᾶν…δένδρον μὴ ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλὸν, ἐκκόπτεται καὶ εἰς πῦρ βάλλεται

This is a figurative way of describing punishment. Alternate translation: “God will certainly punish every person who does not do what is right” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 3:10

ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν…λέγοντες

Luke uses the word saying to introduce his quotation of what the crowds were asking John. Here and throughout the book, if you indicate the quotation in some other way, such as with quotation marks or with some other punctuation or convention that your language uses, you do not need to represent this word in your translation. (See: Quote Markings)

Luke 3:11

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς

Together the words answering and said mean that John responded to the question that the crowds asked. Alternate translation: “So he responded to them” (See: Hendiadys)

ὁ ἔχων βρώματα, ὁμοίως ποιείτω

The implication is that anyone who has extra food should share it, just as a person with an extra tunic should share that. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “if anyone has extra food, he should share that as well” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 3:12

ἦλθον…βαπτισθῆναι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “came because they wanted John to baptize them” (See: Active or Passive)

Διδάσκαλε

This is a respectful title. You can translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use,

Luke 3:13

μηδὲν πλέον…πράσσετε

The implication is that tax collectors had been demanding more money than they should have been collecting. John tells them to stop doing that. Alternate translation: “Do not demand extra money” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

παρὰ τὸ διατεταγμένον ὑμῖν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “beyond what the Romans have authorized you to collect” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 3:14

τί ποιήσωμεν καὶ ἡμεῖς?

The soliders are speaking about themselves, as opposed to others, so if your language distinguishes between exclusive and inclusive we and “us,” use the exclusive form here. You could make this two sentences. Alternate translation: “How about us soldiers? What must we do?” (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

μηδὲ συκοφαντήσητε

The implication is that soldiers were making false charges against people in order to extort money from them. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “do not accuse anyone falsely in order to get money from them” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

καὶ ἀρκεῖσθε τοῖς ὀψωνίοις ὑμῶν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “instead, let the amount you are paid satisfy you” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ

This word introduces draws a contrast between what the soldiers had been doing and what they should have been doing. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Instead” (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

Luke 3:15

προσδοκῶντος δὲ τοῦ λαοῦ

Luke is providing this background information to help readers understand what happens next. You can introduce his statement with a word that will indicate this. Alternate translation: “Now the people were expecting” (See: Connect — Background Information)

προσδοκῶντος δὲ τοῦ λαοῦ

The implication is that the people were expecting the Messiah. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Now the people were expecting the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

διαλογιζομένων…ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν

Here, Luke uses the term hearts figuratively to represent the people’s minds. Alternate translation: “wondering in their minds” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 3:16

ἀπεκρίνατο λέγων πᾶσιν ὁ Ἰωάννης

John’s statement clearly implies that John himself is not the Messiah. It may be helpful to state this explicitly for your readers. Alternate translation: “John clarified that he was not the Messiah by saying to them all” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀπεκρίνατο λέγων…ὁ Ἰωάννης

Together the words answered and saying mean that John responded to what the people were wondering about him. Alternate translation: “John responded” (See: Hendiadys)

ἐγὼ…ὕδατι βαπτίζω ὑμᾶς

Alternate translation: “I … baptize you using water” or “I … baptize you by means of water”

οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς λῦσαι τὸν ἱμάντα τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτοῦ

Untying the straps of sandals was a duty of a slave. John is saying implicitly that the one who is coming will be so great that he is not even worthy to be his slave. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “I am not even worthy to be his slave” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

αὐτὸς ὑμᾶς βαπτίσει ἐν Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ, καὶ πυρί

John is using literal baptism, which puts a person under water, to speak figuratively of spiritual baptism, which puts people under the influence of the Holy Spirit, who purifies them. Alternate translation: “He will put you under the influence of the Holy Spirit, who will purify you” (See: Metaphor)

αὐτὸς ὑμᾶς βαπτίσει…πυρί

The word fire is intended figuratively, and it suggests a fuller metaphor. Jesus will not immerse people in actual fire. Be sure that this is clear to your readers. Alternate translation: “He will baptize you … to purify you, as precious metals are purified in fire” or “He will baptize you … to clear away your sins, as fire clears away underbrush” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 3:17

οὗ τὸ πτύον ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ

John is saying figuratively that the Messiah will come prepared to judge people right away. You could express this metaphor as a simile in your translation. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here in your translation. Alternate translation: “He will already be prepared to judge people, just like a farmer who is ready to thresh grain” (See: Metaphor)

οὗ τὸ πτύον ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ

The phrase in his hand is an idiom that means he has the tool all ready to use. Alternate translation: “He has his winnowing fork ready to use” (See: Idiom)

πτύον

This is a tool for tossing wheat into the air to separate the wheat grain from the chaff. The heavier grain falls back down, and the wind blows away the unwanted chaff. This tool is similar to a pitchfork. If you have a similar tool in your culture, you can use the word for it here. Otherwise, you can use a phrase that would express the meaning. Alternate translation: “tool for threshing grain” (See: Translate Unknowns)

διακαθᾶραι τὴν ἅλωνα αὐτοῦ

The threshing floor was the place where wheat was stacked in preparation for threshing. To clear off the floor is to finish threshing all the grain. Alternate translation: “to completely thresh all of his grain” (See: Translate Unknowns)

καὶ συναγαγεῖν τὸν σῖτον εἰς τὴν ἀποθήκην αὐτοῦ

John continues to speak figuratively to describe how the coming Messiah will judge people. The wheat is the part of the crop that is useful. It represents people who are obedient to God, who will be welcomed into his presence. You could express this metaphor as a simile in your translation. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “He will welcome those who are obedient to God, just as a farmer stores good grain in his barn” (See: Biblical Imagery — Extended Metaphors)

τὸ δὲ ἄχυρον κατακαύσει πυρὶ ἀσβέστῳ

John continues to speak figuratively to describe how the coming Messiah will judge people. The chaff is the husk that surrounds the grain. It is not useful for anything, so people burn it up. You could express this metaphor as a simile in your translation. Alternate translation: “but he will punish those who are disobedient to God, just as a farmer burns up the useless chaff” (See: Biblical Imagery — Extended Metaphors)

Luke 3:18

πολλὰ…καὶ ἕτερα παρακαλῶν

Alternate translation: “saying many other things to warn them”

Luke 3:19

δὲ

Luke uses the term but to introduce some background information to the story. In this verse and the next one, he tells what later happened to John. This had not yet happened at this time. When Luke says in 3:21 that Jesus was baptized, he means that John was still there and that John baptized Jesus. (See: Background Information)

ὁ…Ἡρῴδης ὁ τετράρχης

See how you translated the term tetrarch in 3:1 Alternate translation: “Herod, who ruled the region of Galilee” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἐλεγχόμενος ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ περὶ Ἡρῳδιάδος, τῆς γυναικὸς τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could make clear who did the action. Alternate translation: “because John had rebuked him for marrying Herodias, his brother’s former wife” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐλεγχόμενος ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ περὶ Ἡρῳδιάδος, τῆς γυναικὸς τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ

The implication is that Herod’s brother was still alive. That made this marriage a violation of the law of Moses. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “because John had rebuked him for marrying Herodias, his brother’s former wife, while his brother was still alive. That was something which the law of Moses forbade” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 3:20

κατέκλεισεν τὸν Ἰωάννην ἐν φυλακῇ

Herod did not do this by himself, Rather, as a ruler, he probably ordered his soldiers to lock John up. Luke is speaking figuratively of Herod, one person who was involved in this action, to mean everyone who was involved. Alternate translation: “He had his soldiers lock John up in prison” (See: Synecdoche)

Luke 3:21

ἐγένετο δὲ

The previous verse says that Herod put John in prison. It might be helpful to make it clear that the account that starts in this verse happened before John was arrested. UST does that by starting this verse with “but before Herod did that.” (See: Order of Events)

ἐγένετο δὲ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

βαπτισθῆναι ἅπαντα τὸν λαὸν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “while John was baptizing all the people who came to him” (See: Active or Passive)

ἅπαντα τὸν λαὸν

The phrase all the people is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “all the people who came to him” (See: Hyperbole)

καὶ Ἰησοῦ βαπτισθέντος

You could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “John also baptized Jesus” (See: Active or Passive)

ἀνεῳχθῆναι τὸν οὐρανὸν

You could say this with an active form. This was more than a simple clearing of the clouds, but it is not clear exactly what the expression means, so it may be best not to try to specify what happened too exactly. Alternate translation: “the sky opened up” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 3:22

φωνὴν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ γενέσθαι

Luke speaks figuratively of this voice as if it were a living thing that could come from heaven to earth. Alternate translation: “God spoke from heaven and said” (See: Personification)

ὁ Υἱός μου

This is an important title for Jesus, the Son of God. (See: Translating Son and Father)

Luke 3:23

καὶ

Luke uses this word to introduce background information about Jesus’ age and ancestors. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Background Information)

αὐτὸς ἦν Ἰησοῦς ἀρχόμενος ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα

This idiomatic expression could mean: (1) The word beginning may be a reference to Jesus starting his own ministry. UST follows this interpretation. Alternate translation: “Jesus himself was about 30 years old when he began his ministry” (2) Luke may also be saying that Jesus had just turned 30 was when he was baptized. Alternate translation: “Jesus himself was just 30 years old at this time” (See: Idiom)

ὢν υἱός, ὡς ἐνομίζετο, Ἰωσὴφ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “People assumed that he was the son of Joseph” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 3:24

τοῦ Μαθθὰτ, τοῦ Λευεὶ, τοῦ Μελχεὶ, τοῦ Ἰανναὶ, τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ

This continues the list that begins with the words “He was the son … of Joseph, the son of Heli” in verse 24. Consider how people normally list ancestors in your language. Use the same wording throughout the whole list. Possible formats are: (1) “He was the son … of Joseph, the son of Heli, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph” (2) “He was the son … of Joseph. Joseph was the son of Heli. Heli was the son of Matthat. Matthat was the son of Levi. Levi was the son of Melchi. Melchi was the son of Jannai. Jannai was the son of Joseph” or (3) “His father … was Joseph. Joseph’s father was Heli. Heli’s father was Matthat. Matthat’s father was Levi. Levi’s father was Melchi. Melchi’s father was Jannai. Jannai’s father was Joseph” (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:25

τοῦ Ματταθίου, τοῦ Ἀμὼς, τοῦ Ναοὺμ, τοῦ Ἑσλεὶ, τοῦ Ναγγαὶ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:26

τοῦ Μάαθ, τοῦ Ματταθίου, τοῦ Σεμεεῒν, τοῦ Ἰωσὴχ, τοῦ Ἰωδὰ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:27

τοῦ Ἰωανὰν, τοῦ Ῥησὰ, τοῦ Ζοροβαβὲλ, τοῦ Σαλαθιὴλ, τοῦ Νηρεὶ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that begins in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:28

τοῦ Μελχεὶ, τοῦ Ἀδδεὶ, τοῦ Κωσὰμ, τοῦ Ἐλμαδὰμ, τοῦ Ἢρ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:29

τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, τοῦ Ἐλιέζερ, τοῦ Ἰωρεὶμ, τοῦ Μαθθὰτ, τοῦ Λευεὶ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:30

τοῦ Συμεὼν, τοῦ Ἰούδα, τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ, τοῦ Ἰωνὰμ, τοῦ Ἐλιακεὶμ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:31

τοῦ Μελεὰ, τοῦ Μεννὰ, τοῦ Ματταθὰ, τοῦ Ναθὰμ, τοῦ Δαυεὶδ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:32

τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ, τοῦ Ἰωβὴλ, τοῦ Βόος, τοῦ Σαλὰ, τοῦ Ναασσὼν

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:33

τοῦ Ἀμιναδὰβ, τοῦ Ἀδμεὶν, τοῦ Ἀρνεὶ, τοῦ Ἑσρὼμ, τοῦ Φαρὲς, τοῦ Ἰούδα

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:34

τοῦ Ἰακὼβ, τοῦ Ἰσαὰκ, τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ, τοῦ Θάρα, τοῦ Ναχὼρ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:35

τοῦ Σεροὺχ, τοῦ Ῥαγαὺ, τοῦ Φάλεκ, τοῦ Ἔβερ, τοῦ Σαλὰ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:36

τοῦ Καϊνὰμ, τοῦ Ἀρφαξὰδ, τοῦ Σὴμ, τοῦ Νῶε, τοῦ Λάμεχ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:37

τοῦ Μαθουσαλὰ, τοῦ Ἑνὼχ, τοῦ Ἰάρετ, τοῦ Μαλελεὴλ, τοῦ Καϊνὰμ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 3:38

τοῦ Ἐνὼς, τοῦ Σὴθ, τοῦ Ἀδὰμ, τοῦ Θεοῦ

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: How to Translate Names)

τοῦ Ἀδὰμ, τοῦ Θεοῦ

Alternate translation: “the son of Adam, whom God created” or “the son of Adam, who was, in a sense, the son of God”

Luke 4

Luke 4 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. The devil tempts Jesus in the wilderness (4:1-13)
  2. Jesus teaches in the synagogue in Nazareth (4:14-30)
  3. Jesus teaches, heals, and drives out demons in Capernaum (4:31-44)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. ULT does this with the poetry in 4:10-11 and 4:18-19, which is quoted from the Old Testamentt.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“Jesus was tempted by the devil”

While it is true that the devil actually believed that he could persuade Jesus to disobey God and obey him instead, it is important not to imply in your translation that Jesus would ever really have wanted to obey the devil.

Luke 4:1

Ἰησοῦς δὲ

Luke uses this expression to return to the story after providing background information about Jesus’ ancestors. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could include a phrase that would provide continuity with the previous episode in the story. Alternate translation: “After John had baptized Jesus, then Jesus” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

τοῦ Ἰορδάνου

Jordan is the name of a river. Alternate translation: “the Jordan River” (See: How to Translate Names)

ἤγετο ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι

You can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the Spirit led him” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 4:2

ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου

The Greek verb indicates that the temptation continued throughout the 40 days. You can make this clear in your translation, as UST does: “While he was there, the devil kept tempting him for 40 days” (See: Verbs)

ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “For 40 days the devil kept tempting him” or “For 40 days the devil kept trying to persuade him disobey God” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ οὐκ ἔφαγεν οὐδὲν

Make sure that it is clear in your translation that the word he refers to Jesus, not to the devil. Alternate translation: “Jesus did not eat anything” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 4:3

εἶπεν…ὁ διάβολος

The devil either holds a stone in his hand or points to a nearby stone. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “The devil picked up a stone and said” or “The devil pointed to a stone and said” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

εἰ Υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ Θεοῦ, εἰπὲ τῷ λίθῳ τούτῳ, ἵνα γένηται ἄρτος

The devil is suggesting that this is a hypothetical condition, that the stone will only become bread if Jesus is the Son of God. The devil is speaking as if it is uncertain who Jesus is in order to challenge him to do this miracle to prove that he really is the Son of God. Alternate translation: “Prove that you are the Son of God by commanding this stone to become bread” (See: Connect — Hypothetical Conditions)

Υἱὸς…τοῦ Θεοῦ

This is an important title for Jesus. Even the devil knew its significance. (See: Translating Son and Father)

Luke 4:4

καὶ

This word introduces a contrast between the devil wanting Jesus to turn the stone into bread and Jesus refusing to do that. Alternate translation: “But” (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, γέγραπται

Jesus clearly implies in his answer that he is rejecting the devil’s challenge. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “Jesus replied, ‘No, I will not do that, because it is written’” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

γέγραπται, ὅτι οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “It is written that man will not live on bread alone” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

γέγραπται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say what is doing the action. Alternate translation: “The Scriptures say” (See: Active or Passive)

οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος

The word bread refers to food in general. Jesus quotes this scripture to explain why he will not turn the stone into bread. It means that food by itself, without God, is not enough to sustain a person in life. Alternate translation: “It is not just having food that makes a person truly alive” or “God says there are more important things than food” (See: Synecdoche)

ὁ ἄνθρωπος

Here, man has a generic sense that refers to all people. Alternate translation: “People” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

Luke 4:5

ἀναγαγὼν αὐτὸν

The implication is that the devil brought Jesus up to a high place with a commanding view. Alternate translation: “the devil led Jesus up a mountain” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐν στιγμῇ χρόνου

In your language, it might seem that the phrase an instant of time expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you can abbreviate it. Alternate translation: “in an instant” or “in a short time” (See: Making Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information Explicit)

Luke 4:6

ἐμοὶ παραδέδοται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “God has given me authority over all these kingdoms” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐμοὶ παραδέδοται

The word it likely refers back to the singular antecedent all this authority, that is, the authority over these kingdoms. So the word you use to translate it should agree with authority in gender and number and in any other distinctions that your language marks. Alternate translation: “God has given me authority over all these kingdoms” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 4:7

ἐὰν προσκυνήσῃς ἐνώπιον ἐμοῦ

The implication is that the devil wants visible, direct worship that will be an official act of submission. Alternate translation: “If you will bow down in worship directly in front of me” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐνώπιον

Here, the term before means “in front of.”

ἔσται σοῦ πᾶσα

Alternate translation: “I will give you all of these kingdoms”

Luke 4:8

ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to the offer that the devil made. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded to him” (See: Hendiadys)

γέγραπται, Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “It is written that one must worship the Lord his God and serve only him” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

γέγραπται

Jesus clearly implies in his answer that he is rejecting the devil’s challenge. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “Jesus replied, ‘No, I will not do that, because it is written’” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

γέγραπται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say what is doing the action. Alternate translation: “The Scriptures say” (See: Active or Passive)

Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις

Here, the Scriptures are using a statement to give a command. Alternate translation: “You must worship the Lord your God, and you must serve only him” (See: Statements — Other Uses)

προσκυνήσεις

Here, it may not be clear whether to use the singular or plural form of you because this is a short quotation from the Scriptures and the context is not given. The word is actually singular because, even though Moses said this to the Israelites as a group, each individual person was supposed to obey this command. So in your translation, use the singular form of you, if your language marks that distinction. In general these notes will not discuss whether you is singular or plural when this should be clear from the context. But they will address ambiguous cases such as this one. (See: Singular Pronouns that refer to Groups)

Luke 4:9

τὸ πτερύγιον

The term pinnacle refers to the highest point or very top of something. If you have a similar term in your language, you could use it here. (See:c://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown)

εἰ Υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ Θεοῦ, βάλε σεαυτὸν ἐντεῦθεν κάτω

The devil is suggesting that this is a hypothetical condition, that Jesus will be able to jump safely from this great height if he really is the Son of God. The devil is speaking as if it is uncertain who Jesus is in order to challenge him to do this miracle to prove that he really is the Son of God. Alternate translation: “Prove that you are the Son of God by jumping safely from this great height” (See: Connect — Hypothetical Conditions)

Υἱὸς…τοῦ Θεοῦ

This is an important title for Jesus. Even the devil knew its significance. (See: Translating Son and Father)

βάλε σεαυτὸν ἐντεῦθεν κάτω

The exact location of the part of the temple that Luke describes is uncertain. However, the implication is that it was one of the places on the temple roof from which people would fall several hundred feet into the Kidron Valley if they jumped or slipped off. Make sure it is clear in your translation that this would ordinarily have been a deadly fall. Alternate translation: “jump from this great height” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 4:10

γέγραπται γὰρ, ὅτι τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ, τοῦ διαφυλάξαι σε

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “For it is written that he will give orders to his angels regarding you, to protect you” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

γέγραπται γὰρ

The devil implies that his quote from the Psalms means that if Jesus really is the Son of God, he will not be hurt if he jumps from this great height. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “You will not be hurt, because it is written” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

γέγραπται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say what is doing the action. Alternate translation: “the Scriptures say” (See: Active or Passive)

τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ, τοῦ διαφυλάξαι σε

He refers to God. Alternate translation: “God will order his angels to protect you” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 4:11

καὶ, ὅτι ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε, μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “and that they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου

The Scriptures are figuratively using one way of being hurt to mean all ways of being hurt. Alternate translation: “so that you will not get hurt” (See: Synecdoche)

Luke 4:12

ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to the challenge that the devil posed. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded to him” (See: Hendiadys)

εἴρηται, οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “It is said that one must not put the Lord his God to the test” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

εἴρηται

Jesus clearly implies in his answer that he is rejecting the devil’s challenge. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “Jesus replied, ‘No, I will not do that, because it is said’” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

εἴρηται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say what is doing the action. Alternate translation: “The Scriptures say” (See: Active or Passive)

οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου

The Scriptures are using a statement to give a command. Alternate translation: “You must not test the Lord your God” (See: Statements — Other Uses)

Luke 4:13

συντελέσας πάντα πειρασμὸν

This does not imply that the devil was successful in his temptation. Jesus resisted every attempt. You can state this clearly. Alternate translation: “after the devil had repeatedly failed to persuade Jesus to sin” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἄχρι καιροῦ

New Testament Greek had two words for time. The first referred to chronological time, that is, the passage of time. The second word referred to the right time to do something. ULT is using the phrase an opportune time to translate that second word. If your language makes this same distinction, use the corresponding word in your own translation. Alternate translation: “until the time was right to try again” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 4:14

καὶ

Luke uses this word to introduce a new event in the story. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν τῇ δυνάμει τοῦ Πνεύματος

This phrase means that God, by the Holy Spirit, was empowering Jesus in a special way, enabling him to do things that ordinary humans could not. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “and the Spirit was giving him the power to do extraordinary things” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

φήμη ἐξῆλθεν…περὶ αὐτοῦ

Luke speaks figuratively of this news as if it were something that could go out actively by itself. This expression means that those who heard about Jesus told other people about him, who then told even more people about him. Alternate translation: “people spread the news about Jesus” (See: Personification)

καθ’ ὅλης τῆς περιχώρου

Alternate translation: “everywhere around Galilee”

Luke 4:15

δοξαζόμενος ὑπὸ πάντων

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “as everyone spoke about him in a good way” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 4:16

καὶ

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Connect — Background Information)

οὗ ἦν τεθραμμένος

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “where his parents had raised him” (See: Active or Passive)

κατὰ τὸ εἰωθὸς αὐτῷ

Alternate translation: “as was his usual practice”

Luke 4:17

καὶ

Luke uses this word to indicate that the event he will now relate came after the event he has just described. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: Connect — Sequential Time Relationship)

ἐπεδόθη αὐτῷ βιβλίον τοῦ προφήτου Ἠσαΐου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “someone brought him the scroll of the prophet Isaiah” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐπεδόθη αὐτῷ βιβλίον τοῦ προφήτου Ἠσαΐου

Since Jesus looked for a specific passage in the scroll, and since he said that it was being fulfilled right at that time, it is likely that Jesus requested this particular scroll. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “at his request, someone brought him the scroll of the prophet Isaiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

βιβλίον τοῦ προφήτου Ἠσαΐου

A scroll was a long, wide roll of special paper. On this scroll someone had written the words that Isaiah had spoken many years before. If your readers would not know what a scroll is, you could describe it, or you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “the special paper roll that recorded the sayings of the prophet Isaiah” or “the book that recorded the sayings of the prophet Isaiah” (See: Translate Unknowns)

τὸν τόπον οὗ ἦν γεγραμμένον

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the place where the scroll recorded the words” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 4:18

Πνεῦμα Κυρίου ἐπ’ ἐμέ

As in 2:25, upon is a spatial metaphor that means that the Spirit of God is with someone in a special way. Alternate translation: “The Spirit of the Lord is with me in a special way” (See: Metaphor)

ἔχρισέν με

In the Old Testament, ceremonial oil was poured on a person when they were given the authority to assume an office or do a special task. Isaiah uses anointing figuratively to indicate that God has appointed him to his work. Jesus applies these words to himself as well. Alternate translation: “he has appointed me” (See: Metaphor)

πτωχοῖς…τυφλοῖς

Luke is using the adjectives poor and blind as nouns in order to indicate groups of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate these expressions with noun phrases. Alternate translation: “people who are poor … people who are blind” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν

Alternate translation: “to tell people who are being held captive that they can go free”

κηρύξαι…τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν

Alternate translation: “to tell people who are blind that they will be able to see again”

ἀποστεῖλαι τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who is doing the action. Alternate translation: “to rescue people whom others are treating harshly” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 4:19

κηρύξαι ἐνιαυτὸν Κυρίου δεκτόν

Luke is using the term year figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “to announce that this is the time when the Lord will show his kindness” (See: Idiom)

Luke 4:20

πτύξας τὸ βιβλίον

A scroll was closed by rolling it like a tube to protect the writing inside it. Alternate translation: “closing the scroll by rolling it up” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ

The attendant refers to a synagogue worker who, with proper care and reverence, would bring out and put away the scrolls that contained the Scriptures. If there is a word in your language for a person who has a similar role in your culture, you can use it here. Alternate translation: “the sexton” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἐκάθισεν

Since a person would stand to read the Scriptures in a synagogue but then sit down to teach, the implication is that Jesus was going to speak to the people about what he had just read. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “he sat down to teach” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

πάντων οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ

Luke is using one part of people, their eyes, figuratively to represent people themselves in the act of seeing. Alternate translation: “all the people in the synagogue” (See: Synecdoche)

Luke 4:21

σήμερον

Today figuratively refers to the present moment. Alternate translation: “Right now” (See: Idiom)

πεπλήρωται ἡ Γραφὴ αὕτη

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “I am fulfilling what this scripture says” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν

In this expression, the ears figuratively represent people in the act of listening. Alternate translation: “even as you are listening” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 4:22

τοῖς λόγοις τῆς χάριτος

Luke uses the term words figuratively to describe what Jesus said by reference to something associated with it, the words he used to communicate it. Alternate translation: “the articulate things” (See: Metonymy)

τοῖς λόγοις…τοῖς ἐκπορευομένοις ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ

In your language, this phrase might seem like an unnecessarily elaborate way of speaking. If so, you can express the same idea more compactly. Alternate translation: “the … things he was saying” (See: Making Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information Explicit)

οὐχὶ υἱός ἐστιν Ἰωσὴφ οὗτος?

The people were making a statement, not asking a question. They did not expect others to verify for them who Jesus’ father was. Instead, they were using the question form to say how amazed they were. Joseph was not a religious leader, so they were surprised that his son would preach as well as he did. If it would be clearer for your readers, you could translate these words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “This is just Joseph’s son!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 4:23

πάντως ἐρεῖτέ μοι τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην, ἰατρέ, θεράπευσον σεαυτόν; ὅσα ἠκούσαμεν γενόμενα εἰς τὴν Καφαρναοὺμ, ποίησον καὶ ὧδε ἐν τῇ πατρίδι σου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “Surely you will quote the proverb to me that tells a doctor to heal himself, to ask me to do the same things here in my hometown that you heard happened in Capernaum” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

ἰατρέ, θεράπευσον σεαυτόν

Jesus anticipates that the people will want to see him do miracles to prove his credibility. He uses a short popular saying of the culture to express this. This saying expresses a great deal of meaning in a few words. If it would be clearer in your language, you could expand it to make clear to your readers what it means. Alternate translation: “If a doctor cannot heal himself of a certain disease, then people will not believe that he can heal them of it” (See: Proverbs)

ὅσα ἠκούσαμεν γενόμενα εἰς τὴν Καφαρναοὺμ, ποίησον καὶ ὧδε ἐν τῇ πατρίδι σου

Jesus then explains how the short saying applies to this situation. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explicitly state the implications of his explanation. Alternate translation: “We will not believe the things you say unless you can do the same kind of miracles here that we heard you did in Capernaum” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 4:24

ἀμὴν, λέγω ὑμῖν

Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. Alternate translation: “What I am about to tell you is very true”

οὐδεὶς προφήτης δεκτός ἐστιν ἐν τῇ πατρίδι αὐτοῦ

Jesus makes a short, general statement in order to rebuke the people. This saying expresses a great deal of meaning in a few words. If it would be clearer in your language, you could expand it to make clear to your readers what it means. Alternate translation: “You think you know all about me because I grew up here, and so you cannot accept that I am genuinely a prophet” (See: Proverbs)

Luke 4:25

ἐπ’ ἀληθείας δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν

Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. Alternate translation: “What I am about to tell you is very true”

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἠλείου

Jesus is using the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “during the time when Elijah was prophesying” (See: Idiom)

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἠλείου

The people to whom Jesus was speaking would have known that Elijah was one of God’s prophets. If your readers would not know that, you can make this implicit information explicit, as UST does. Alternate translation: “during the time when Elijah was prophesying” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὅτε ἐκλείσθη ὁ οὐρανὸς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “when God shut up the sky” (See: Active or Passive)

ὅτε ἐκλείσθη ὁ οὐρανὸς

Jesus figuratively describes the sky as if God had closed it so that no rain could fall from it. Alternate translation: “when no rain fell from the sky” (See: Metaphor)

λιμὸς μέγας

A famine is a long period of time when the people in an area cannot produce or acquire enough food to feed themselves. Alternate translation: “a serious lack of food” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 4:26

πρὸς οὐδεμίαν αὐτῶν ἐπέμφθη Ἠλείας

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “God did not send Elijah to any of them except” (See: Active or Passive)

πρὸς οὐδεμίαν αὐτῶν ἐπέμφθη Ἠλείας, εἰ μὴ

If, in your language, it would appear that Jesus was making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “God only sent Elijah to” (See: Connect — Exception Clauses)

εἰς Σάρεπτα…πρὸς γυναῖκα χήραν

The people listening to Jesus would have understood that the people of Zarephath were Gentiles. Alternate translation: “to a Gentile widow living in Zarephath” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

εἰς Σάρεπτα τῆς Σιδωνίας

Zarephath is the name of a city, and Sidon is the name of the region where it is located. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 4:27

οὐδεὶς αὐτῶν ἐκαθαρίσθη, εἰ μὴ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “Elisha did not heal any of them except” (See: Active or Passive)

οὐδεὶς αὐτῶν ἐκαθαρίσθη, εἰ μὴ

If, in your language, it would appear that Jesus was making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “Elisha only healed” (See: Connect — Exception Clauses)

Ναιμὰν ὁ Σύρος

The people listening to Jesus would have understood that the people of Syria were Gentiles, not Jews. Alternate translation: “a Gentile, Naaman from Syria” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Ναιμὰν ὁ Σύρος

Naaman is the name of a man, and Syrian is the name of his people group. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 4:28

καὶ

Luke uses this word to indicate that the event he will now relate, the people becoming enraged, came after the event he has just described, Jesus citing scriptures in which God helped Gentiles rather than Jews. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: Connect — Sequential Time Relationship)

ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες θυμοῦ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ ἀκούοντες ταῦτα

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say explicitly why the people of Nazareth became so angry. Alternate translation: “When the people in the synagogue heard Jesus say these things, they all became furious, because he had cited scriptures in which God helped Gentiles rather than Jews” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες θυμοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “they all became furious” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες θυμοῦ

Luke speaks figuratively of the people’s rage as if it were something that could actively fill them. Alternate translation: “they all became furious” (See: Personification)

Luke 4:29

τοῦ ὄρους ἐφ’ οὗ ἡ πόλις ᾠκοδόμητο αὐτῶν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “the hill on which people had built their town” (See: Active or Passive)

ὥστε κατακρημνίσαι αὐτόν

The implication is that the people of Nazareth wanted to do this in order to kill Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “because they wanted to throw him off to kill him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 4:30

διελθὼν διὰ μέσου αὐτῶν

Alternate translation: “slipping between the people who were trying to kill him”

ἐπορεύετο

Alternate translation: “he left that place”

Luke 4:31

καὶ

Luke uses this word to indicate that the event he will now relate came after the event he has just described. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: Connect — Sequential Time Relationship)

κατῆλθεν εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ

Here, Luke uses the phrase went down because Capernaum is lower in elevation than Nazareth. Alternate translation: “went to Capernaum” (See: Idiom)

Καφαρναοὺμ, πόλιν τῆς Γαλιλαίας

Since Nazareth was also in Galilee, you might say “Capernaum, another city in Galilee” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 4:32

ἐξεπλήσσοντο ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “his teaching amazed them” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ ἦν ὁ λόγος αὐτοῦ

Luke is using the term word figuratively to describe the things that Jesus taught by using words. Alternate translation: “he taught as one who had authority” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 4:33

καὶ

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Connect — Background Information)

ἦν ἄνθρωπος

Luke uses this phrase to mark the introduction of a new character into the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἔχων πνεῦμα δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου

Alternate translation: “who was controlled by an evil spirit”

ἀνέκραξεν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ

This is an idiom that means the man raised the volume of his voice. Alternate translation: “he shouted loudly” (See: Idiom)

Luke 4:34

τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ?

The unclean spirit is making a statement, not asking a question. He does not expect Jesus to explain what they have in common. Instead, he is using the question form to express his antagonism. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “We have nothing in common with you, Jesus of Nazareth!” or “You have no right to bother us, Jesus of Nazareth!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί

This expression is an idiom. Alternate translation: “We have nothing in common with you” or “You have no right to bother us” (See: Idiom)

Luke 4:35

ἐπετίμησεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγων

Alternate translation: “Jesus said sternly to the demon”

φιμώθητι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Keep quiet” (See: Active or Passive)

ἔξελθε ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

Jesus is commanding the demon to stop controlling the man. Alternate translation: “leave him alone” or “do not live in this man any longer”

Luke 4:36

ἐγένετο θάμβος ἐπὶ πάντας

Luke speaks figuratively of astonishment as if it were something that actively came upon the people. Alternate translation: “they were all amazed” (See: Personification)

τίς ὁ λόγος οὗτος

Luke uses the term word figuratively to describe the things that Jesus taught by using words. Alternate translation: “What is this teaching” or “What is this message” (See: Metonymy)

τίς ὁ λόγος οὗτος

The people are making a statement, not asking a question. They do not expect anyone to explain what Jesus’ teaching is. Instead, they are using the question form to express how amazed they are that Jesus has the authority to command demons to leave a person. If it would be clearer for your readers, you could translate their words as a statement or exclamation. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “This is a powerful message!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ καὶ δυνάμει ἐπιτάσσει τοῖς ἀκαθάρτοις πνεύμασιν

The words authority and power mean similar things. The people use the two terms together to emphasize what great control Jesus has over unclean spirits. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these terms in a single phrase that would similarly express this emphasis. Alternate translation: “he has complete authority over the unclean spirits” (See: Doublet)

Luke 4:37

καὶ ἐξεπορεύετο ἦχος περὶ αὐτοῦ

This is a comment about what happened after the story as a result of the events within the story itself. (See: End of Story)

καὶ

Luke uses this word to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “As a result” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἐξεπορεύετο ἦχος περὶ αὐτοῦ

Luke speaks figuratively of this news as if it were something that could spread around actively by itself. As in 4:14, this expression means that those who heard about Jesus told other people about him, who told even more people about him. Alternate translation: “people began to spread the news about Jesus” (See: Personification)

Luke 4:38

δὲ

Luke uses this word to introduce a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

Σίμωνος

Luke is introducing a new character into the story. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say a little bit more about him here to help them recognize him later. Alternate translation: “a man named Simon, who would become one of his disciples” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Σίμωνος

Simon is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

πενθερὰ…τοῦ Σίμωνος

This means the mother of Simon’s wife. In your translation, you can use the term or expression in your own language for this relationship.

ἦν συνεχομένη πυρετῷ μεγάλῳ

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “was very sick with a high fever” (See: Idiom)

ἦν συνεχομένη πυρετῷ μεγάλῳ

You can express this in the way your language and culture would. Alternate translation: “was so sick that her skin was hot”

ἠρώτησαν αὐτὸν περὶ αὐτῆς

Implicitly this means they asked Jesus to heal her from the fever. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “they asked Jesus to heal her” or “they asked asked Jesus to cure her fever” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 4:39

καὶ

Luke uses this word to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. He is indicating that Jesus did this because the people had pleaded with him on behalf of Simon’s mother-in-law. Alternate translation: “So” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἐπιστὰς ἐπάνω αὐτῆς

Alternate translation: “going and leaning over her”

ἐπετίμησεν τῷ πυρετῷ, καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτήν

You can express this in the way your language and culture would. Alternate translation: “he commanded her skin to become cool, and it did” or “he commanded the sickness to leave her, and it did”

διηκόνει αὐτοῖς

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “and began to prepare food for Jesus and the other people in the house” (See: Idiom)

Luke 4:40

δύνοντος δὲ τοῦ ἡλίου

The implication is that the people waited until sunset because that marked the end of the Sabbath, and they could then do the “work” of bringing the sick to Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “when the sun was setting and the Sabbath day was ending” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὰς χεῖρας ἐπιτιθεὶς

Alternate translation: “placing his hands”

Luke 4:41

ἐξήρχετο…καὶ δαιμόνια

The implication is that Jesus made the demons leave the people they were controlling. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus also forced demons to come out” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

κραυγάζοντα καὶ λέγοντα

Luke is expressing a single idea by using two words connected with and. The verb crying out tells how they were saying what follows. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the meaning with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “screaming” (See: Hendiadys)

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ

This is an important title for Jesus. (See: Translating Son and Father)

Luke 4:42

γενομένης…ἡμέρας

Alternate translation: “at sunrise” or “at dawn”

ἔρημον τόπον

Alternate translation: “a deserted place” or “a place where there were no people”

κατεῖχον αὐτὸν τοῦ μὴ πορεύεσθαι ἀπ’ αὐτῶν

Alternate translation: “they tried to keep him from leaving them”

Luke 4:43

εὐαγγελίσασθαί…τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

See the discussion of this concept in Part 2 of the General Introduction to the Gospel of Luke. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “announce the good news that God is going to rule” (See: Abstract Nouns)

ταῖς ἑτέραις πόλεσιν

Jesus actually means the people who live in these cities. He is describing them figuratively by reference to something associated with them, the cities where they live. Alternate translation: “to the people in many other cities” (See: Metonymy)

ἐπὶ τοῦτο ἀπεστάλην

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “this is the reason why God sent me” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 4:44

τῆς Ἰουδαίας

Since Jesus is in Galilee in this part of the Gospel of Luke, the term Judea here probably refers to the entire region where the Jews lived at that time. Alternate translation: “where the Jews lived” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 5

Luke 5 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus calls Peter and his fellow fishermen to be his disciples (5:1-11)
  2. Jesus travels to various towns teaching and healing (5:12-26)
  3. Jesus calls Levi to be his disciple (5:27-32)
  4. Jesus teaches about fasting (5:33-39)

Special concepts in this chapter

“You will catch men”

Peter, James, and John were fishermen. When Jesus told them that they would catch men, he was using a metaphor to tell them he wanted them to help people believe the good news about him. See the last note to 5:10. (See: disciple and Metaphor)

Sinners

When the people of Jesus’ time spoke of “sinners,” they were talking about people who did not obey the law of Moses. But when Jesus said that he came to call “sinners,” he meant that only people who understand that they are sinners who have disobeyed God can be his followers. This is true even if they are not what most people think of as “sinners.” (See: sin, sinful, sinner, sinning)

Fasting and feasting

People would fast, or not eat food for a long time, when they were sad or in order to show God that they were sorry for their sins. When they were happy, such as during weddings, they would have feasts, or meals where they would eat much food. (See: fast, fasting)

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Healthy and sick people

To correct the Pharisees, Jesus speaks of healthy people who do not need a doctor. This does not mean that there are people who do not need Jesus. Rather, Jesus was explaining why he spent time with people whom the Pharisees considered to be “sinners.” See the notes to 5:31-32. (See: Metaphor)

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Implicit information

In several parts of this chapter, as in other places in the book, Luke does not explain information that his original readers would already have understood. Modern readers might not know some of those things, so they might have trouble understanding all that Luke is communicating. The alternate translations in these notes and the readings in UST often illustrate how that information can be presented so that modern readers will be able to understand these passages. (See: Translate Unknowns and Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Past events

Parts of this chapter are sequences of events that have already happened. In a given passage, Luke sometimes writes as if the events have already happened while other events are still in progress (even though they are complete at the time he writes). This can cause difficulty in translation by creating an illogical order of events. It may be necessary to make these consistent by writing as if all the events have already happened.

Luke 5:1

ἐγένετο δὲ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἀκούειν τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

Here, Luke uses word figuratively to describe the things that Jesus said by using words. Alternate translation: “listening to the the message Jesus was bringing from God” (See: Metonymy)

τὴν λίμνην Γεννησαρέτ

Lake of Gennesaret is another name for the body of water also known as the Sea of Galilee. Galilee was on the west side of this lake, and the land of Gennesaret was on the east side, so it was called by both names. Some English versions translate this as the proper name of the body of water. Alternate translation: “Lake Gennesaret” or “the Sea of Galilee” (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 5:2

ἔπλυνον τὰ δίκτυα

The implication is that they were cleaning their fishing nets to maintain them so that they could keep using them to catch fish. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “and were washing their nets to keep them clean and in good working order” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 5:3

ὃ ἦν Σίμωνος

Alternate translation: “the one that belonged to Simon”

ἠρώτησεν αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἐπαναγαγεῖν ὀλίγον

Alternate translation: “and asked Simon to move the boat away from the shore”

καθίσας

As in 4:20, sitting was the customary position for teaching in this culture. Alternate translation: “he sat down, as teachers did” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐδίδασκεν ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου τοὺς ὄχλους

Jesus was in the boat a short distance from the shore and he was speaking to the people who were on the shore. Alternate translation: “and was teaching the people while he sat in the boat”

Luke 5:4

ὡς δὲ ἐπαύσατο λαλῶν

The implication is that Jesus had been speaking in order to teach the people. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “When Jesus had finished teaching the people” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 5:5

ἀποκριθεὶς Σίμων εἶπεν

Together the words answering and said mean that Simon responded to Jesus’ instructions to take the boat out and let down the nets. Alternate translation: “Simon responded” (See: Hendiadys)

ἐπὶ δὲ τῷ ῥήματί σου

Here Peter uses word figuratively to refer to what Jesus commanded him by using words. Alternate translation: “but because you have told me to do this” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 5:7

κατένευσαν τοῖς μετόχοις

The Greek text does not specify how they signaled, but since they were some distance from the shore, it may have been by waving their arms rather than by calling out. You can use a general expression here. Alternate translation: “they summoned their partners”

βυθίζεσθαι αὐτά

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state the reason for this explicitly. Alternate translation: “they began to sink because the fish were so heavy” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 5:8

προσέπεσεν τοῖς γόνασιν Ἰησοῦ

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that Peter did not fall down accidentally. Rather, bowing or lying down in front of Jesus was a sign of humility and respect. Alternate translation: “he bowed down in front of Jesus” (See: Symbolic Action)

ἀνὴρ ἁμαρτωλός

Here, man means “adult male,” not the more general “human being.” So Peter is not saying generally, “I am a sinful person.” He really does mean, “I personally am a sinful man.” Be sure that that is clear in your translation. (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

Luke 5:9

θάμβος…περιέσχεν αὐτὸν καὶ πάντας τοὺς σὺν αὐτῷ

Luke describes Peter’s amazement figuratively as if it were something that could actively take hold of him. Alternate translation: “he and and the other fishermen were completely amazed” (See: Personification)

τῇ ἄγρᾳ τῶν ἰχθύων

The implication is that this was a very large catch. Alternate translation: “the great number of fish” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 5:10

Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάννην, υἱοὺς Ζεβεδαίου

James and John are the names of men, and Zebedee is the name of their father. (See: How to Translate Names)

κοινωνοὶ τῷ Σίμωνι

Luke provides this information to introduce these new participants in the story. Alternate translation: “who were Simon’s partners in the fishing business” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἀνθρώπους ἔσῃ ζωγρῶν

Jesus is using the image of catching fish figuratively to describe gathering people to follow him. Alternate translation: “you will gather people for me” or “you will persuade people to become my disciples” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 5:11

τὴν γῆν

Alternate translation: “the shore”

Luke 5:12

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἰδοὺ

Luke uses behold to call the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: Metaphor)

ἀνὴρ πλήρης λέπρας

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was a man there who was covered with leprosy” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

πεσὼν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον

This phrase is an idiom that means that he bowed down. Make sure that it is clear in your translation that the man did not fall down accidentally. Alternate translation: “he knelt down and touched the ground with his face” or “he bowed down to the ground” (See: Idiom)

ἐὰν θέλῃς

Alternate translation: “if you want to”

δύνασαί με καθαρίσαι

The man is actually using this statement to make a request. Alternate translation: “please make me clean” (See: Statements — Other Uses)

με καθαρίσαι

The man talks about becoming clean ceremonially, but it is implicit that he has become unclean because of his leprosy, so he is really asking Jesus to heal him of this disease. Alternate translation: “heal me from leprosy” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 5:13

καθαρίσθητι

This was not a command that the man was capable of obeying. Instead, this was a command that directly caused the man to be healed. Alternate translation: “I heal you from your leprosy” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

ἡ λέπρα ἀπῆλθεν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

Luke speaks figuratively of the man’s leprosy as if it were something that could actively go away from him. Alternate translation: “the man no longer had leprosy” (See: Personification)

Luke 5:14

αὐτὸς παρήγγειλεν αὐτῷ, μηδενὶ εἰπεῖν, ἀλλὰ ἀπελθὼν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate all of Jesus’ instructions as a direct quotation. Alternate translation: “he instructed him, ‘Do not tell anyone, but go’” (See: Direct and Indirect Quotations)

μηδενὶ εἰπεῖν

The implication is that the man is not to tell anyone that Jesus healed him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation, as a direct quotation: “Do not tell anyone that you have been healed” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

προσένεγκε περὶ τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ σου καθὼς προσέταξεν Μωϋσῆς

Jesus assumes that the man will know that the law required a person who had been healed from a skin disease to make a specific sacrifice. This made the person ceremonially clean and they could participate once again in community religious activities. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “offer the sacrifice that Moses commanded so that you can become ceremonially clean once again” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς

A priest would have to examine the man and certify that he had been healed before he would be allowed to offer this sacrifice. Alternate translation: “to certify for everone that you have been healed” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

αὐτοῖς

Them could mean either “the priests,” which is the interpretation that UST follows, or “all the people.” You could say either as an alternate translation. (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 5:15

διήρχετο…μᾶλλον ὁ λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ

Luke speaks figuratively of this word as if it were something that could spread around actively by itself. This expression means that more and more people told others about what Jesus was doing. Alternate translation: “people spread the news about Jesus” (See: Personification)

ὁ λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ

Luke uses the term word figuratively to describe the news about Jesus that people spread by using words. Alternate translation: “the news about Jesus” (See: Metonymy)

θεραπεύεσθαι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “for Jesus to heal them” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 5:16

αὐτὸς…ἦν ὑποχωρῶν ἐν ταῖς ἐρήμοις καὶ προσευχόμενος

This expression was withdrawing indicates habitual action. Alternate translation: “he often withdrew to places where there were no other people so that he could pray”

ταῖς ἐρήμοις

Alternate translation: “places where there were no other people”

Luke 5:17

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐκ πάσης κώμης τῆς Γαλιλαίας, καὶ Ἰουδαίας

Luke generalizes by saying every in order to emphasize from how many different villages these religious leaders came. Alternate translation: “from villages throughout Galilee and Judea” (See: Hyperbole)

δύναμις Κυρίου ἦν εἰς τὸ ἰᾶσθαι αὐτόν

As often in this book, upon is a spatial metaphor. In this case, it means that the power of the Lord was with Jesus in a special way, specifically, to enable him to heal people. Alternate translation: “the Lord was giving Jesus special power to heal people” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 5:18

ἰδοὺ

Luke uses the term behold to calls the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: Metaphor)

ἄνδρες φέροντες ἐπὶ κλίνης ἄνθρωπον ὃς ἦν παραλελυμένος

Luke uses this phrase to introduce these new characters into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there were some men who were carrying a paralyzed man on a mat” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

κλίνης

A mat was a portable bed that could also be used to transport a person. Alternate translation: “a stretcher” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἦν παραλελυμένος

Alternate translation: “was unable to move by himself”

ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ

Here, before means “in front of.” Alternate translation: “in front of Jesus” or “where Jesus could see him”

Luke 5:19

καὶ μὴ εὑρόντες ποίας εἰσενέγκωσιν αὐτὸν διὰ τὸν ὄχλον

If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “But because the crowd of people had filled the house, they could not find a way to bring the man inside” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

διὰ τὸν ὄχλον

The implication is that they could not enter because the crowd was so large that there was no room for them. Alternate translation: “because the crowd of people had filled the house” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀναβάντες ἐπὶ τὸ δῶμα

In this culture, houses had flat roofs, and many houses had a staircase outside that provided access to the housetop. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “they went up the outside staircase onto the flat roof of the house” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

καθῆκαν αὐτὸν

Alternate translation: “and lowered the man down”

εἰς τὸ μέσον

Luke is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need to be complete. Alternate translation: “into the midst of the people” (See: Ellipsis)

ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ

Here, the term before means “in front of.” Alternate translation: “in front of Jesus” or “where Jesus could see him”

Luke 5:20

καὶ ἰδὼν τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν

The implication is that Jesus recognized that the friends of this paralyzed man strongly believed that he could heal him. Their actions proved that. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “When Jesus recognized that the man’s friends were convinced that he could heal him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἄνθρωπε

Man was a general word that people used in this culture when speaking to a man whose name they did not know. If your language has a term that it uses for this same purpose, you can use it in your translation here. Alternate translation: “Friend”

ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁμαρτίαι σου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “I forgive your sins” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 5:21

οἱ γραμματεῖς

Here and elsewhere in the book, the term the scribes does not refer to people who make copies of documents. Rather, it refers to people who were teachers of the Jewish law, which they had studied extensively. Alternate translation: “the teachers of the Jewish law” (See: Translate Unknowns)

οἱ Φαρισαῖοι

Pharisees is the name of an important and powerful group of Jewish religious leaders in Jesus’ time. The name occurs many times in this book. (See: How to Translate Names)

διαλογίζεσθαι

These men were not debating or arguing out loud, since the next verse shows that this was rather something they were thinking. So this implicitly means that they were wondering. Alternate translation: “to wonder” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

λέγοντες

Luke uses the word saying to introduce his quotation of what the religious leaders were thinking. If you indicate the quotation in some other way, such as with quotation marks or with some other punctuation or convention that your language uses, you do not need to represent this word in your translation. (See: Quote Markings)

τίς ἐστιν οὗτος ὃς λαλεῖ βλασφημίας?

These religious leaders do not expect someone to tell them who Jesus is. Instead, they are using the question form to emphasize how inappropriate they think it is for Jesus to tell someone that he forgives their sins. As the next sentence explains, they think this means Jesus was claiming to be God, and so in their view, he would be speaking blasphemies. If it would be clearer for your readers, you could translate their words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “This man is speaking blasphemies!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τίς δύναται ἀφιέναι ἁμαρτίας εἰ μὴ μόνος ὁ Θεός?

Once again the religious leaders are using a question form for emphasis, and you can translate their words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “No one can forgive sins but God alone!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 5:22

ἐπιγνοὺς…τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς αὐτῶν

This phrase indicates that they were reasoning silently, so the implication is that Jesus sensed what they were thinking. Alternate translation: “sensing what they were thinking” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to what the religious leaders were thinking. Alternate translation: “responded to them” (See: Hendiadys)

τί διαλογίζεσθε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν?

Jesus does not expect the religious leaders to explain why they are thinking these things. Instead, he is using the question form to emphasize that they should not be thinking them. If it would be clearer for your readers, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You should not be thinking these things!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

διαλογίζεσθε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν

The term hearts figuratively represents the thoughts of these people. Alternate translation: “are you thinking these things” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 5:23

τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον, εἰπεῖν, ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁμαρτίαι σου, ἢ εἰπεῖν, ἔγειρε καὶ περιπάτει?

Jesus is using the form of a question in order to teach. He wants to make the scribes and Pharisees reflect on the situation and realize something. There are many implications. For example, these religious leaders may take the question in the sense, “Which is easier to get away with saying?” The answer would be, “Your sins are forgiven,” because people don’t expect visual proof of that, whereas if someone says, “Get up and walk,” and nothing happens, that proves the speaker doesn’t have the power to heal. Jesus likely intends the question in a different sense: “Which is the easier way to deal with a situation like this?” It appears that the man’s sickness has something to do with his sins, because Jesus forgives them. In such a situation, it would not be sufficient to say, “Get up and walk,” since that would address the effect but not the cause. To say, “Your sins are forgiven,” would deal with both the cause and the effect, so that would be the easier way to deal with the situation. There are many other implications that could also be drawn out as well—too many to include in the text of a translation. Since the question form is intrinsic to Jesus’ teaching method, you may wish simply to retain it in your translation. However, to show that he is teaching, not asking for information, you could introduce his question with a phrase that indicates its purpose. Alternate translation: “Think about this. Which is easier, to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Get up and walk'?” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον, εἰπεῖν, ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁμαρτίαι σου, ἢ εἰπεῖν, ἔγειρε καὶ περιπάτει?

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “Is it easier to tell someone that his sins are forgiven, or to tell him to get up and walk?” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

Luke 5:24

ὅτι ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου ἐξουσίαν ἔχει

Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “that I, the Son of Man, have authority” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ὅτι ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

The title Son of Man is equivalent to “Messiah.” Jesus uses it to claim that role subtly and implicitly. You may want to translate this title directly into your language. On the other hand, if you think it would be helpful to your readers, you could state what it means. Alternate translation: “that the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἔγειρε

As in 5:13, this was not a command that the man was able to obey. Instead, this was a command that directly caused the man to be healed. Alternate translation: “I heal you, so you can get up” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

Luke 5:25

καὶ παραχρῆμα ἀναστὰς

The implication is that the man was able to get up because Jesus had healed him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “And all at once the man was healed, so he got up” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν

Here, the term before means “in front of.” Alternate translation: “in front of everyone” or “where everyone could see him”

Luke 5:26

ἔκστασις ἔλαβεν ἅπαντας

Luke describes the amazement of the crowd figuratively as if it were something that could actively take hold of the people. Alternate translation: “they were all completely amazed” (See: Personification)

ἐπλήσθησαν φόβου λέγοντες

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “fear filled them and they said” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐπλήσθησαν φόβου

Luke describes the fear of the crowd figuratively as if it were something that could actively fill the people. Alternate translation: “they became very afraid” (See: Personification)

Luke 5:27

καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event. The expression these things refers to what the previous verses describe. Alternate translation: “After that” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐξῆλθεν

The pronoun he refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus left that house” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἐθεάσατο τελώνην

The Greek word that Luke uses for saw indicates that Jesus gave careful attention to this man when he saw him. Alternate translation: “observed a tax collector” or “looked carefully at a tax collector”

ἀκολούθει μοι

In this context, to follow someone means to become that person’s disciple. Alternate translation: “Become my disciple” or “Come, follow me as your teacher” (See: Idiom)

ἀκολούθει μοι

Follow me is not a command, but an invitation. Jesus is encouraging Levi to do this if he wants. Alternate translation: “I want you to become my disciple” or “I invite you to come and follow me as your teacher” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

Luke 5:28

καταλιπὼν πάντα

Here, everything is a generalization that refers to Levi’s position as a tax collector and the advantages that came with it. Alternate translation: “leaving his work as a tax collector” (See: Hyperbole)

καταλιπὼν πάντα, ἀναστὰς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases. Alternate translation: “he got up and left everything behind” (See: Order of Events)

Luke 5:29

καὶ

Luke uses this word to indicate that the event he will now relate came after the event he has just described. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: Connect — Sequential Time Relationship)

ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐτοῦ

The pronoun his refers to Levi, not to Jesus. Alternate translation: “in his own house” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

κατακείμενοι

In this culture, the manner of eating at a feast was to lie on a couch and prop oneself up with the left arm on some pillows. Alternate translation: “lying on banqueting couches” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 5:30

πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ

In this case, the pronoun his refers to Jesus, not to Levi. Alternate translation: “to Jesus’ disciples” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

διὰ τί μετὰ τῶν τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν ἐσθίετε καὶ πίνετε?

The Pharisees and scribes are using the question form to express their disapproval. They believed that religious people should separate themselves from people whom they considered to be sinners If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate their words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You should not eat and drink with sinful tax collectors!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἐσθίετε καὶ πίνετε

The word you is plural, since the Pharisees are speaking to the disciples as a group, not to one particular disciple. (See: Forms of You)

ἐσθίετε καὶ πίνετε

The Pharisees are figuratively using the two components of a meal to mean an entire meal. Alternate translation: “share meals” (See: Merism)

μετὰ τῶν τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν

The Pharisees may be expressing a single idea by using two words connected with and. The previous verse says that there were many tax collectors at this banquet. So the term sinners may tell what the Pharisees thought these tax collectors were. Alternate translation: “with sinful tax collectors” (See: Hendiadys)

Luke 5:31

ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to what the religious leaders were complaining about. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded” (See: Hendiadys)

οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν οἱ ὑγιαίνοντες ἰατροῦ, ἀλλὰ οἱ κακῶς ἔχοντες

Jesus begins his response by quoting or creating a proverb, a short saying about something that is generally true in life. This proverb draws a figurative comparison. Just as sick people need to see a doctor to be healed, so sinners need to see Jesus in order to be forgiven and restored. But since Jesus explains the comparison in the next verse, you do not need to explain it here. Rather, you can translate the proverb itself in a way that will be meaningful in your language and culture. Alternate translation: “People who are well do not need to see a doctor; people who are sick do” (See: Proverbs)

ἀλλὰ οἱ κακῶς ἔχοντες

The proverb expresses the idea compactly, and so it leaves out some words. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could supply those words. Alternate translation: “rather, it is people who are sick who need a doctor” (See: Ellipsis)

Luke 5:32

δικαίους

Luke is using the adjective righteous as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “righteous people” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

ἀλλὰ ἁμαρτωλοὺς εἰς μετάνοιαν

Once again Jesus expresses the idea compactly and leaves out some words. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could supply those words. Alternate translation: “rather, I came to call sinners to repentance” (See: Ellipsis)

εἰς μετάνοιαν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun repentance with a verb. Alternate translation: “to repent” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 5:33

οἱ δὲ εἶπαν

The pronoun they refers to the Pharisees and scribes. Alternate translation: “Then the religious leaders said” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Ἰωάννου

The Pharisees and scribes assume that Jesus will know that they are referring to John the Baptist. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

οἱ δὲ σοὶ ἐσθίουσιν καὶ πίνουσιν

There is an implied challenge and question in this observation. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state it explicitly. Alternate translation: “But your disciples do not fast, and we want you to tell us why” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐσθίουσιν καὶ πίνουσιν

The Pharisees are figuratively using the two components of a meal to mean an entire meal. Alternate translation: “continue to have meals” (See: Merism)

Luke 5:34

μὴ δύνασθε τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ νυμφῶνος ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετ’ αὐτῶν ἐστιν ποιῆσαι νηστεύειν?

The first word of this sentence in Greek is a negative word that can be used to turn a negative statement into a question that expects a negative answer. ULT shows this by adding are you? Your language may have other ways of asking a question that expects a negative answer, for example, by changing the word order of a positive statement. Translate this in the way that would be clearest in your language. Alternate translation: “Can you actually make the groom’s party at a wedding fast while the groom is still with them” (See: Double Negatives)

μὴ δύνασθε τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ νυμφῶνος ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετ’ αὐτῶν ἐστιν ποιῆσαι νηστεύειν?

Jesus is using the question form to teach. He wants the scribes and Pharisees to reflect on the actions of his disciples in light of a situation they are already familiar with. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “No one tells the groom’s party at a wedding to fast while the groom is still with them!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ νυμφῶνος

The expression sons of is a Hebrew idiom that means a person shares the qualities of something. In this case, Jesus is describing people who share the quality of being an integral part of a wedding. These are the male friends who attend the groom during the ceremony and the festivities. Alternate translation: “the groom’s party” (See: Idiom)

Luke 5:35

ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι καὶ

Here Jesus is using days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “But there will certainly be a time” (See: Idiom)

ἀπαρθῇ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος

Jesus is speaking of himself figuratively as the bridegroom, and of his disciples as the groom’s party. He does not explain the metaphor, so you do not need to explain it in your translation unless you think your readers will not understand it. (See: Metaphor)

ἀπαρθῇ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “someone will take the bridegroom away from them” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις

Jesus is again using the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “at that time” (See: Idiom)

Luke 5:36

ἔλεγεν δὲ καὶ παραβολὴν πρὸς αὐτοὺς

Jesus gives a brief illustration that teaches something true in a way that is easy to understand and remember. Alternate translation: “Then he gave them this illustration to help them understand better” (See: Parables)

ἐπιβάλλει ἐπὶ ἱμάτιον παλαιόν

Alternate translation: “uses it to patch an old garment”

εἰ δὲ μή γε

Jesus uses this expression to introduce a hypothetical situation that explains the reason why a person would not actually mend a garment in that way. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “Suppose someone did do that” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

Luke 5:37

ἀσκοὺς

These were bags made out of animal skins. They were used for holding wine. If your readers would not be familiar with wineskins, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “leather bags” (See: Translate Unknowns)

εἰ δὲ μή γε

Jesus uses this expression once again to introduce a hypothetical situation that explains the reason why a person would not put new wine in an old wineskin. Alternate translation: “Suppose someone did do that” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

ῥήξει ὁ οἶνος ὁ νέος τοὺς ἀσκούς

When the new wine fermented and expanded, it would break the old skins because they could no longer stretch. Jesus’ audience would have understood this information about wine fermenting and expanding and about old leather losing its suppleness. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the new wine would burst the old wineskins because they would no longer be able to expand when the wine fermented” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

αὐτὸς ἐκχυθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the wine would spill out of the bags” (See: Active or Passive)

οἱ ἀσκοὶ ἀπολοῦνται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the leather bags would tear and become useless” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 5:38

ἀσκοὺς καινοὺς

See how you translated the term wineskins in 5:37. Alternate translation: “fresh leather bags”

Luke 5:39

οὐδεὶς πιὼν παλαιὸν θέλει νέον

Jesus is leaving out some of the words. You can supply them in your translation if that would be clearer in your language. Alternate translation: “No one who is used to drinking old wine wants to try new wine” (See: Ellipsis)

οὐδεὶς πιὼν παλαιὸν θέλει νέον

Jesus is figuratively contrasting the old teaching of the religious leaders with his own new teaching. The point is that people who are used to the old teaching are not receptive to the new things that he is bringing. Jesus does not explain the metaphor, so you do not need to explain it in your translation unless you think your readers will not understand it. (See: Metaphor)

Luke 6

Luke 6 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus teaches about the Sabbath (6:1-11)
  2. Jesus chooses twelve apostles (6:12-16)
  3. Jesus teaches about being his disciple (6:17-49)

The long teaching in Luke 6:20-49 begins with blessings and woes that are similar to the beginning of the long teaching in Matthew 5-7. That part of Matthew has traditionally been called the “Sermon on the Mount.” The teaching here in Luke has many other similarities with the one in Matthew’s gospel. (See: kingdom of God, kingdom of heaven)

Special concepts in this chapter

“Eating the grain”

When the disciples plucked and ate the grain in a field they were walking through on the Sabbath (Luke 6:1), the Pharisees said that they were breaking the law of Moses. The Pharisees said this because they thought that the disciples were doing work by picking the grain, and so they were disobeying God’s command to rest and not work on the Sabbath. The Pharisees did not think the disciples were stealing. That is because the law of Moses told farmers to allow travelers to pluck and eat small amounts of grain from plants in fields that they traveled through or near. (See: law, law of Moses, law of Yahweh, law of God and work, works, deeds and Sabbath)

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

The twelve disciples

The following are the lists of the twelve disciples:

In Matthew:

Simon (Peter), Andrew, James son of Zebedee, John son of Zebedee, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot and Judas Iscariot.

In Mark:

Simon (Peter), Andrew, James the son of Zebedee and John the son of Zebedee (to whom he gave the name Boanerges, that is, sons of thunder), Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot.

In Luke:

Simon (Peter), Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, Simon (who was called the Zealot), Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot.

The man whom Luke calls Judas the son of James is probably the same man whom Matthew and Mark call Thaddaeus. However, you do not need to explain that in your translation or give both names. You can translate Luke’s list as he wrote it, and allow Bible teachers to explain the reason for the difference.

Luke 6:1

ἐγένετο δὲ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

σπορίμων

These were large sections of land where people had scattered wheat seed in order to grow more wheat. Wheat is a kind of grain plant, and grain is a type of large grass that has edible seeds. If your readers would not be familiar with this type of plant, you could use a general expression in your translation. Alternate translation: “the areas where people were growing plants with edible seeds” (See: Translate Unknowns)

στάχυας

The heads are the topmost part of the grain plant. They hold the mature, edible seeds. Alternate translation: “parts that held the seeds” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ψώχοντες ταῖς χερσίν

The implication is that they did this to separate out the grain seeds. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “rubbing them in their hands to separate the seeds from the other parts of the plant” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 6:2

τί ποιεῖτε ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν τοῖς Σάββασιν?

The Pharisees are using the question form to make an accusation. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate their words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You are doing something that the law does not permit you to do on the Sabbath!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τί ποιεῖτε ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν τοῖς Σάββασιν?

The Pharisees considered even the small action of plucking and rubbing heads of grain to be harvesting, and therefore work. You could state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “You are harvesting grain, and that is work that the law does not permit you to do on the Sabbath!” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τί ποιεῖτε

Here, you is plural. It refers to the disciples. (See: Forms of You)

Luke 6:3

ἀποκριθεὶς πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to the objection that the Pharisees raised. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded to them” (See: Hendiadys)

οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἀνέγνωτε, ὃ ἐποίησεν Δαυεὶδ ὅτε ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς, καὶ οἱ μετ’ αὐτοῦ ὄντες

Jesus does not expect the Pharisees to tell him whether they have read this passage in the Scriptures. Instead, he is using the question form to emphasize that the Pharisees should have learned a principle from that passage that indicates that they are wrong to criticize the disciples. If it would be clearer for your readers, you could translate his words as a statement. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “The Scriptures suggest otherwise, in the passage that tells what David did when he and those who were with him were hungry.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 6:4

ὡς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ

If you made the first part of the quotation in 6:3 a separate sentence, begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “He entered into the house of God”

τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ

Jesus is figuratively describing the tabernacle as the house of God. He is speaking as if it were the place where God lived, since God’s presence was there. Alternate translation: “the tabernacle” (See: Metaphor)

τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς Προθέσεως

The phrase the bread of the presence refers to loaves of bread that were placed on a table in the temple as an offering to God. They represented how the people of Israel lived in the presence of God. Alternate translation: “the bread that was offered to God” or “the bread that showed God lived among the people” (See: Translate Unknowns)

οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν, εἰ μὴ μόνους τοὺς ἱερεῖς

It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “The law says that only the priests can eat that bread”

Luke 6:5

ἐστιν…ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

Jesus is speaking of himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah, am” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ἐστιν…ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

See how you translated this title in 5:24. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah, am” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ Σαββάτου

The title Lord figuratively describes Jesus’ authority over the Sabbath. Alternate translation: “has authority over the Sabbath” or, if you translated in the first person, “have authority over the Sabbath” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 6:6

ἐγένετο δὲ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖ

This expression introduces a new character into the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ ἡ δεξιὰ ἦν ξηρά

This means that the man’s hand was damaged in such a way that he could not stretch it out. It was probably bent almost into a fist, making it look smaller. Alternate translation: “his right hand was shriveled” or “his right hand was atrophied” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 6:7

παρετηροῦντο…αὐτὸν

The pronoun him refers to Jesus, not to the man with the withered hand. Alternate translation: “were watching Jesus carefully” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἵνα εὕρωσιν κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ

Luke is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. Alternate translation: “because they wanted to find something that they could accuse him of” (See: Ellipsis)

Luke 6:8

στῆθι εἰς τὸ μέσον

The implication is that Jesus wanted this man to stand where everyone could see him. Alternate translation: “stand here where everyone can see you” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 6:9

πρὸς αὐτούς

The pronoun them refers to the scribes and Pharisees. Alternate translation: “to the scribes and Pharisees” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἐπερωτῶ ὑμᾶς, εἰ ἔξεστιν τῷ Σαββάτῳ ἀγαθοποιῆσαι ἢ κακοποιῆσαι, ψυχὴν σῶσαι ἢ ἀπολέσαι?

Jesus asks this question to get the Pharisees to admit that it is legitimate to heal on the Sabbath. The intent of the question is therefore rhetorical. Jesus is not trying to obtain information; he wants someone to admit that something is true. However, Jesus says, “I ask you,” so this question is not like other rhetorical questions that might appropriately be translated as statements. This one should be translated as a question. (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἀγαθοποιῆσαι ἢ κακοποιῆσαι

Alternate translation: “to help someone or to harm someone”

Luke 6:10

περιβλεψάμενος πάντας αὐτοὺς, εἶπεν αὐτῷ

The pronoun he refers to Jesus, and him refers to the man with the withered hand. Alternate translation: “Jesus looked around at them all and said to the man” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἔκτεινον τὴν χεῖρά σου

This was not a command that the man was capable of obeying. Instead, this was a command that directly caused the man to be healed. Alternate translation: “I heal you, so you can stretch out your hand” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

ἀποκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “his hand became healthy again” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 6:11

αὐτοὶ…ἐπλήσθησαν ἀνοίας

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “they became furious” (See: Active or Passive)

αὐτοὶ…ἐπλήσθησαν ἀνοίας

Luke speaks figuratively of the rage of the scribes and Pharisees as if it were something that could actively fill them. Alternate translation: “they became furious” (See: Personification)

τί ἂν ποιήσαιεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ

The implication is that these religious leaders perceived Jesus as a threat and they wanted to get rid of him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly, as UST does. (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 6:12

ἐγένετο δὲ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις

Here Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “at that time” (See: Idiom)

ἐξελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ ὄρος

While the term mountain is definite here, it does not seem to refer to a specific, identifiable mountain. Rather, as many languages do, here the Greek is using a definite expression in a general sense. Alternate translation: “Jesus went up a mountain” or “Jesus climbed a high hill”

ἐξελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ ὄρος

The implication is that Jesus did this so that he could be alone and pray about whom to choose as his disciples. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus went up a mountain where he could be alone” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 6:13

ὅτε ἐγένετο ἡμέρα

Alternate translation: “the next morning”

ἐκλεξάμενος ἀπ’ αὐτῶν δώδεκα

The pronoun them refers to the disciples. Alternate translation: “he chose 12 of those disciples” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

οὓς καὶ ἀποστόλους ὠνόμασεν

The term apostles comes from a Greek word that originally meant “messengers” or “delegates.” It took on a specialized meaning within the community of Jesus’ followers to mean the 12 men whom Jesus chose to be his authoritative representatives. Many languages have borrowed the Greek word to use in this sense. But if your language has developed its own special term for this role, use it in your translation. Alternate translation: “and he appointed them to be apostles”

Luke 6:14

Σίμωνα…Πέτρον…Ἀνδρέαν…Ἰάκωβον…Ἰωάννην…Φίλιππον…Βαρθολομαῖον

These are seven men’s names. (The second name is a nickname for the first man.) (See: How to Translate Names)

Ἀνδρέαν τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ

The pronoun his refers to Simon. Alternate translation: “Simon’s brother, Andrew” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 6:15

Μαθθαῖον…Θωμᾶν…Ἰάκωβον Ἁλφαίου…Σίμωνα

These are the names of five men. (See: How to Translate Names)

Μαθθαῖον

Matthew is often identified with the man named Levi whom Jesus calls to follow him in 5:27. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain that, as UST does. (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Ζηλωτὴν

The term Zealot could mean: (1) It may be a title that indicates that this man was part of the group of people who wanted to free the Jewish people from Roman rule. Alternate translation: “the Patriot” (2) It may be a description that indicates that this man was zealous for God to be honored. Alternate translation: “the Passionate One” (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 6:16

Ἰούδαν Ἰακώβου

Judas is the name of a man, and James is the name of his father. (See: How to Translate Names)

Ἰούδαν Ἰσκαριὼθ

Judas is the name of a man, and Iscariot is a distinguishing term that most likely means he came from the village of Kerioth. (See: How to Translate Names)

ὃς ἐγένετο προδότης

It may be helpful to explain what traitor means in the context of this story. Alternate translation: “who later betrayed Jesus to his enemies” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 6:17

μετ’ αὐτῶν

In this context, them refers to all of the disciples whom Jesus called to himself in 6:13. Alternate translation: “with his disciples” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἀπὸ πάσης

This is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “from throughout” (See: Hyperbole)

Luke 6:18

ἰαθῆναι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “for Jesus to heal them” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ οἱ ἐνοχλούμενοι ἀπὸ πνευμάτων ἀκαθάρτων ἐθεραπεύοντο

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “Jesus also drove evil spirits out of the people they were controlling” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 6:19

πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος…πάντας

In this case these terms are not generalizations, and so you can translate them directly, rather than with explanatory words such as “most” or “many.” (See: Hyperbole)

δύναμις παρ’ αὐτοῦ ἐξήρχετο καὶ ἰᾶτο πάντας

Luke speaks figuratively of this power as if it were something that could actively come out of Jesus and heal people. Alternate translation: “Jesus was using the power that God gave him to heal everyone” (See: Personification)

Luke 6:20

αὐτὸς ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ

This is an idiom that means “he looked,” but it means that he looked carefully and considerately. Alternate translation: “he gazed” (See: Idiom)

μακάριοι

This expression indicates that God is giving favor to people and that their situation is positive or good. Alternate translation: “God will bless” or “How good it is for” (See: Idiom)

οἱ πτωχοί

Jesus is using the adjective poor as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are poor” or “you who are poor” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

ὅτι ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

See how you decided to translate the phrase the kingdom of God in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “because God is ruling your lives” (See: Abstract Nouns)

ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

This could mean one of two things. Alternate translation: (1) “the kingdom of God belongs to you” (2) “you are privileged within the kingdom of God”

Luke 6:21

μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν

As in 6:20, the expression blessed indicates that God is giving favor to people or that their situation is positive or good. Alternate translation: “You who are hungry now receive God’s favor” or “You who are hungry now are in a positive situation” (See: Idiom)

χορτασθήσεσθε

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “you will get enough to eat” (See: Active or Passive)

μακάριοι οἱ κλαίοντες νῦν

Alternate translation: “You who are weeping now receive God’s favor” or “You who are weeping now are in a positive situation” (See: Idiom)

γελάσετε

Jesus is figuratively describing people being happy by association with one thing that people do when they are happy. Alternate translation: “you will laugh with joy” or “you will become joyful again” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 6:22

μακάριοί ἐστε

As in 6:20, the expression blessed indicates that God is giving favor to people or that their situation is positive or good. Alternate translation: “You receive God’s favor” or “How good it is for you” (See: Idiom)

ἀφορίσωσιν ὑμᾶς

Alternate translation: “they reject you”

ἐκβάλωσιν τὸ ὄνομα ὑμῶν ὡς πονηρὸν

The term name is a figurative way of referring to the reputation of a person. Alternate translation: “consider you to have a bad reputation” (See: Metonymy)

ἕνεκα τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

Alternate translation: “because you associate with the Son of Man” or “because they reject the Son of Man”

ἕνεκα τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

Jesus is speaking about himself in the third person, using this title to emphasize the special role that God has given him. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “because you associate with me, the Son of Man” or “because they reject me, the Son of Man” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ἕνεκα τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

See how you translated this title in 5:24. Alternate translation: “because you associate with me, the Messiah” or “because they reject me, the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 6:23

ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ

Here Jesus uses day figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “when they do those things” or “when that happens” (See: Idiom)

σκιρτήσατε

This is an idiom that means to be extremely joyful. Jesus is not telling the disciples literally to jump into the air. Alternate translation: “be very happy” or “celebrate” (See: Idiom)

ἰδοὺ γὰρ

Jesus uses the term behold to get his disciples to focus their attention on what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “because, listen carefully now” (See: Metaphor)

ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς

Your language may require you to say who will do this action. Alternate translation: “God will reward you greatly”

οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν

Here, fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “their ancestors” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 6:24

οὐαὶ ὑμῖν

The phrase woe to you is the opposite of “blessed are you.” It indicates that bad things are going to happen to the people being addressed, because they have displeased God. Alternate translation: “how terrible it is for you” or “trouble will come to you” (See: Idiom)

τοῖς πλουσίοις

Jesus is using the adjective rich as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are rich” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

ἀπέχετε τὴν παράκλησιν ὑμῶν

Jesus is drawing a series of contrasts between what the poor and the rich have now and what they will have later. So the implication is that while the rich have enjoyed ease and prosperity in this life, if they become complacent in those things, they will not enjoy it afterwards. Alternate translation: “you have already received in this life anything that will make you comfortable” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 6:25

οὐαὶ ὑμῖν

See how you translated this in 6:24. Alternate translation: “How terrible it is for you” or “Trouble will come to you” (See: Idiom)

οἱ ἐμπεπλησμένοι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “who have more than enough to eat” (See: Active or Passive)

οἱ γελῶντες

Laughing refers figuratively to being happy by association with something that people do when they are happy. Alternate translation: “to the ones who are happy” (See: Metonymy)

πενθήσετε καὶ κλαύσετε

The phrase mourn and weep expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word mourn tells why these people are weeping. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “you will weep mournfully” or “you will weep because you are so sad” (See: Hendiadys)

Luke 6:26

οὐαὶ

See how you translated this in 6:24. Alternate translation: “How terrible it is for you” or “Trouble will come to you” (See: Idiom)

ὅταν ὑμᾶς καλῶς εἴπωσιν πάντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι

Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “when all people speak well of you” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

ὅταν ὑμᾶς καλῶς εἴπωσιν πάντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι

The term all is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “when most people speak well of you” (See: Hyperbole)

κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ…ἐποίουν τοῖς ψευδοπροφήταις οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν

Here, fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “their ancestors also spoke well of the false prophets” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 6:27

ἀλλὰ ὑμῖν λέγω τοῖς ἀκούουσιν

Jesus uses this phrase to broaden his audience to the entire crowd, beyond his disciples. At the same time, the phrase also calls everyone to focus their attention on what Jesus is about to say. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “Now I want all of you to listen carefully to this” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν, καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς

These two phrases mean similar things. Jesus is using repetition to emphasize the importance of what he is saying. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. However, there is a slight difference in meaning, and you could also choose to bring that out in your translation. The second phrase specifies in what way followers of Jesus are to love their enemies. They are to do this in a practical way by helping them. Alternate translation: “do good things for people even if they are hostile to you” or “show love to your enemies who hate you by doing things to help them” (See: Parallelism)

Luke 6:28

εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς, προσεύχεσθε περὶ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς

These two phrases mean similar things. Jesus is using repetition to emphasize the importance of what he is saying. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Instead, you could combine them into a single phrase. However, there is a slight difference in meaning, and you could also choose to bring that out in your translation. The second phrase specifies one way in which followers of Jesus can bless people who mistreat them. They can pray for them. Alternate translation: “Ask God to bless people who say and do bad things to you” or “Say good things to people who say bad things to you, and even if someone treats you badly, pray that God will help them” (See: Parallelism)

Luke 6:29

τῷ τύπτοντί σε ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα, πάρεχε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην

Jesus is using a hypothetical situation to teach. Alternate translation: “Suppose someone hits you on one side of your face. Then turn your face so that he could also strike the other side” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

σε…σου

Even though Jesus is still speaking to his disciples and the crowd, he is now addressing an individual situation, so you and your are singular in this verse. But if the singular forms of these pronouns would not be natural in your language for someone who was speaking to a group of people, you could use the plural forms in your translation. (See: Singular Pronouns that refer to Groups)

ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα

Alternate translation: “on one side of your face”

πάρεχε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην

It may be helpful to state the implicit purpose of this action. Alternate translation: “turn your face so that he could also strike the other side, to show that you do not want to fight and you are not resisting” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντός σου τὸ ἱμάτιον, καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα μὴ κωλύσῃς

Jesus is using another hypothetical situation to teach. Alternate translation: “suppose someone takes away your cloak. Then give him your tunic as well” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα μὴ κωλύσῃς

Here Jesus uses a figure of speech that expresses a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “give him your tunic as well” (See: Litotes)

Luke 6:30

παντὶ αἰτοῦντί σε, δίδου

Jesus is using another hypothetical situation to teach. Alternate translation: “Suppose someone asks you for something. Then give it to him” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

σε…σὰ

Even though Jesus is speaking to his disciples and the crowd, he is addressing another individual situation here, so you and yours are singular in this verse. If the singular forms of these pronouns would not be natural in your language, you can use the plural forms in your translation. (See: Singular Pronouns that refer to Groups)

ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντος τὰ σὰ, μὴ ἀπαίτει

Jesus is using another hypothetical situation to teach. Alternate translation: “suppose someone takes away something that is yours. Then do not demand that he give it back” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

Luke 6:31

καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι, ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως

In some languages it might be more natural to reverse the order of these phrases. Alternate translation: “You should treat people in the way that you would want them to treat you”

καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι

Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “what you wish people would do for you” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

ὑμῖν

Jesus now returns to speaking to his disciples and the crowd about general situations, so you is plural here and in the following verses. (See: Forms of You)

Luke 6:32

ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν?

Here Jesus is using the question form as a teaching tool. He wants to make a point and get his listeners to reflect on it. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “God will not reward you for doing that” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 6:33

ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν?

Once again Jesus is using the question form as a teaching tool. You could translate his words as a statement here as well. Alternate translation: “God will not reward you for doing that” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 6:34

ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν?

Jesus is using the question form once again as a teaching tool. You could also translate his words as a statement here. Alternate translation: “God will not reward you for doing that” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἵνα ἀπολάβωσιν τὰ ἴσα

Here the adjective same functions as a noun. It is plural, and ULT supplies the noun things to show that. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with an equivalent phrase. The adjective is also neuter, and this is a use of the neuter plural in Greek to refer to a single thing in order to describe it in its entirety. Alternate translation: “expecting that everything they lend will be repaid” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

Luke 6:35

μηδὲν ἀπελπίζοντες

Alternate translation: “without expecting the person to pay you back”

καὶ

This word introduces the results of what has been said so far in this verse. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἔσται ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολύς

Your language may require you to say who will do this action. Alternate translation: “God will reward you greatly”

υἱοὶ Ὑψίστου

This is a figurative expression. Even so, it would probably be best to translate sons with the same word that your language would naturally use to refer to a human son or child. (See: Metaphor)

υἱοὶ Ὑψίστου

Jesus is using the word sons in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “children of the Most High” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

υἱοὶ Ὑψίστου

Make sure that the word sons or “children” in your translation is plural and not capitalized, if your language uses that convention for titles, so that readers do not confuse this expression with the title for Jesus, “the Son of the Most High,” which occurs in 1:32 and 8:28.

Ὑψίστου

See how you translated the expression the Most High in 1:32. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translation: “of the Most High God” (See: Idiom)

τοὺς ἀχαρίστους καὶ πονηρούς

Here Jesus is using the adjectives ungrateful and evil as nouns in order to indicate groups of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this pair of words with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are ungrateful and evil” or “people who do not thank God and who do wrong things” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

Luke 6:36

ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν

This is a figurative expression. God is not the Father of humans in the same actual way that he is the Father of Jesus. Even so, it would probably be best to translate Father with the same word that your language would naturally use to refer to a human father. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that this means God. Alternate translation: “God your Father” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 6:37

μὴ κρίνετε

Your language may require you to specify the object of judge. Alternate translation: “do not judge other people”

οὐ μὴ κριθῆτε

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Jesus does not say exactly who would not judge. There are two possibilities. Alternate translations: (1) “God will not judge you” (2) “other people will not judge you” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ μὴ καταδικάζετε

Your language may require you to specify the object of condemn. Alternate translation: “Do not condemn other people”

οὐ μὴ καταδικασθῆτε

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Jesus does not say exactly who would not condemn. There are two possibilities. Alternate translations: (1) “God will not condemn you” (2) “other people will not condemn you” (See: Active or Passive)

ἀπολύετε

Your language may require you to specify the object of release. Alternate translation: “Forgive other people”

ἀπολύετε

Jesus is using the word release figuratively to mean “forgive.” Alternate translation: “Forgive” (See: Metaphor)

ἀπολυθήσεσθε

Jesus does not say exactly who would release. There are two possibilities. Alternate translations: (1) “God will forgive you” (2) “other people will forgive you” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 6:38

δοθήσεται ὑμῖν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Jesus does not say exactly who will give. There are two possibilities. Alternate translation: (1) “God will give to you” (2) “other people will give to you” (See: Active or Passive)

μέτρον καλὸν, πεπιεσμένον σεσαλευμένον ὑπερεκχυννόμενον, δώσουσιν εἰς τὸν κόλπον ὑμῶν

Jesus is comparing someone to a grain merchant who measures out very generously. He could mean either God or other people. The word they is indefinite, so it does not necessarily refer to people rather than to God. You could represent this metaphor as a simile in your translation. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Like a generous grain merchant who presses down the grain and shakes it together and pours in so much that it fills a container and spills over, God will give you a generous amount” or “Like a generous grain merchant who presses down the grain and shakes it together and pours in so much that it fills a container and spills over, people will give you a generous amount” (See: Metaphor)

πεπιεσμένον σεσαλευμένον ὑπερεκχυννόμενον, δώσουσιν εἰς τὸν κόλπον ὑμῶν

These are all passive verb forms in Greek. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate them with active verbal phrases. See the alternate translation in the previous note. (See: Active or Passive)

τὸν κόλπον ὑμῶν

This is a reference to the way people in this culture would form a pocket or carrying pouch from the folds of the front of their robes. If you readers would not be familiar with this practice, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “the folds of your robe” or “a container” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ᾧ…μέτρῳ μετρεῖτε, ἀντιμετρηθήσεται ὑμῖν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Jesus does not say exactly who will measure. There are two possibilities. Alternate translation: (1) “God will give to you in just as generous or stingy a way as you give to others” (2) “people will give to you in just as generous or stingy a way as you give to others” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 6:39

εἶπεν δὲ καὶ παραβολὴν αὐτοῖς

Jesus is giving a brief illustration that teaches something true in a way that is easy to understand and remember. Alternate translation: “Then he gave them this illustration to help them understand better” (See: Parables)

μήτι δύναται τυφλὸς τυφλὸν ὁδηγεῖν?

Here the word translated blind man is masculine, but Jesus is using it in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “Can one person who is blind guide another person who is blind?” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

μήτι δύναται τυφλὸς τυφλὸν ὁδηγεῖν?

The first word of this sentence in Greek is a negative word that can be used to turn a negative statement into a question that expects a negative answer. ULT shows this by adding is he? Your language may have other ways of asking a question that expects a negative answer, for example, by changing the word order of a positive statement. Translate this in the way that would be clearest in your language. Alternate translation: “Can one person who is blind really guide another person who is blind?” (See: Double Negatives)

μήτι δύναται τυφλὸς τυφλὸν ὁδηγεῖν?

Jesus is not expecting the people in the crowd to tell him whether one blind person can guide another. He is using the question form as a teaching tool to make a point and get his listeners to reflect on it. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “We all know that one blind person cannot guide another blind person” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τυφλὸς

The blind person figuratively represents someone who has not yet been fully trained and taught as a disciple. But since Jesus explains this figure in the next three verses, you do not need to explain it explicitly here in your own translation. (See: Metaphor)

οὐχὶ ἀμφότεροι εἰς βόθυνον ἐμπεσοῦνται?

Jesus is using this question as well as a teaching tool. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “Both of them would certainly fall into a ditch” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 6:40

οὐκ ἔστιν μαθητὴς ὑπὲρ τὸν διδάσκαλον

The word above creates a spatial metaphor. Alternate translation: “A disciple is not better than his teacher” or “A disciple is not greater than his teacher” (See: Metaphor)

οὐκ ἔστιν μαθητὴς ὑπὲρ τὸν διδάσκαλον

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state what this implicitly means. Alternate translation: “A disciple does not know more than his teacher” or “A disciple is not wiser than his teacher” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

κατηρτισμένος…πᾶς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “every disciple whose teacher has fully taught him” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 6:41

τί…βλέπεις τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου, τὴν δὲ δοκὸν τὴν ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ὀφθαλμῷ οὐ κατανοεῖς?

Jesus is using this question as a teaching tool. If it would be clearer for your readers, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “do not look at the speck in your brother’s eye while ignoring the log in your own eye” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τί…βλέπεις τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου

This is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “you should not criticize the less important faults of a fellow believer” (See: Metaphor)

βλέπεις…σου…τῷ ἰδίῳ…οὐ κατανοεῖς

Even though Jesus is still speaking to his disciples and the crowd, he is addressing an individual situation here, so you and your are singular in this verse. But if the singular forms of these pronouns would not be natural in your language, you can use the plural forms in your translation. (See: Singular Pronouns that refer to Groups)

τὸ κάρφος

If your readers would not be familiar with wood, in your translation you can use a phrase that describes the smallest thing that commonly falls into a person’s eyes in your culture, or you can use a general expression. Alternate translation: “the grain of sand” or “the tiny object” (See: Translate Unknowns)

τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου

The term brother figuratively refers to a fellow believer in Jesus. Alternate translation: “of a fellow believer” (See: Metaphor)

τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ

This fellow believer could be either a man or a woman, so be sure that this is clear in your translation, for example, by using both the masculine and feminine forms of the word for “believer.” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

τὴν δὲ δοκὸν τὴν ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ὀφθαλμῷ οὐ κατανοεῖς

This phrase is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “while ignoring your own serious faults” (See: Metaphor)

τὴν…δοκὸν τὴν ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ὀφθαλμῷ

A log could not literally go into a person’s eye. Jesus is exaggerating to emphasize his point and make it memorable. Alternate translation: “your own serious faults” (See: Hyperbole)

δοκὸν

You could translate this with the term for the kind of long, large piece of wood that people in your culture would encounter. Or if your readers would not be familiar with wood, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “beam” or “plank” or “large object” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 6:42

πῶς δύνασαι λέγειν τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου

Jesus is speaking to his disciples and the crowd, but he is addressing an individual situation, so you and your are singular here. (The terms you, your, and yourself are also singular throughout the rest of this verse, because either Jesus is addressing an individual situation, or one person is addressing another in fictional dialogue.) If the singular forms of these pronouns would not be natural in your language, you can use the plural forms in your translation. (See: Singular Pronouns that refer to Groups)

πῶς δύνασαι λέγειν

Jesus is using this question as a teaching tool, not to ask for information. If it would be clearer for your readers, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not say” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου, ἀδελφέ, ἄφες

The term brother figuratively means a fellow believer in Jesus. So in its first instance here, you could translate the term the way you did in 6:41. But since it is realistic that in dialogue one believer might address another believer as Brother or “Sister,” you could retain the figurative term in its second instance. Alternate translation: “to a fellow believer, ‘Brother,’ or ‘Sister, let’” (See: Metaphor)

ἄφες ἐκβάλω τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σου

This is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “let me help you correct some of your faults” (See: Metaphor)

αὐτὸς τὴν ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σοῦ δοκὸν οὐ βλέπων

This phrase is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “you yourself are not correcting your own serious faults” (See: Metaphor)

τὴν ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σοῦ δοκὸν

A log could not literally go into a person’s eye. Jesus is continuing to exaggerate to emphasize his point and make it memorable. Alternate translation: “your own serious faults” (See: Hyperbole)

ἔκβαλε πρῶτον τὴν δοκὸν ἐκ τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ σοῦ

This phrase is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “First recognize and correct your own serious faults” (See: Metaphor)

τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου ἐκβαλεῖν

This phrase is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “to help a fellow believer correct his or her faults” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 6:43

γάρ

Jesus uses the word for to introduce the reason for what he said in the previous sentence. Alternate translation: “This is because” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

οὐ γάρ ἐστιν δένδρον καλὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν σαπρόν; οὐδὲ πάλιν δένδρον σαπρὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλόν

Jesus is twice using a figure of speech that expresses a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “For a healthy tree naturally produces good fruit and, on the other hand, an unhealthy tree naturally produces bad fruit” (See: Litotes)

οὐ γάρ ἐστιν δένδρον καλὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν σαπρόν; οὐδὲ πάλιν δένδρον σαπρὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλόν

This is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “For a person of good character naturally says and does helpful things but, on the other hand, a person of bad character naturally says and does harmful things” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 6:44

ἕκαστον…δένδρον ἐκ τοῦ ἰδίου καρποῦ γινώσκεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who does the action. Alternate translation: “people recognize a tree by the fruit that it bears” (See: Active or Passive)

ἕκαστον…δένδρον ἐκ τοῦ ἰδίου καρποῦ γινώσκεται

This phrase is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “each person’s words and actions reveal his or her character” (See: Metaphor)

οὐ γὰρ ἐξ ἀκανθῶν συλλέγουσιν σῦκα, οὐδὲ ἐκ βάτου σταφυλὴν τρυγῶσιν

These two phrases mean the same thing. Jesus is using repetition for emphasis and to capture the interest of his listeners. You do not need to put both phrases in your translation if that might be confusing for your readers. Instead, you could combine them into a single general expression. Alternate translation: “people do not collect the kind of fruit that grows on a tree or a vine from a small, thorny bush” (See: Parallelism)

ἀκανθῶν

The word thornbush refers to a kind of plant that has sharp protective spines on its stem. If your readers would not know what a thornbush is, in your translation you could use the name of another plant that does not produce edible fruit. (See: Translate Unknowns)

βάτου

The term briar bush refers to a kind of plant that has thorny stems growing in dense clusters. If your readers would not know what a briar bush is, in your translation you could use the name of another plant that does not produce edible fruit. (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 6:45

ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος

Here, the word man refers to any person, male or female. Alternate translation: “A righteous person” or “A moral person” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

ἐκ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ θησαυροῦ τῆς καρδίας

Jesus is speaking figuratively of the good thoughts of a righteous person as if they were treasures stored deep inside that person. Alternate translation: “from the good things that he keeps deep inside himself” or “from the good things that he values deeply” (See: Metaphor)

τῆς καρδίας

In this expression, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “that he keeps deep inside himself” or “that he values deeply” (See: Metaphor)

προφέρει τὸ ἀγαθόν

Producing what is good, the way a tree would produce fruit, is a metaphor for doing what is good. Alternate translation: “does what is good” (See: Metaphor)

ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ

For rhetorical purposes, Jesus is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. The meaning can be inferred from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “from the evil treasure of his heart” (See: Ellipsis)

ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ

Once the meaning is inferred, it is clear that Jesus is speaking figuratively of the evil thoughts of a wicked person as if they were treasures stored deep inside that person, and of the heart figuratively to represent the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “from the evil things that he keeps deep inside himself” or “from the evil things that he values deeply” (See: Metaphor)

ἐκ…περισσεύματος καρδίας λαλεῖ τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ

In this expression as well, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “what a person is thinking and feeling is expressed in what he says” (See: Metaphor)

ἐκ…περισσεύματος καρδίας λαλεῖ τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ

The phrase his mouth represents the person as a whole, in the action of speaking. Alternate translation: “what a person is thinking and feeling comes out in what he says” (See: Synecdoche)

Luke 6:46

τί δέ με καλεῖτε Κύριε, Κύριε, καὶ οὐ ποιεῖτε ἃ λέγω?

The repetition of these words indicates that these people regularly called Jesus Lord. Alternate translation: “And why are you always calling me ‘Lord’ when you do not do what I tell you?’”

Luke 6:47

πᾶς ὁ ἐρχόμενος πρός με, καὶ ἀκούων μου τῶν λόγων καὶ ποιῶν αὐτούς, ὑποδείξω ὑμῖν τίνι ἐστὶν ὅμοιος

If it would be clearer in your language, you could move the last phrase to the beginning of the verse. Alternate translation: “I will tell you what every person is like who comes to me and hears my words and puts them into practice”

μου τῶν λόγων

Jesus uses the term words figuratively to refer to the teachings he is giving by using words. Alternate translation: “my teachings” (See: Metonymy)

ὑποδείξω ὑμῖν τίνι ἐστὶν ὅμοιος

Jesus says this to introduce the simile in the next verse. (See: Simile)

Luke 6:48

ἀνθρώπῳ οἰκοδομοῦντι οἰκίαν

Here Jesus is using man in the generic sense. Alternate translation: “a person building a house” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

ἔσκαψεν καὶ ἐβάθυνεν καὶ ἔθηκεν θεμέλιον ἐπὶ τὴν πέτραν

The foundation is the part of a house that connects it to the ground. People in Jesus’ time dug down into the ground until they reached a layer of solid rock, and then they began to build on the rock. You could describe this more fully in your translation. Alternatively, if the people of your culture would not be familiar with laying the foundation of a house on bedrock, you could instead describe how they would ensure that a dwelling was safe and stable. Alternate translation: “dug down deep enough to reach a layer of solid rock and set the foundation of the house on it” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἔσκαψεν καὶ ἐβάθυνεν

This phrase expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The expression dug deep tells what goal the person had when he or she dug down. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “dug down deep enough” (See: Hendiadys)

τὴν πέτραν

This means the layer of hard rock that lies deep under the soil. Alternate translation: “bedrock” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ποταμὸς

Alternate translation: “floodwaters”

προσέρηξεν

Alternate translation: “crashed against”

οὐκ ἴσχυσεν σαλεῦσαι αὐτὴν

Jesus is figuratively describing what the waters would do at first to represent what they would ultimately do if they could. This meaning is clear from what he says in the next verse. Alternate translation: “it could not destroy it” (See: Metonymy)

διὰ τὸ καλῶς οἰκοδομῆσθαι αὐτήν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “because the person had built it well” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 6:49

δὲ

Jesus uses this word to draw a strong contrast to the previous person who built with a foundation. Alternate translation: “However” (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

ὁ…ἀκούσας καὶ μὴ ποιήσας

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. These words can be supplied from 6:47. Alternate translation: “anyone who hears my teachings but does not put them into practice” (See: Ellipsis)

ὅμοιός ἐστιν

Jesus says this to introduce the simile that follows in the rest of the verse. (See: Simile)

ἀνθρώπῳ οἰκοδομήσαντι οἰκίαν

Here Jesus is using man in the generic sense. Alternate translation: “a person who built a house” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν χωρὶς θεμελίου

The phrase on the ground without a foundation refers to the same method of building as in 6:48. You could describe this more fully in your translation. Alternatively, if the people of your culture would not be familiar with that building method, you can use the same image for creating a stable building that you used there in your translation. Alternate translation: “without digging down first to create a foundation” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ᾗ προσέρρηξεν ὁ ποταμός

In this context, the word flowed indicates violent impact. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “The floodwaters crashed against it”

συνέπεσεν

Alternate translation: “it fell down” or “it came apart”

ἐγένετο τὸ ῥῆγμα τῆς οἰκίας ἐκείνης μέγα

Your language may require you to say what was responsible for the ruin of the house. Alternate translation: “the floodwaters completely demolished that house”

Luke 7

Luke 7 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus does miracles in Capernaum and Nain (7:1-17)
  2. Jesus responds to messengers from John the Baptist and then teaches about John (7:18-35)
  3. A woman anoints Jesus with perfume (7:36-50)

Some translations set quotations from the Old Testament farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text. ULT does this with the quoted material in 7:27.

Special concepts in this chapter

Centurion

A centurion was a Roman military commander. The centurion who asked Jesus to heal his slave (Luke 7:2) was doing some unusual things. A Roman soldier, especially an officer, would almost never go to a Jew for help, and most wealthy people did not love or care for their slaves. (See: centurion and faith)

John’s Baptism

This chapter refers again to the baptism of John (7:29). John baptized people who wanted to show that they knew they were sinners and that they were sorry for their sin. (See: repent, repentance and sin, sinful, sinner, sinning)

“Sinners”

In 7:34, Jesus describes how the Pharisees said he was a friend of “sinners.” That was the name that the Pharisees used for people whom they thought were disobeying the law of Moses. In reality, it was the Pharisees who were sinful, since they rejected Jesus, the Savior whom God had sent. This situation can be understood as irony. (See: Irony)

Washing feet

The feet of the people in the ancient Near East were very dirty because they wore sandals and the roads and trails were dusty in the dry season and muddy in the wet season. Only slaves washed other people’s feet. The woman who washed Jesus’ feet was showing him great honor.

Luke 7:1

τὰ ῥήματα αὐτοῦ

Luke is using the term words figuratively to describe the things that Jesus taught by using words. Alternate translation: “his teaching” (See: Metonymy)

εἰς τὰς ἀκοὰς τοῦ λαοῦ

This phrase is an idiom. Alternate translation: “as the people were listening” (See: Idiom)

εἰσῆλθεν εἰς Καφαρναούμ

This reference to a location, Capernaum, introduces a new event in the story. Alternate translation: “he went into the city of Capernaum” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

Luke 7:2

δέ

Luke uses the word and to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Connect — Background Information)

ὃς ἦν αὐτῷ ἔντιμος

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whom the centurion greatly valued” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 7:3

ἐρωτῶν αὐτὸν ὅπως ἐλθὼν διασώσῃ

In this context, the word save has a specific meaning. Alternate translation: “asking him to come and heal”

Luke 7:4

παρεκάλουν αὐτὸν σπουδαίως

Alternate translation: “they pleaded with him” or “they begged him”

ἄξιός ἐστιν

Here the pronoun he refers to the centurion, not the servant. Alternate translation: “This centurion is worthy” or “This centurion deserves” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 7:5

τὸ ἔθνος ἡμῶν

Here, our nation refers to the Jewish people. Since the elders are speaking to Jesus as a fellow Jew, the word our would be inclusive, if your language marks that distinction. Alternate translation: “our people” (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

Luke 7:6

δὲ

Here, and could mean: (1) It may mean that Jesus went with the elders because they pleaded with him. Alternate translation, as in UST: “So” (2) It may mean that Jesus went with the elders after they pleaded with him. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἐπορεύετο

Alternate translation: “went along”

αὐτοῦ οὐ μακρὰν ἀπέχοντος ἀπὸ τῆς οἰκίας

Luke is expressing a positive meaning figuratively by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “when he was … near the house” (See: Litotes)

μὴ σκύλλου

The centurion is speaking politely to Jesus through these friends. Alternate translation: “I do not want to make you go out of your way”

ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην μου εἰσέλθῃς

Come under my roof is an idiom that means “come into my house.” If your language has an idiom that means “come into my dwelling,” consider using it here in your translation. (See: Idiom)

Luke 7:7

εἰπὲ λόγῳ

The centurion recognized that Jesus could heal the servant just by speaking. He understood Jesus did not need to travel all the way to his home. The term word expresses the means by which Jesus would speak. Alternate translation: “just give a command” (See: Metonymy)

ὁ παῖς μου

This is not the same word for servant that Luke and the centurion use in the rest of this passage. This word ordinarily means “boy.” This may indicate that the servant was young, or it may show the centurion’s affection for him. Alternate translation: “my young servant” or “my dear servant”

Luke 7:8

καὶ…ἐγὼ ἄνθρωπός εἰμι ὑπὸ ἐξουσίαν τασσόμενος, ἔχων ὑπ’ ἐμαυτὸν στρατιώτας

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “I also have someone in authority over me, and I have soldiers under me” (See: Active or Passive)

ὑπ’ ἐμαυτὸν

This is a spatial metaphor that describes the authority relationship. Alternate translation: “under my authority” (See: Metaphor)

τῷ δούλῳ μου

Here the word that ULT translates as servant is the typical word for a servant, as in 7:2 and 7:3. It is not the word that usually means “boy,” as in 7:7.

Luke 7:9

ἐθαύμασεν αὐτόν

The pronoun him refers to the centurion. Alternate translation: “he was amazed at the centurion” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

λέγω ὑμῖν

Jesus says this to emphasize what he is about to tell the people in the crowd. Alternate translation: “Now listen to this carefully”

οὐδὲ ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ τοσαύτην πίστιν εὗρον

The implication is that Jesus expected Jewish people to have this kind of faith, but they did not. He did not expect Gentiles to have this kind of faith, yet this man did. It may be helpful to say this explicitly in your translation. Alternate translation: “I have not found anyone among the Israelites who trusts me as much as this Gentile does” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

οὐδὲ ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ

Jesus used the name of the nation, Israel, to represent the people who belong to that nation. Alternate translation: “not even in any Israelite” (See: Metonymy)

τοσαύτην πίστιν εὗρον

Here, found is an idiom. The word does not suggest that Jesus was searching for something he had lost. Alternate translation: “have I encountered such faith” (See: Idiom)

Luke 7:10

οἱ πεμφθέντες

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “the friends whom the Roman officer had sent to Jesus” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 7:11

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν τῷ ἑξῆς

Luke may be using the term day figuratively to refer a particular time, as UST suggests by saying “soon after that.” However, this could also mean literally the next day. (See: Idiom)

Ναΐν

Nain is the name of a city. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 7:12

δὲ

Luke uses and to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Background Information)

ἰδοὺ

Luke uses the term behold to call the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: Metaphor)

ἐξεκομίζετο τεθνηκὼς

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was a man who had died, and he was being carried out of the city” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἐξεκομίζετο τεθνηκὼς μονογενὴς υἱὸς τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who was doing the action. It may be helpful to break the sentence here. Alternate translation: “people were carrying a man who had died out of the city. He was his mother's only son” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐξεκομίζετο τεθνηκὼς μονογενὴς υἱὸς τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ

Luke assumes that his readers will know that the people were carrying the man out of the city in order to bury him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. It may be helpful to break the sentence here. Alternate translation: “people were carrying a man who had died out of the city so that they could bury his body. He was his mother's only son” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

μονογενὴς υἱὸς τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ; καὶ αὐτὴ ἦν χήρα

This is background information about the dead man and his mother. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here and to introduce it in a way that shows it is background information. Alternate translation: “Now he was his mother’s only son, and she was a widow” (See: Background Information)

μονογενὴς υἱὸς τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ; καὶ αὐτὴ ἦν χήρα

The implication is that in this culture, when her son died, the woman lost her only means of support, since her husband had also died. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Now he was his mother’s only son, and she was a widow, so he had been her only means of support” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 7:13

ὁ Κύριος

Here Luke refers to Jesus by a respectful title. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus”

ἐσπλαγχνίσθη ἐπ’ αὐτῇ

The implication is that feeling compassion led Jesus to want to do something for this woman. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “felt very sorry for her and wanted to help her” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 7:14

τῆς σοροῦ

This was a stretcher or bed used to move the body to the burial place. It was not necessarily something in which the body was buried. Alternate translation: “the wooden frame that was holding the body” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἐγέρθητι

This was not a command that the man was capable of obeying. Instead, this was a command that directly caused the man to be raised from the dead. Alternate translation: “your life is restored, so get up” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

Luke 7:15

ὁ νεκρὸς

The man was not still dead. He was now alive. It may be helpful to state this clearly. Alternate translation: “he man had come back to life, so he was no longer dead”

ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ

The pronoun he refers to Jesus, and him and his refer to the young man. Alternate translation: “Jesus returned the young man to his mother” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 7:16

ἔλαβεν…φόβος πάντας

Luke speaks of this fear figuratively as if it were something that could actively take hold of everyone in the crowd. Alternate translation: “they all became very afraid” (See: Personification)

προφήτης μέγας ἠγέρθη ἐν ἡμῖν

Here, raised is an idiom. Alternate translation: “God has caused one of us to become a great prophet” (See: Idiom)

προφήτης μέγας ἠγέρθη ἐν ἡμῖν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who has done the action. Alternate translation: “God has caused one of us to become a great prophet” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐπεσκέψατο

Here, visited is an idiom, as in 1:68 and 1:78. Alternate translation: “has come to help” (See: Idiom)

Luke 7:17

ἐξῆλθεν ὁ λόγος οὗτος…περὶ αὐτοῦ

Luke speaks figuratively of this word (that is, those sayings) as if it were something that could spread around actively by itself. His expression means that people said these things about Jesus to other people, and those people then repeated them to still more people. Alternate translation: “people spread these sayings about Jesus” (See: Personification)

Luke 7:18

ἀπήγγειλαν Ἰωάννῃ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ περὶ πάντων τούτων

This sentence introduces a new event in the story. Alternate translation: “the disciples of John told him about all these things” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ

The term his refers to John the Baptist, not to Jesus. Alternate translation: “the disciples of John” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

Ἰωάννῃ

Luke assumes that his readers will know he is referring to John the Baptist. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

πάντων τούτων

The implication is that all these things refers to Jesus healing the centurion’s servant and restoring the life of the widow’s son. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “all the things that Jesus had just done” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 7:19

τὸν Κύριον

Here Luke is referring to Jesus by a respectful title. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus”

λέγων

Alternate translation: “to ask”

σὺ

Since this question would be for Jesus alone, you is singular. (See: Forms of You)

ὁ ἐρχόμενος

This expression implicitly means “the Messiah.” If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 7:20

οἱ ἄνδρες εἶπαν, Ἰωάννης ὁ Βαπτιστὴς ἀπέστειλεν ἡμᾶς πρὸς σὲ λέγων, σὺ εἶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἢ ἄλλον προσδοκῶμεν?

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “the men told Jesus that John the Baptist had sent them to him to ask, ‘Are you the one who is coming, or should we expect someone else?’” or “the men said, ‘John the Baptist has sent us to you to ask if you are the one who is coming, or whether we should expect someone else.’” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

Ἰωάννης ὁ Βαπτιστὴς

Here John’s disciples use the term Baptist as a title to identify the man named John who had sent them. The term means “one who baptizes.” Because the word “Baptist” is associated with a group of churches in many parts of the world, if it would be clearer in your language, you could use a different form of the word as a title, as UST does. Alternatively, you could use a phrase. Alternate translation: “John the Baptizer” or “John, the one who baptizes” (See: How to Translate Names)

λέγων

Alternate translation: “to ask”

σὺ

Since this question is for Jesus alone, you is singular. (See: Forms of You)

ὁ ἐρχόμενος

This expression means “the Messiah.” If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 7:21

ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ

Here Luke uses the term hour figuratively to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “At that time” (See: Idiom)

ἐθεράπευσεν πολλοὺς ἀπὸ νόσων, καὶ μαστίγων, καὶ πνευμάτων πονηρῶν

Here Luke is telling the story in a compressed way, and he does not distinguish clearly between healing of sickness and deliverance from evil spirits. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could make that distinction more explicitly. Alternate translation: “he healed many people of sicknesses that they were suffering from, and he drove evil spirits out of many people” (See: Ellipsis)

νόσων, καὶ μαστίγων

The phrase sicknesses and afflictions expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word afflictions describes the effect of the sicknesses on the people who had them. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “sicknesses that they were suffering from” (See: Hendiadys)

τυφλοῖς πολλοῖς ἐχαρίσατο βλέπειν

Alternate translation: “he enabled many blind people to see again”

Luke 7:22

ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς

Together the words answering and said mean that after healing and delivering many people, Jesus responded to the question that John’s messengers had asked him. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded to the messengers whom John had sent” (See: Hendiadys)

πορευθέντες…εἴδετε

Since Jesus is speaking to two men, you would be dual, if your language uses that form. Otherwise, the word would be plural. (See: Forms of ‘You’ — Dual/Plural)

λεπροὶ καθαρίζονται…νεκροὶ ἐγείρονται, πτωχοὶ εὐαγγελίζονται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say all of these things with active forms. Alternate translation: “people who had leprosy no longer have that disease … people who were dead are coming back to life, poor people are hearing the good news” (See: Active or Passive)

λεπροὶ καθαρίζονται

As in 5:12, since the lepers were unclean because of their leprosy, the implication is that Jesus healed them from the disease. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “people who had leprosy no longer have that disease” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

κωφοὶ…νεκροὶ…πτωχοὶ

Luke is using these adjectives as nouns. If your language does not use adjectives that way, you can translate them with noun phrases. Alternate translation: “people who were deaf … people who were dead … poor people” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

Luke 7:23

μακάριός ἐστιν ὃς ἐὰν μὴ σκανδαλισθῇ ἐν ἐμοί

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God will bless the person who always continues to trust me” (See: Active or Passive)

μὴ σκανδαλισθῇ ἐν ἐμοί

Here Jesus is using a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “who continues to trust me” (See: Litotes)

Luke 7:24

ἤρξατο λέγειν

Here the pronoun he refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus began to say” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

τί ἐξήλθατε εἰς τὴν ἔρημον θεάσασθαι? κάλαμον ὑπὸ ἀνέμου σαλευόμενον?

Jesus is using these questions as a teaching tool. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could show that consequently he expects a negative answer. You could also translate these words as a statement. Alternate translation: “Did you go out into the desert just to see a reed that the wind was shaking? Of course not!” or “Surely you did not go out into the desert just to see a reed that the wind was shaking.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

κάλαμον ὑπὸ ἀνέμου σαλευόμενον

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “A reed that the wind was shaking” (See: Active or Passive)

κάλαμον ὑπὸ ἀνέμου σαλευόμενον

The implication seems to be that a reed swaying in the breeze by the banks of the Jordan River is a commonplace sight that no one would make a trip out into the desert just to see. Alternate translation: “An ordinary thing such as a reed that the wind was shaking” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 7:25

ἀλλὰ τί ἐξήλθατε ἰδεῖν? ἄνθρωπον ἐν μαλακοῖς ἱματίοις ἠμφιεσμένον?

Jesus is using these questions as a teaching tool. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could show that consequently he expects a negative answer. You could also translate these words as a statement. Alternate translation: “Did you go out to see a man wearing splendid clothing? Of course not!” or “You certainly did not go out to see a man wearing splendid clothing.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἄνθρωπον ἐν μαλακοῖς ἱματίοις ἠμφιεσμένον?

Luke assumes that readers will know that John wore crude, rugged clothing. Like his residence in the desert, his clothing was a symbolic protest against the established order. As such, it would have been offensive rather than attractive. So no one would have gone out to see a person dressed that way. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “A man wearing splendid clothing? You would not have gone to hear John if that was what you wanted to see” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐν μαλακοῖς ἱματίοις ἠμφιεσμένον

The term soft clothes refers to luxurious clothes, since normal clothing was rough. Alternate translation: “wearing splendid clothing” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐν μαλακοῖς ἱματίοις ἠμφιεσμένον

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “wearing splendid clothing” (See: Active or Passive)

ἰδοὺ

Jesus uses the term behold to get the crowd to focus their attention on what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: Metaphor)

τοῖς βασιλείοις

Palaces are large, elaborate houses where kings or queens would live. The implication is that a celebrity watcher might go to a palace to try to catch a glimpse of royalty. But certainly no one would go out into the desert to try to see someone famous. (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 7:26

ἀλλὰ τί ἐξήλθατε ἰδεῖν? προφήτην?

Jesus is giving the answer to the repeated question that he has been using as a teaching tool. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could show that this time the question leads to a positive answer. You could also translate this as a statement. Alternate translation: “Did you go out to see a prophet? Yes, that was why!” or “You actually went out to see a prophet.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ναί, λέγω ὑμῖν

Jesus says this to emphasize the importance of what he will say next. Alternate translation: “Now listen carefully”

περισσότερον προφήτου

This phrase is an idiom that means that John was indeed a prophet, but that he was even greater than a typical prophet. Alternate translation: “not just an ordinary prophet” (See: Idiom)

Luke 7:27

οὗτός ἐστιν περὶ οὗ γέγραπται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “This is the one about whom one of the prophets wrote” or “John is the one about whom the prophet Malachi wrote” (See: Active or Passive)

ἰδοὺ

God, speaking through the prophet Malachi, uses the term behold to emphasize the importance of what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “Now pay attention” (See: Metaphor)

πρὸ προσώπου σου

Here, face figuratively means the front of a person. Alternate translation, as in UST: “ahead of you” (See: Metaphor)

σου…σου

The words your and you are singular in both cases because God is speaking to the Messiah individually in the quotation. (See: Forms of You)

ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου ἔμπροσθέν σου

As in 3:4, to make a way or a road is a figurative expression that means to help people get ready for the coming of the Messiah. Alternate translation: “who will help people get ready for you to come” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 7:28

λέγω ὑμῖν

Jesus uses this phrase to focus the crowd’s attention on what he will say next. Alternate translation: “Now listen carefully”

ἐν γεννητοῖς γυναικῶν

The phrase those born of women is an idiom that refers to all people. Alternate translation: “of all the people who have ever lived” (See: Idiom)

μείζων…Ἰωάννου οὐδείς ἐστιν

Here Jesus is using a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative term together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “John is the greatest” (See: Litotes)

ὁ…μικρότερος

Jesus is using the adjective least as a noun in order to indicate a kind of person. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “the least important person” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

ἐν τῇ Βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ

See how you decided to translate the phrase the kingdom of God in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “whose life God is ruling” (See: Abstract Nouns)

μείζων αὐτοῦ ἐστιν

The implication is that being part of the kingdom of God is greater than any human distinctive. So anyone who is part of God’s kingdom is greater than even John, whom Jesus said was the greatest person who had ever lived before the coming of the kingdom. Alternate translation: “is greater than John is because they are part of something greater than anything that is human” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 7:29

ἐδικαίωσαν τὸν Θεόν, βαπτισθέντες τὸ βάπτισμα Ἰωάννου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “because they had come to John for baptism, declared God to be righteous” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἐδικαίωσαν τὸν Θεόν

The implication is that the people agreed that God had been right to send John to tell them to repent of their sins. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “agreed that God had been right to send John to tell them to repent of their sins” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

βαπτισθέντες τὸ βάπτισμα Ἰωάννου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “because they had come to John for baptism” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 7:30

νομικοὶ

Here and elsewhere in the book, the term lawyers does not mean people who would represent clients and argue cases in court or draw up legal documents. Rather, it refers to experts in the law of Moses and its application to various situations. Alternate translation: “experts in the Jewish law” (See: Translate Unknowns)

τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ Θεοῦ ἠθέτησαν εἰς ἑαυτούς, μὴ βαπτισθέντες ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “because they had not come to John for baptism, rejected what God wanted them to do” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

μὴ βαπτισθέντες ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “because John had not baptized them” or “because they had not come to John for baptism” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 7:31

τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι?

Jesus is using these questions as a teaching tool, to introduce a comparison. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate them as statements. Alternate translation: “This is what I compare the people of this time to. This is what they are like” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι?

These two phrases mean the same thing. Jesus is using repetition for emphasis and to capture the interest of his listeners. You do not need to put both phrases in your translation if that might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “What should I compare the people of this time to?” or “This is what I compare the people of this time to” (See: Parallelism)

τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης

Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “the people of this generation” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

Luke 7:32

ὅμοιοί εἰσιν

These words are the beginning of Jesus’ comparison. His opponents complain about John being too austere, and they complain about him not being austere enough, just like children who complain when other children don’t dance with them, and then complain again when they don’t cry with them. Since Jesus explains this comparison in the next two verses, you do not need to explain it here in your translation. (See: Simile)

ἀγορᾷ

This means a large, open-air area where people come to sell their goods. (See: Translate Unknowns)

ηὐλήσαμεν ὑμῖν

The children are referring to the flute to indicate that they played a happy, upbeat tune, for which the flute was well suited. Alternate translation: “We played a happy tune for you” (See: Metonymy)

καὶ

The children are expressing a contrast between what they expected their playmates to do and what those playmates actually did. Alternate translation: “but” (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

καὶ

Once again the children are expressing a contrast between what they expected their playmates to do and what those playmates actually did. Alternate translation: “but” (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

Luke 7:33

μὴ ἐσθίων ἄρτον

This could mean one of two things. Either way, Jesus is using one kind of food, bread, figuratively to represent all kinds of food. (1) It could refer to the way that John lived on whatever he could find to eat in the desert. Alternate translation: “not eating regular food” (2) It could mean that John often went without eating as a devotional practice. Alternate translation: “frequently fasting” (See: Synecdoche)

λέγετε, δαιμόνιον ἔχει

Luke is quoting Jesus, and Jesus is quoting what the Pharisees were saying about John. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “you say that he has a demon” or “you accuse him of having a demon” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

Luke 7:34

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

Here Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Son of Man” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

See how you translated this title in 5:24. In this case the title highlights Jesus’ identification with humanity in the special role that God has given him. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

λέγετε, ἰδοὺ, ἄνθρωπος φάγος καὶ οἰνοπότης, φίλος τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν

Luke is quoting Jesus, and Jesus is quoting what the Pharisees were saying about him. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “you say that he eats and drinks too much and that he is a friend of tax collectors and sinners” or (if you used the first person for the title “Son of Man”) “you say that I eat and drink too much and that I am a friend of tax collectors and sinners” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

ἰδοὺ

Behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. Alternate translation: “Now this is” (See: Metaphor)

ἄνθρωπος φάγος

Alternate translation: “a man who is a glutton” or “a man who eats too much”

ἄνθρωπος…οἰνοπότης

Alternate translation: “a man who is a drunkard” or “a man who drinks too much alcohol”

Luke 7:35

ἐδικαιώθη ἡ σοφία ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς

This appears to be a proverb, a short popular saying of the culture, that Jesus applied to this situation. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the saying is true that wisdom is justified by all her children” (See: Proverbs)

ἐδικαιώθη ἡ σοφία ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς

This proverb likely uses a Hebrew idiom in which the “sons” or children of a thing share its qualities. Alternate translation: “wisdom is justified by people who are wise themselves” (See: Idiom)

ἐδικαιώθη ἡ σοφία ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “wise people recognize when someone else is following a wise course” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 7:36

ἠρώτα δέ τις αὐτὸν τῶν Φαρισαίων, ἵνα φάγῃ μετ’ αὐτοῦ

This phrase introduces a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

τις…τῶν Φαρισαίων

This phrase also introduces the Pharisee into the story. In 7:40, Jesus addresses him as Simon. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could give his name here, as UST does. Alternate translation: “a Pharisee named Simon” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

κατεκλίθη

See how you translated this in 5:29. It was the custom in this culture for dinner guests to eat while lying comfortably around the table on banqueting couches. Alternate translation: “he took his place at the table” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 7:37

ἰδοὺ

Luke uses the term behold to calls the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: Metaphor)

γυνὴ ἥτις ἦν ἐν τῇ πόλει

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was woman who lived in that city” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἁμαρτωλός

Luke is speaking from the perspective of the Pharisee when he says that the woman was a sinner. Since the Pharisee would likely not have known her personally, this is an implicit reference to her reputation. She may have been a prostitute, as UST suggests. Alternate translation: “who had a reputation for living a sinful life” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

κομίσασα

In this culture, if people wanted to hear what someone’s special dinner guest had to say, they were allowed to come and stand around the walls of the banqueting hall and listen, even if they had not been invited to share in the meal. And so this woman was allowed to enter and listen to Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that specifically. Alternate translation: “she came into the banquet hall as a visitor, bringing” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀλάβαστρον

The word alabaster is the name of a soft, white stone. People stored precious and valuable items in jars made from alabaster. Alternate translation: “a jar made of soft, white stone” (See: Translate Unknowns)

μύρου

This oil had fragrant additives. To make a nice smell, people would rub the oil on themselves or sprinkle their clothing with it. Alternate translation: “that contained oil with perfume in it” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 7:38

ταῖς θριξὶν τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτῆς

In your language, it might seem that this phrase expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you can abbreviate it. Alternate translation: “with her hair” (See: Making Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information Explicit)

ἤλειφεν τῷ μύρῳ

Alternate translation: “pouring perfume on them”

Luke 7:39

εἶπεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ λέγων

As noted in 3:10, Luke often uses the word saying to introduce a quotation. Particularly in cases like this one, if you indicate the quotation in some other way, such as with quotation marks, you do not need to represent this word in your translation. (See: Quote Markings)

οὗτος εἰ ἦν προφήτης, ἐγίνωσκεν ἂν τίς καὶ ποταπὴ ἡ γυνὴ, ἥτις ἅπτεται αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἁμαρτωλός ἐστιν

This Pharisee is making a conditional statement that sounds hypothetical, but he is already convinced that the condition is not true. He has concluded that Jesus must not be a prophet, because he allowed this sinful woman to touch him, and a prophet would have known she was sinful and not allowed that. Alternate translation: “Jesus must not be a prophet, because if he were, he would know that the woman who is touching him is a sinner” (See: Connect — Contrary to Fact Conditions)

τίς καὶ ποταπὴ ἡ γυνὴ, ἥτις ἅπτεται αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἁμαρτωλός ἐστιν

Simon assumed that a prophet would never allow a sinner to touch him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state his assumption explicitly. Alternate translation: “that this woman is a sinner, and he would not allow her to touch him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 7:40

ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to what the Pharisee was thinking. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded to him” (See: Hendiadys)

Σίμων

This was the name of the Pharisee who invited Jesus into his home. This was not Simon Peter. (See: How to Translate Names)

ὁ δέ, Διδάσκαλε, εἰπέ, φησίν

To call attention to a development in the story, Luke uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “And he said, ‘Say it, Teacher!’”

Διδάσκαλε, εἰπέ

Simon is inviting Jesus to speak, not ordering him to speak. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could translate his words as more of an invitation. You could also translate them as a question, as UST does. Alternate translation: “Go ahead and say it.” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

Διδάσκαλε

This was a respectful title. You can translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use.

Luke 7:41

δύο χρεοφιλέται ἦσαν: δανιστῇ τινι

To help Simon the Pharisee understand what he wants to teach him, Jesus tells him a story. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus told him this story to help him understand. ‘There were two debtors’” (See: Parables)

δύο χρεοφιλέται ἦσαν: δανιστῇ τινι

Alternate translation: “Two different people owed money to the same moneylender”

δηνάρια πεντακόσια

The word denarii is the plural of “denarius.” A denarius was a silver coin equivalent to a day’s wage. You could try to express this amount in terms of current monetary values, but that might cause your Bible translation to become outdated and inaccurate, since those values can change over time. So instead you might say something more general or give the equivalent in wages. Alternate translation: “500 silver coins” or “an amount equivalent to a year and a half’s wages” (See: Biblical Money)

ὁ δὲ ἕτερος πεντήκοντα

Alternate translation: “the other person owed 50 silver coins” or “the other person owed an amount equal to 50 days’ wages” (See: Biblical Money)

Luke 7:42

μὴ ἐχόντων αὐτῶν ἀποδοῦναι

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. He is not saying that the men no longer needed to repay these debts. Rather, he is saying that they did not have enough money to repay the lender what they owed him. Alternate translation: “When they were not able to repay their debts” (See: Ellipsis)

ἀμφοτέροις ἐχαρίσατο

This does not mean literally that the lender decided he would not hold their failure to repay against them. Rather, it is an idiom that means that he told them they did not have to repay the money. Alternate translation: “he canceled both of their debts” (See: Idiom)

Luke 7:43

ἀποκριθεὶς Σίμων εἶπεν

Together the words answering and said mean that Simon responded to the question that Jesus asked him. Alternate translation: “Simon responded” (See: Hendiadys)

ὑπολαμβάνω ὅτι ᾧ τὸ πλεῖον ἐχαρίσατο

Simon leaves out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “I suppose that the one to whom he forgave the most will love him the most” (See: Ellipsis)

ὑπολαμβάνω

Simon was cautious about his answer. Alternate translation: “Probably”

ὀρθῶς ἔκρινας

Alternate translation: “You are right”

Luke 7:44

στραφεὶς πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα

Jesus turned to the woman in order to direct Simon’s attention to her. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus turned to the woman so that Simon would look at her” (See: Symbolic Action)

βλέπεις ταύτην τὴν γυναῖκα?

Jesus does not expect Simon to tell him whether he can see the woman. Rather, he is using the question as a teaching tool, to focus Simon’s attention on her as an example of showing love and gratitude. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate Jesus’ words as a statement. Alternate translation: “I want you to consider this woman.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ὕδωρ μοι ἐπὶ πόδας οὐκ ἔδωκας

It was a basic responsibility of a host to provide water and a towel for guests to wash and dry their feet after walking on dusty roads. Alternate translation: “You did not provide me with anything to wash my feet, as a considerate host would have done” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

οὐκ ἔδωκας; αὕτη δὲ

In this verse and the next two verses, Jesus uses such phrases to contrast Simon’s lack of courtesy with the woman’s extreme actions of gratitude. (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

αὕτη…τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἔβρεξέν μου τοὺς πόδας

The woman used her tears in place of the missing water. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “she has wet my feet with her tears in place of the water you did not provide” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

καὶ ταῖς θριξὶν αὐτῆς ἐξέμαξεν

The woman used her hair in place of the missing towel. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “and she has dried my feet with her hair in place of the towel you did not provide” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 7:45

φίλημά μοι οὐκ ἔδωκας

It was customary in this culture for a host to greet a guest with a kiss on the cheek. Simon did not do this for Jesus. Alternate translation: “You did not greet me with a kiss on the cheek, as a welcoming host would have done” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

οὐ διέλιπεν καταφιλοῦσά μου τοὺς πόδας

If it would be clearer in your language, you could use a positive expression to translate this double negative that consists of the negative particle not and the negative verb stopped. Alternate translation: “has continued to kiss my feet” (See: Double Negatives)

οὐ διέλιπεν καταφιλοῦσά μου τοὺς πόδας

The woman kissed the feet of Jesus, rather than his cheek, as a sign of extreme repentance and humility. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “has continued to kiss my feet to show her repentance and humility” (See: Symbolic Action)

Luke 7:46

οὐκ ἤλειψας; αὕτη δὲ

Jesus continues to contrast Simon’s poor hospitality with the actions of the woman. (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

ἐλαίῳ τὴν κεφαλήν μου οὐκ ἤλειψας

It was the custom in this culture to welcome an honored guest by pouring refreshing olive oil on his head. Alternate translation: “You did not welcome me by pouring oil on my head” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἤλειψεν τοὺς πόδας μου

The woman greatly honored Jesus by doing this. She demonstrated humility and expressed her own sense of unworthiness by anointing his feet instead of his head. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “has anointed my feet to show her humility” (See: Symbolic Action)

Luke 7:47

λέγω σοι

This phrase emphasizes the importance of the statement that follows. Alternate translation: “pay attention to this”

ἀφέωνται αἱ ἁμαρτίαι αὐτῆς αἱ πολλαί

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who has done the action. Alternate translation: “God has forgiven her many sins” (See: Active or Passive)

ὅτι ἠγάπησεν πολύ

The implication is that her display of love was the evidence that her sins were forgiven. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “We can tell this because she has shown that she greatly loves the one who forgave her” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὅτι ἠγάπησεν πολύ

Your language may require you to state the object of loved. Alternate translation: “because she greatly loves the one who forgave her”

ᾧ δὲ ὀλίγον ἀφίεται, ὀλίγον ἀγαπᾷ

In this sentence Jesus states a general principle. However, he is saying implicitly that Simon specifically has shown very little love for him. A further implication is that one to whom little is forgiven is actually someone who thinks he is better than others and mistakenly thinks he does not need to be forgiven for very much. Alternate translation: “a person like you who thinks that God has only had to forgive him for a few things does not show much love” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ᾧ…ὀλίγον ἀφίεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who has done the action. Alternate translation: “the person who thinks that God has only had to forgive him for a few things” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 7:48

εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῇ

The pronoun he refers to Jesus, not to Simon. The word her refers to the woman. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus said to the woman” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἀφέωνταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who has done the action. Alternate translation: “I have forgiven your sins” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 7:49

συνανακείμενοι

Alternate translation: “who were eating together with him”

τίς οὗτός ἐστιν ὃς καὶ ἁμαρτίας ἀφίησιν?

The religious leaders knew that only God could forgive sins. They did not believe that Jesus was God. So they are using the question form to make an accusation. Alternate translation: “This man is not God, so he cannot forgive sins!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 7:50

ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun faith with a verb such as “trust.” Alternate translation: “you have trusted in God, and God has saved you” (See: Abstract Nouns)

ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε

Jesus speaks figuratively of the woman’s faith as if it had actively saved her. He means that it provided the conditions for her to receive salvation from God. Alternate translation: “you have trusted in God, and God has saved you” (See: Personification)

πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην

This was a way of saying goodbye while giving a blessing at the same time. It also reassured the woman, despite the disapproval of the religious leaders. Alternate translation: “May God give you peace as you go” or “You may go now, and do not worry about your sins anymore” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 8

Luke 8 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus teaches the crowds with parables (8:1-21)
  2. Jesus calms a storm on the Sea of Galilee (8:22-25)
  3. Jesus drives out many demons from a man (8:26-39)
  4. Jesus heals a woman and restores a dead girl to life (8:40-55)

Special concepts in this chapter

Miracles

In this chapter, Jesus makes a storm stop by speaking to it, he makes a dead girl alive by speaking to her, and he makes evil spirits leave a man by speaking to them. (See: miracle, wonder, sign)

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Parables

Parables were short stories that Jesus told so that people who wanted to believe in him could easily understand the lesson he was trying to teach them. But people who did not want to believe in him would not be able to understand the message (Luke 8:4-15).

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Brothers and sisters

Most people use the terms “brother” and “sister” for those who have the same parents as they do. They think of them as some of the most important people in their lives. Some people also call those with the same grandparents “brother” and “sister.” In this chapter, Jesus says that the most important people to him are those who obey his Father in heaven. (See: brother)

Important textual issues in this chapter

“having spent all her living on doctors”

In 8:43, some ancient manuscripts of the Bible have the phrase “having spent all her living on doctors,” but other manuscripts do not. ULT includes the phrase in its text, but it mentions in a footnote that scholars are divided as to whether it was an original part of the book of Luke. If a translation of the Bible exists in your region, you may wish to include the phrase if it does, but leave it out if it does not include it. If a translation of the Bible does not exist in your region, you may wish to follow the example of ULT. (See: Textual Variants)

Luke 8:1

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

κατὰ πόλιν καὶ κώμην

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “around to different cities and villages” (See: Idiom)

τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “how God would rule” (See: Abstract Nouns)

οἱ δώδεκα

Luke is using the adjective Twelve as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “his 12 apostles” or “the 12 men whom he had appointed to be apostles” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

οἱ δώδεκα

Alternatively, even if your language does not ordinarily use adjectives as nouns, you may be able to do that in this case, since this is a title by which the apostles were known. Even though it is a number, if you translate it as a title, as ULT does, follow the conventions for titles in your language. For example, capitalize main words and write out numbers rather than use digits. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 8:2

αἳ ἦσαν τεθεραπευμέναι ἀπὸ πνευμάτων πονηρῶν καὶ ἀσθενειῶν

You can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “whom Jesus had set free from evil spirits and healed of diseases” (See: Active or Passive)

Μαρία ἡ καλουμένη Μαγδαληνή

Mary is the name of a woman, and Magdalene is a distinguishing term that most likely means that she came from the town of Magdala. (See: How to Translate Names)

Μαρία ἡ καλουμένη Μαγδαληνή

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Mary, who people called Magdalene” (See: Active or Passive)

ἀφ’ ἧς δαιμόνια ἑπτὰ ἐξεληλύθει

The demons did not go out on their own. It may be helpful to say explicitly that Jesus drove them out. Alternate translation: “from whom Jesus had driven out seven demons” or “whom Jesus had set free from seven demons” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 8:3

Ἰωάννα…Σουσάννα

These are the names of two women. (See: How to Translate Names)

Χουζᾶ…Ἡρῴδου

These are the names of two men. See how you translated the name Herod in 1:5. (See: How to Translate Names)

ἐπιτρόπου Ἡρῴδου

Alternate translation: “the man who managed King Herod’s household affairs”

διηκόνουν αὐτοῖς

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “were personally providing what Jesus and his 12 apostles needed” (See: Idiom)

Luke 8:4

ἐπιπορευομένων πρὸς αὐτὸν

Here the pronoun him refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “coming to Jesus” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

κατὰ πόλιν

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “from different towns” (See: Idiom)

εἶπεν διὰ παραβολῆς

This means that Jesus told a brief story to teach something true in an understandable and memorable way. Alternate translation: “he told them this story to help them understand God’s ways better” (See: Parables)

Luke 8:5

ἐξῆλθεν ὁ σπείρων τοῦ σπεῖραι τὸν σπόρον αὐτοῦ

Use either the singular or the plural to translate seed in this story, whichever would be more natural in your language. Alternate translation: “A farmer went out to scatter some seed in a field” or “A farmer went out to scatter some seeds in a field”

ὃ μὲν ἔπεσεν

Alternate translation: “some of the seed fell” or “some of the seeds fell”

κατεπατήθη

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “people walked on it” or “people walked on them” (See: Active or Passive)

τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

In your language, it might seem that this phrase expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you could abbreviate it. However, you could also use an action clause to keep the sense of sky. Alternate translation: “birds” or “birds flew down and” (See: Making Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information Explicit)

κατέφαγεν αὐτό

Alternate translation: “ate it all” or “ate them all”

Luke 8:6

ἐξηράνθη

Continue to use either the singular or the plural, whichever would be more natural in your language. Alternate translation: “each plant dried out and shriveled up” or “the plants dried out and shriveled up”

διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ἰκμάδα

Alternate translation: “because there was no water for it in the rock” or “because there was no water for them in the rock”

Luke 8:7

ἀπέπνιξαν αὐτό

The thorn plants took all the nutrients, water, and sunlight, so the farmer’s plants could not grow well. Continue to use either the singular or the plural, whichever would be more natural in your language. Alternate translation: “crowded it out” or “crowded them out” or “kept it from growing well” or “kept them from growing well”

Luke 8:8

ἐποίησεν καρπὸν ἑκατονταπλασίονα

Here the word translated fruit has the specific sense of “a crop.” Since the farmer is sowing wheat seeds, this crop would be more seeds. Alternate translation: “it produced a hundred times as much seed as had landed in this soil” or “they produced a hundred times as many seeds as had landed in this soil”

ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν, ἀκουέτω

Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize that what he has just said is important and that it may take some effort to understand and put into practice. The phrase ears to hear figuratively represents the willingness to understand and obey by association with the part of the body by which his listeners would have been taking in his teaching. Alternate translation: “If anyone is willing to understand, let him understand and obey” (See: Metonymy)

ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν, ἀκουέτω

Since Jesus is speaking directly to his audience, you may prefer to use the second person here. Alternate translation: “If you are willing to listen, then listen” or “If you are willing to understand, then understand and obey” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν, ἀκουέτω

If you choose to translate this in the second person, you would be plural, since Jesus is speaking to the crowd. (See: Forms of You)

Luke 8:9

τίς αὕτη εἴη ἡ παραβολή

Alternate translation: “What does this story mean?”

Luke 8:10

ὑμῖν δέδοται γνῶναι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “God has allowed you to understand” (See: Active or Passive)

τὰ μυστήρια τῆς Βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ

These are spiritual truths that people had not previously understood. Jesus is now revealing them. Alternate translation: “the secrets of the kingdom of God”

τῆς Βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “of how God will rule” (See: Abstract Nouns)

τοῖς δὲ λοιποῖς ἐν παραβολαῖς

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “but I speak in parables to the people who are not my disciples” (See: Ellipsis)

ἵνα βλέποντες μὴ βλέπωσιν, καὶ ἀκούοντες μὴ συνιῶσιν

Luke is quoting Jesus, and Jesus is quoting the prophet Isaiah. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. For clarity, you could also indicate the source of the words that Jesus is quoting. Alternate translation: “so that as the prophet Isaiah said, though they see, they will not perceive, and though they hear, they will not understand” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

βλέποντες μὴ βλέπωσιν

Some languages may need to state the object of the verb. Alternate translation: “though they see things, they will not understand them” or “though they see things happen, they will not understand what they mean”

ἀκούοντες μὴ συνιῶσιν

Some languages may need to state the object of the verb. Alternate translation: “though they hear instruction, they will not understand the truth”

Luke 8:11

ἔστιν δὲ αὕτη ἡ παραβολή

Alternate translation: “this is what the story means”

ὁ σπόρος ἐστὶν ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ

Jesus uses the term word figuratively to refer to the message from God that people share by using words. Alternate translation: “The seed represents the message from God” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 8:12

οἱ…παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν εἰσιν οἱ ἀκούσαντες

Jesus begins to explain the figurative meanings of the seeds that fell in different places. Alternate translation: “The seeds that fell along the path represent people who hear the message” (See: Metaphor)

εἶτα ἔρχεται ὁ διάβολος καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον ἀπὸ τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν

The parable represented this figuratively as a bird snatching away seeds. Try to use words in your language that retain that image. Alternate translation: “but then the devil comes and snatches the message away from them” (See: Metaphor)

εἶτα ἔρχεται ὁ διάβολος καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον ἀπὸ τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν

The word hearts figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “the devil comes and keeps them from understanding and appreciating the message” (See: Metaphor)

εἶτα ἔρχεται ὁ διάβολος καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον ἀπὸ τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν

Based on the figurative meaning of the parable, the implication is that these people did not appreciate the message deeply, just as seeds could not go down deep into the hard-packed soil of the path. And so the devil would be able to break up their superficial awareness and concentration by distracting them with everyday concerns. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the devil distracts them and they forget about the message they heard” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὸν λόγον

Jesus is using the term word figuratively to refer to the message that people share by using words. Alternate translation: “the message” (See: Metonymy)

ἵνα μὴ πιστεύσαντες σωθῶσιν

This phrase explains the devil’s purpose. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “because the devil does not want them to trust in God so that God will save them” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 8:13

οἱ δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς πέτρας, οἳ

Jesus continues to explain the figurative meanings of the seeds that fell in different places. Alternate translation: “In the parable, the seeds that fell on the rocky soil represent people” (See: Metaphor)

τῆς πέτρας

Alternate translation: “the rocky soil” or “the shallow soil above the rocky layer”

μετὰ χαρᾶς δέχονται τὸν λόγον

Jesus uses the term word figuratively to refer to the message that people share by using words. Alternate translation: “who … gladly believe the message” (See: Metonymy)

ἐν καιρῷ πειρασμοῦ

Alternate translation: “when they experience hardship”

ἀφίστανται

Jesus is using the way such people go away from the community of believers to mean figuratively that they stop believing. Alternate translation: “they stop believing” or “they stop being disciples” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 8:14

τὸ δὲ εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας πεσόν, οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ

Jesus continues to explain the figurative meanings of the seeds that fell in different places. Alternate translation: “In the parable, the seeds that fell among the thorns represent people” (See: Metaphor)

ὑπὸ μεριμνῶν, καὶ πλούτου, καὶ ἡδονῶν τοῦ βίου…συνπνίγονται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the cares and riches and pleasures of this life choke them” (See: Active or Passive)

μεριμνῶν

Alternate translation: “things that people worry about”

ἡδονῶν τοῦ βίου

Alternate translation: “the things in this life that people enjoy”

οὐ τελεσφοροῦσιν

The phrase mature fruit figuratively means spiritual maturity that is evidenced by godly character and loving actions. Alternate translation: “they do not mature into people of godly character who act out of love” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 8:15

τὸ δὲ ἐν τῇ καλῇ γῇ, οὗτοί εἰσιν οἵτινες

Jesus continues to explain the figurative meanings of the seeds that fell in different places. Alternate translation: “In the parable, the seeds that fell on the good soil represent people” (See: Metaphor)

ἀκούσαντες τὸν λόγον

Jesus uses the term word figuratively to refer to the message that people share by using words. Alternate translation: “when they hear the message” (See: Metonymy)

ἐν καρδίᾳ καλῇ καὶ ἀγαθῇ

The terms honest and good mean similar things. Jesus uses the two terms together for emphasis and clarity. You do not need to repeat both words in your translation if that might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “with genuine intentions” (See: Doublet)

ἐν καρδίᾳ καλῇ καὶ ἀγαθῇ

In this expression, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “with genuine intentions” (See: Metaphor)

καρποφοροῦσιν ἐν ὑπομονῇ

Here, fruit figuratively means spiritual maturity that is evidenced by godly character and loving actions. Alternate translation: “because they persevere, they mature into people of godly character who act out of love” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 8:16

οὐδεὶς δὲ λύχνον ἅψας

After Jesus finished explaining the story about the seeds, he gave his disciples another example to illustrate that God wants them to understand spiritual truths. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly in your translation. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus gave them another example. ‘No one lights a lamp’” (See: Parables)

οἱ εἰσπορευόμενοι

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “those who enter the room” (See: Ellipsis)

Luke 8:17

οὐ…ἐστιν κρυπτὸν ὃ οὐ φανερὸν γενήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this double negative as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “everything that is hidden will become visible” (See: Double Negatives)

οὐδὲ ἀπόκρυφον ὃ οὐ μὴ γνωσθῇ καὶ εἰς φανερὸν ἔλθῃ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could also translate this double negative as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “and everything that is secret will be known and become visible” (See: Double Negatives)

οὐδὲ ἀπόκρυφον ὃ οὐ μὴ γνωσθῇ καὶ εἰς φανερὸν ἔλθῃ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “and God will reveal every secret and make it visible” (See: Active or Passive)

οὐδὲ ἀπόκρυφον ὃ οὐ μὴ γνωσθῇ καὶ εἰς φανερὸν ἔλθῃ

The phrases be known and come into visibility mean similar things. Jesus is likely using repetition for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “and God will clearly reveal every secret” (See: Doublet)

Luke 8:18

βλέπετε οὖν πῶς ἀκούετε

The phrase be careful does not mean that listening is dangerous. Rather, it means that people should listen carefully, because, as Jesus has just said, God wants to reveal spiritual secrets. Alternate translation: “so make sure that you listen well” or “so listen carefully and reflect on what you hear”

ὃς ἂν…ἔχῃ, δοθήσεται αὐτῷ

The implication in context is that the phrase whoever has, it will be given to him refers to understanding and believing. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “whoever seeks sincerely to understand will be given more understanding” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὃς ἂν…ἔχῃ, δοθήσεται αὐτῷ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whoever seeks sincerely to understand will understand better” or “God will give greater understanding to anyone who seeks sincerely to understand” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ ὃς ἂν μὴ ἔχῃ, καὶ ὃ δοκεῖ ἔχειν ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

The implication once again is that the phrase whoever does not have, even what he thinks he has will be taken away from him refers to understanding and believing. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “But whoever does not have understanding, even what understanding he thinks he has will be taken away from him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

καὶ ὃς ἂν μὴ ἔχῃ, καὶ ὃ δοκεῖ ἔχειν ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whoever presumes that he already understands will understand less and less” or “God will not give greater understanding to anyone who presumes that he already understands” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 8:19

δὲ

Luke uses then to introduce a new event and to indicate that it came after the event he has just described. (See: Connect — Sequential Time Relationship)

οἱ ἀδελφοὶ

These were Jesus' younger brothers. They were sons of Mary and Joseph. Since the Father of Jesus was God, and their father was Joseph, they were actually his half-brothers. That detail is not normally translated, but if your language has a specific word for “younger brother,” you can use it here. (See: Kinship)

Luke 8:20

ἀπηγγέλη…αὐτῷ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. The subject should be plural, since in the next verse Jesus responds to “them.” Alternate translation: “people told him” (See: Active or Passive)

σου…σου…σε

Since the person who said this was speaking to Jesus alone, your and you are singular. (See: Forms of You)

ἰδεῖν θέλοντές σε

Alternate translation: “and they would like to see you”

Luke 8:21

ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς

Together the two words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to the information that people gave him. Alternate translation: “But Jesus responded to them” (See: Hendiadys)

μήτηρ μου καὶ ἀδελφοί μου, οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ ἀκούοντες καὶ ποιοῦντες

Jesus means figuratively that people who believe and obey the message from God become like a family to one another. Alternate translation: “Those who hear the word of God and obey it are like a mother and brothers to me” (See: Metaphor)

τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

Jesus uses the term word figuratively to refer to the message from God that people share by using words. Alternate translation: “the message from God” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 8:22

ἐγένετο δὲ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν

Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “around that time” (See: Idiom)

καὶ αὐτὸς ἐνέβη εἰς πλοῖον καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς, διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς λίμνης

It seems unlikely that Jesus and his disciples would have gotten into a boat before they were planning to sail somewhere. So here Luke is probably describing the result before the reason. If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “Jesus said to his disciples, ‘Let us go over to the other side of the lake.’ So they all got into a boat together” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

τῆς λίμνης

This means the Lake of Genneseret, which is also called the Sea of Galilee. But since Jesus would have referred to it simply as “the lake” while he and his disciples were on it, you do not need to use the proper name in your translation. (See: How to Translate Names)

ἀνήχθησαν

This expression means that they began to travel across the lake in their boat. Alternate translation: “they headed out across the lake” (See: Idiom)

Luke 8:23

πλεόντων…αὐτῶν

The term voyaged means that Jesus and the disciples traveled by water. Alternate translation: “as they traveled across the lake”

ἀφύπνωσεν

The pronoun he refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus began to sleep” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

κατέβη λαῖλαψ ἀνέμου εἰς τὴν λίμνην

Luke says came down because these winds blew down from the hills surrounding the lake. Alternate translation: “very strong winds suddenly began to blow on the lake” (See: Idiom)

συνεπληροῦντο

Luke says they, meaning the disciples, to refer figuratively by association to the boat they were in. Alternate translation: “the boat was being filled” (See: Metonymy)

συνεπληροῦντο

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say what was doing the action. Alternate translation: “water started to fill up their boat” (See: Active or Passive)

συνεπληροῦντο

The implication is that the strong winds were causing high waves that pushed water over the sides of the boat, and that this water was filling the boat. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the strong winds were causing high waves that pushed water over the sides of their boat, so that the water began to fill it up” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 8:24

Ἐπιστάτα

Master is the title by which disciples addressed their teacher in this culture. If your language and culture have a similar term, you can use it here in your translation.

λέγοντες, Ἐπιστάτα, Ἐπιστάτα, ἀπολλύμεθα!

The repetition indicates that the disciples called to Jesus urgently and continually. Alternate translation: “crying out continually, ‘Master! We’re going to die!’”

ἀπολλύμεθα

Since the disciples want Jesus to understand that he is in danger too, the word we would include him. Alternate translation: “We’re all going to die” (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

ἐπετίμησεν

Alternate translation: “spoke sharply to”

τῷ κλύδωνι, τοῦ ὕδατος

In your language, it might seem that the wording here expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you can abbreviate it. However, you could also translate this as expressing emphasis. Alternate translation: “the waves” or “the violent waves” (See: Making Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information Explicit)

ἐπαύσαντο καὶ ἐγένετο γαλήνη

These two phrases mean similar things. Luke uses the repetition to emphasize what great power Jesus demonstrated. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. However, you could also translate both phrases and show how the second expresses the results of the first. Alternate translation: “the storm ended” or “the storm ended, so that the lake became calm again” (See: Parallelism)

Luke 8:25

ποῦ ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν?

Jesus does not expect his disciples to tell him where their faith is. Rather, he is using the question form to correct them. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You should have trusted God!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν, ὅτι καὶ τοῖς ἀνέμοις ἐπιτάσσει καὶ τῷ ὕδατι, καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ?

If it would be clearer in your language, you could turn this into two sentences, one asking the question, and the other giving the reason for the question. Alternate translation: “Who then is this? He commands even the winds and the water, and they obey him!”

τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν

This is a genuine question, not a statement in question form. The disciples are looking for information about what kind of person Jesus could be if he can do this. Alternate translation: “What kind of man is this”

τῷ ὕδατι

The disciples are figuratively describing the violent waves that had threatened the boat by reference to the water that these waves arose from. Alternate translation: “the waves” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 8:26

τὴν χώραν τῶν Γερασηνῶν

The name Gerasenes refers to people from the city of Gerasa. (See: How to Translate Names)

ἀντιπέρα τῆς Γαλιλαίας

“on the other side of the lake from Galilee”

Luke 8:27

ἐξελθόντι…αὐτῷ

Here Luke is writing in a compact way. He means that Jesus came out of the boat. Alternate translation: “when Jesus got out of the boat” (See: Ellipsis)

ἀνήρ τις ἐκ τῆς πόλεως

This phrase introduces a new character in a story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. Alternate translation: “a man who was from the city of Gerasa” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἔχων δαιμόνια

Alternate translation: “who was controlled by demons” or “whom demons controlled”

καὶ χρόνῳ ἱκανῷ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce background information about the man who had demons. Alternate translation: “Now for a long time” (See: Background Information)

τοῖς μνήμασιν

The term the tombs refers to places in which people laid to rest the bodies of loved ones who have died. In this context it may possibly mean caves cut into the rock or small buildings that the man could use for shelter. (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 8:28

ἰδὼν…τὸν Ἰησοῦν

The pronoun he refers to the man who had demons. Alternate translation: “when the man whom the demons controlled saw Jesus” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἀνακράξας

Alternate translation: “he screamed” or “he shrieked”

προσέπεσεν αὐτῷ

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that the man did not fall down accidentally. Rather, bowing or lying down in front of Jesus was a sign of humility and respect for him. Alternate translation: “respectfully bowed down at Jesus’ feet” or “respectfully lay down on the ground in front of Jesus” (See: Symbolic Action)

φωνῇ μεγάλῃ εἶπεν

This is an idiom that means the man raised the volume of his voice. Alternate translation: “shouted out” (See: Idiom)

τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “What do you and I have in common” or “What reason do you have to get involved with me” (See: Idiom)

τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί

The man is using the question form to insist on something urgently. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You and I have nothing in common!” or “You have no reason to get involved with me!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Υἱὲ τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ Ὑψίστου

Son of the Most High God is an important title for Jesus. See how you translated the expression the Most High in 1:32. (See: Translating Son and Father)

Luke 8:29

γὰρ

Luke is giving the reason for the result he described in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “The man said this because” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

παρήγγειλεν γὰρ τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἀκαθάρτῳ ἐξελθεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου

If your language would put the reason before the result, you could create a verse bridge and put this sentence in 8:28, after the man bows down to Jesus but before he speaks, changing the tense of the verb to fit the context. You could also put the next sentence in this verse at the end of 8:27. (See: Verse Bridges)

πολλοῖς γὰρ χρόνοις

Luke uses this phrase to introduce further background information about what the demon had done to the man before Jesus met him. Alternate translation: “Many times in the past” (See: Background Information)

πολλοῖς γὰρ χρόνοις συνηρπάκει αὐτόν, καὶ ἐδεσμεύετο ἁλύσεσιν καὶ πέδαις, φυλασσόμενος

If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases. Luke appears to be describing how the demon would seize the man after he was bound and while he was being guarded. Alternate translation: “For though he was bound with chains and shackles and kept under guard, many times it had seized him” (See: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_ta/src/branch/master/translate/figs-events/01.md)

ἐδεσμεύετο ἁλύσεσιν καὶ πέδαις, φυλασσόμενος, καὶ διαρήσσων τὰ δεσμὰ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation (no comma following): “though the people in the area had bound him with chains and shackles and kept him under guard, he would break his bonds and” (See: Active or Passive)

ἠλαύνετο ὑπὸ τοῦ δαιμονίου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the demon would make him go” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 8:30

σοι

Since Luke indicates in the previous verse that Jesus is speaking to the unclean spirit here, your is singular, even though the demon responds that he is speaking for “many,” and even though in the following verses Luke says they and them for the multiple demons. (See: Forms of You)

λεγεών

Translate the word Legion with a word in your language that refers to a large number of soldiers. Show that this was the name of the demon by using the convention in your language for proper names. Alternate translation: “Army” or “Battalion” or “Brigade” (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 8:31

παρεκάλουν αὐτὸν

Alternate translation: “the demons kept begging Jesus”

τὴν Ἄβυσσον

The term abyss literally means a bottomless pit, and here it describes a place of punishment. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could translate the term with an explanatory phrase, as UST does, saying “the deep pit where God punishes demons.” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 8:32

ἦν δὲ ἐκεῖ ἀγέλη χοίρων ἱκανῶν βοσκομένη ἐν τῷ ὄρει

Luke supplies this background information to help readers understand what happens next. (See: Background Information)

ἦν…ἐκεῖ…βοσκομένη ἐν τῷ ὄρει

Alternate translation: “was nearby eating grass on the side of a hill”

παρεκάλεσαν αὐτὸν ἵνα ἐπιτρέψῃ αὐτοῖς εἰς ἐκείνους εἰσελθεῖν

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could clarify who and what these pronouns refer to. Alternate translation: “the demons begged Jesus to let them go into the pigs” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

καὶ ἐπέτρεψεν αὐτοῖς

Luke does not say specifically why Jesus allowed the demons to go into the pigs. But Jesus did not necessarily do so because the demons begged him. He may have had other reasons of his own. So it would probably be best to translate this in a neutral way, as ULT and UST both do, rather than beginning with a word such as “So,” which would imply that Jesus agreed to this because the demons begged him.

Luke 8:33

ἐξελθόντα δὲ τὰ δαιμόνια

The term translated as then could mean that the demons came of out the man because Jesus told them they could go into the pigs. You could begin this sentence with the word so, as UST does, to show that. (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ὥρμησεν

Alternate translation: “ran very fast”

καὶ ἀπεπνίγη

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. You do not need to specify someone who did this action to the pigs, because no one caused them to drown once they were in the water. Alternate translation: “and drowned” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 8:34

εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ εἰς τοὺς ἀγρούς

Here Luke uses a figure of speech to refer to that whole region by naming the two constituent parts of it. Alternate translation: “throughout the whole area” (See: Merism)

εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ εἰς τοὺς ἀγρούς

You could also translate this more literally. The implication is that this means the city of Gerasa, since Luke says in 8:29 that Jesus and his disciples came to the region where this city was located. Alternate translation: “in the city of Gerasa and in the surrounding countryside” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 8:35

ἐξῆλθον

Here, as well as in the other two instances in this verse, they refers to the people of that region, as in 8:37. The term went out indicates the remote area where the man had been living. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say those things explicitly. Alternate translation: “people from all over that region went out to that remote area” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

εὗραν…τὸν ἄνθρωπον, ἀφ’ οὗ τὰ δαιμόνια ἐξῆλθεν

Alternate translation: “saw the man whom the demons had left”

ἱματισμένον

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “wearing clothes” (See: Active or Passive)

σωφρονοῦντα

Alternate translation: “behaving normally”

καθήμενον…παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τοῦ Ἰησοῦ

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “sitting on the ground in front of Jesus” (See: Idiom)

ἐφοβήθησαν

The implication is that they were afraid of what else such a powerful person as Jesus might do. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “they were afraid of what else Jesus might do, since they recognized what great power he had” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 8:36

οἱ ἰδόντες

Alternate translation: “those who had seen what had happened” (See: Ellipsis)

ἐσώθη ὁ δαιμονισθείς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say both of these things with active forms. Alternate translation: “Jesus had delivered the man from the demons who had controlled him” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 8:37

ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος τῆς περιχώρου

This phrase means “everyone who lived in that area.” It is a generalization for emphasis, since every single resident of that region did not make this request. Rather, this was the general request of the crowd that came out to see what had happened. Alternate translation: “the crowd that had gathered from the region” (See: Hyperbole)

τῆς περιχώρου τῶν Γερασηνῶν

Alternate translation: “the area where the Gerasene people lived”

ὅτι φόβῳ μεγάλῳ συνείχοντο

If it would be clearer in your language, you could put this phrase first in the sentence, since it gives the reason for the result that the rest of the sentence describes. (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

φόβῳ μεγάλῳ συνείχοντο

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “they became very afraid” (See: Active or Passive)

φόβῳ μεγάλῳ συνείχοντο

Luke speaks of this fear figuratively as if it were something that could actively take hold of these people. Alternate translation: “they became very afraid” (See: Personification)

αὐτὸς δὲ ἐμβὰς, εἰς πλοῖον

Luke figuratively says he, meaning Jesus, to describe the entire group of Jesus and his disciples. Alternate translation: “Jesus and his disciples got into the boat” (See: Synecdoche)

ὑπέστρεψεν

The implication is that Jesus and his disciples were going to return to Galilee. Alternate translation: “to go back across the lake” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 8:38

δὲ

The events in this verse and the next verse happened before Jesus left in the boat. It may be helpful to state that clearly at the beginning here. Alternate translation (followed by comma): “Before Jesus and his disciples left,” (See: Order of Events)

ἐδεῖτο…αὐτοῦ…εἶναι σὺν αὐτῷ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this as a direct quotation, as UST does, breaking the sentence here. Alternate translation: “pleaded with Jesus, ‘Let me go with you!’” (See: Direct and Indirect Quotations)

ἀπέλυσεν δὲ αὐτὸν

The pronounhe refers to Jesus, and the word him refers to the man. Alternate translation: “Jesus sent the man away” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 8:39

τὸν οἶκόν σου

Jesus is using the word house figuratively to mean the people who live in the man’s house. Alternate translation: “your household” or “your family” (See: Metonymy)

διηγοῦ ὅσα σοι ἐποίησεν ὁ Θεός

Alternate translation: “tell them everything about what God has done for you”

καθ’ ὅλην τὴν πόλιν

The implication is that this means the city of Gerasa, since Luke says in 8:29 that Jesus and his disciples came to the region where this city was located. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “throughout the whole city of Gerasa” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 8:40

ἐν δὲ τῷ ὑποστρέφειν τὸν Ἰησοῦν

Luke figuratively says he, meaning Jesus, to describe the entire group of Jesus and his disciples. Alternate translation: “Now when Jesus returned with his disciples” (See: Synecdoche)

ἀπεδέξατο αὐτὸν ὁ ὄχλος; ἦσαν γὰρ πάντες προσδοκῶντες αὐτόν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the results that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “the crowd had been expecting him, and so they greeted him joyfully” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

Luke 8:41

ἰδοὺ

Luke uses behold to calls the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: Metaphor)

ἦλθεν ἀνὴρ ᾧ ὄνομα Ἰάειρος

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was man whose name was Jairus, and he came” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Ἰάειρος

Jairus is the name of a man. (See: How to Translate Names)

ἄρχων τῆς συναγωγῆς

Alternate translation: “one of the leaders at the local synagogue” or “a leader of the people who met at the synagogue in that city”

πεσὼν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Ἰησοῦ

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that Jairus did not fall down accidentally. Rather, bowing or lying down in front of Jesus was a sign of humility and respect for him. Alternate translation: “respectfully bowed down at Jesus’ feet” or “respectfully lay down on the ground in front of Jesus” (See: Symbolic Action)

Luke 8:42

ἀπέθνῃσκεν

The implication is that Jairus wanted Jesus to heal her. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “was about to die, and he wanted Jesus to heal her” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐν δὲ τῷ ὑπάγειν αὐτὸν

You may need to say first in your language that Jesus had agreed to go with Jairus. You could put that information in a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “So Jesus agreed to go with him. Now as he was on his way” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

δὲ

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Background Information)

οἱ ὄχλοι συνέπνιγον αὐτόν

Alternate translation: “the people were crowding tightly around Jesus”

Luke 8:43

γυνὴ οὖσα

This introduces a new character into the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος

Luke uses the phrase a flow of blood refers to her condition discreetly by using a mild expression. She was probably bleeding from her womb even when it was not the normal time for that. If your language has a polite way of referring to this condition, you can use that expression here. (See: Euphemism)

ἰατροῖς προσαναλώσασα ὅλον τὸν βίον

See the discussion of textual issues at the end of the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to include this phrase in your translation. The note below discusses a translation issue in this phrase for those who decide to include it. (See: Textual Variants)

ὅλον τὸν βίον

This phrase uses the term living figuratively to mean the money that was needed for living. Alternate translation: “all of her money” or “all the money she had to live on” (See: Metonymy)

οὐκ ἴσχυσεν ἀπ’ οὐδενὸς θεραπευθῆναι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whom no one had been able to heal” or, if you include the phrase from the textual variant, “who had spent all of her money on doctors, but none of them had been able to heal her” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 8:44

ἥψατο τοῦ κρασπέδου τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ

Jewish men wore tassels on the edges of their robes, as commanded in God’s Law. The woman likely touched one of those tassles. Alternate translation: “touched a tassel on his robe” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 8:45

οἱ ὄχλοι συνέχουσίν σε καὶ ἀποθλίβουσιν

By saying this, Peter was implying that anyone could have touched Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “there are many people crowding around you and pressing in against you, so any one of them might have touched you” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

συνέχουσίν σε καὶ ἀποθλίβουσιν

These two expressions mean similar things. Peter is using repetition for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “pressing against you from every side” (See: Doublet)

Luke 8:46

ἥψατό μού τις

The implication is that Jesus means someone reached out and touched him intentionally. He is not referring to the accidental jostling of the crowd. Alternate translation: “Someone deliberately touched me” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐγὼ…ἔγνων δύναμιν ἐξεληλυθυῖαν ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ

Jesus did not lose power or become weak. Rather, he recognized that power had gone out from him and healed someone. Alternate translation: “I felt power go out from me and heal someone” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 8:47

ὅτι οὐκ ἔλαθεν

The implication is that she could not hide the fact that she had touched Jesus deliberately. Alternate translation: “that she could not keep it a secret that she was the one who had touched Jesus” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τρέμουσα ἦλθεν

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state the implicit reason why she was trembling. Alternate translation: “she came trembling with fear” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

προσπεσοῦσα αὐτῷ

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that the woman did not fall down accidentally. Rather, bowing or lying down in front of Jesus was a sign of humility and respect for him. Alternate translation: “respectfully bowed down in front of Jesus” or “respectfully lay down on the ground in front of Jesus” (See: Symbolic Action)

ἰάθη

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “she had become healthy” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 8:48

θύγατερ

This was a kind way of speaking to a woman. Your language may have another way of expressing the same kindness. Alternate translation: “My dear” (See: Idiom)

ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun faith with a verb such as “believe.” Alternate translation: “because you believed, you have become well” (See: Abstract Nouns)

ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε

Jesus speaks figuratively of the woman’s faith as if it had actively healed her. He means that it provided the conditions for the healing that she received from God. Alternate translation: “because you believed, you have become well” (See: Personification)

ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε

In this context, the word saved has a specific meaning. Alternate translation: “because you believed, you have become well”

πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην

This is a way of saying goodbye and giving a blessing at the same time. Alternate translation: “May God give you peace as you go” or “As you go, do not worry anymore” (See: Idiom)

Luke 8:49

ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος

This refers implicitly to what Jesus was saying in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “While Jesus was still saying these things to the woman” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἔρχεταί τις

To call attention to a development in the story, Luke uses the present tense in past narration. See how you decided to approach this usage in 7:40. If it would not be natural to use the present tense in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “someone came”

τις παρὰ τοῦ ἀρχισυναγώγου

This does not mean someone whom Jairus sent, since Jairus was with Jesus. Rather, this means someone who had been at his house watching over his daughter with the others. Alternate translation: “someone who had been at the home of Jairus” (See: Metonymy)

μηκέτι σκύλλε τὸν διδάσκαλον

This statement implies that Jesus will not be able to do anything to help, since the girl is dead. Alternate translation: “There is nothing more that Jesus can do for you, so do not make him come to your house” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὸν διδάσκαλον

Teacher is a respectful title. You can translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use.

Luke 8:50

ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ

The pronoun he refers to Jesus, and the pronoun him refers to Jairus, not the messenger. Jesus did not respond directly to the messenger. Rather, he reassured Jairus, despite the news. Alternate translation: “Jesus said to Jairus” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

σωθήσεται

In this context, the word saved has a specific meaning, comparable in this context to the meaning “healed.” Alternate translation: “she will come back to life”

σωθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “she will come back to life” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 8:51

ἐλθὼν δὲ εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν

Luke figuratively says he, meaning Jesus, to describe the entire group that was coming with Jesus, which included his disciples and Jairus and likely others. Alternate translation: “when they arrived at the house” (See: Synecdoche)

οὐκ ἀφῆκεν…τινα…εἰ μὴ

If, in your language, it would appear that Luke was making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “Jesus only allowed” (See: Connect — Exception Clauses)

τὸν πατέρα τῆς παιδὸς

The phrase the father of the child refers to Jairus. Alternate translation: “Jairus, the girl’s father”

Luke 8:52

ἔκλαιον…πάντες καὶ ἐκόπτοντο αὐτήν

This was the customary way of showing grief in that culture. The term that ULT translates as mourning could mean that the people were pounding on their chests as a sign of grief, although Luke uses a much more specific expression to say that directly in 18:13. If you think your readers might not understand the significance of these actions, you could explain generally what the people were doing. Or you could describe the actions and say why the people were doing them. Alternate translation: “they were all loudly expressing their grief” or “all the people there were wailing and pounding on their chests to show how sad they were that the girl had died” (See: Symbolic Action)

οὐ…ἀπέθανεν, ἀλλὰ καθεύδει

Alternate translation: “she is not dead, she is only sleeping”

Luke 8:53

κατεγέλων αὐτοῦ, εἰδότες ὅτι ἀπέθανεν

Alternate translation: “they laughed at Jesus because they knew that Jairus’s daughter had died” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 8:54

αὐτὸς…κρατήσας τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῆς

Alternate translation: “Jesus took hold of the girl’s hand and” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἔγειρε

This was not a command that the girl was capable of obeying. Instead, this was a command that directly caused her to be raised from the dead. Alternate translation: “your life is restored, so get up” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

Luke 8:55

ἐπέστρεψεν τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτῆς

The people of this time considered life to be the result of the spirit coming into a person. You could express this in the way that would be most meaningful in your culture. Alternate translation: “she started breathing again” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 8:56

μηδενὶ εἰπεῖν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could make the verb negative and the subject positive. Alternate translation: “not to tell anyone”

Luke 9

Luke 9 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus sends his 12 apostles to teach and heal (9:1-9)
  2. Jesus miraculously feeds 5,000 people (9:10-17)
  3. Jesus speaks with his disciples about who he is (9:18-27)
  4. The glory of Jesus is revealed on a mountaintop (9:28-36)
  5. Jesus drives a demon out of a boy (9:37-43)
  6. Jesus speaks about being his disciple (9:44-50)
  7. Jesus begins to travel to Jerusalem (9:51-62)

Special concepts in this chapter

Elijah

God had promised the Jews that the prophet Elijah would return before the Messiah came. So some people who saw Jesus do miracles thought Jesus was Elijah (9:9, 9:19). He was not. However, Elijah did come to earth to speak with Jesus (9:30). (See: prophet, prophecy, prophesy, seer, prophetess and Christ, Messiah and Elijah)

Glory

Scripture often speaks of God’s glory as a great, brilliant light. When people see this light, they are afraid. Luke says in this chapter that Jesus’ clothing shone with this glorious light so that his followers could see that Jesus truly was God’s Son. At the same time, God told them that Jesus was his Son. (See: glory, glorious, glorify and fear, afraid, frighten)

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Paradox

A paradox is a statement that describes two things that seem as if they cannot both be true at the same time, but which actually are both true. Jesus speaks a paradox in this chapter: “Whoever would save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for my sake will save it” (9:24).

“Receiving”

This word appears several times in this chapter and means different things. When Jesus says, “If someone receives a little child like this in my name, he also is receiving me, and if someone receives me, he is also receiving the one who sent me” (9:48), he is speaking of people serving the child. When Luke says, “the people there did not receive him” (9:53), he means that the people did not believe in or accept Jesus. (See: believe, believer, belief, unbeliever, unbelief)

Luke 9:1

συνκαλεσάμενος…τοὺς δώδεκα

See how you translated this in 8:1. You may have decided to translate the nominal adjective the Twelve with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “when he had called together his 12 apostles” or “when he had called together the 12 men whom he had appointed to be apostles” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

τοὺς δώδεκα

You may have decided instead in 8:1 to translate this as a title, even if your language does not ordinarily use adjectives as nouns. If so, you can do the same thing here. (See: How to Translate Names)

δύναμιν καὶ ἐξουσίαν

Power and authority mean similar things. Luke uses them together to show that Jesus gave his 12 disciples both the ability and the right to heal people. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this phrase with a combination of words that includes both of these ideas. Alternate translation: “the right to use power” (See: Doublet)

πάντα τὰ δαιμόνια

This could mean one of two things. Alternate translation: “every demon” or “every kind of demon”

νόσους θεραπεύειν

Alternate translation: “to heal people of their sicknesses”

Luke 9:2

ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς

Your language may require you to say where Jesus sent the disciples. Alternate translation: “sent them to various places” or “told them to go to various places”

τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “how God would rule” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 9:3

καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς

It may be helpful to state that Jesus said these things to the disciples before they went out. Alternate translation: “Before the 12 disciples left, Jesus said to them”

μηδὲν αἴρετε

If it would be clearer in your language, you could make the verb negative and the subject positive. Alternate translation: “Do not bring anything”

εἰς τὴν ὁδόν

Jesus uses the term road figuratively to refer to the journey that his disciples will make by traveling along roads. Alternate translation: “for your journey” (See: Metonymy)

ῥάβδον

The term staff means a large stick that people used for balance when climbing or when walking on uneven ground, and also for defense against animals and people. Alternate translation: “walking stick” (See: Translate Unknowns)

πήραν

The team bag means something a traveler would use to carry things that were needed on a journey. Alternate translation: “knapsack” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἄρτον

Jesus figuratively uses one kind of food, bread, to represent food in general. Alternate translation: “food” (See: Synecdoche)

ἀργύριον

Jesus figuratively uses a means by which value is stored and exchanged, silver, to represent money by association. Alternate translation: “money” (See: Metonymy)

μήτε δύο χιτῶνας ἔχειν

Here Jesus is using a figure of speech that expresses a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. When he says that these men should not each have two tunics, he means that they each should only have one tunic. Alternate translation: “and do not bring an extra tunic” (See: Litotes)

Luke 9:4

εἰς ἣν ἂν οἰκίαν εἰσέλθητε

The implication is that the disciples can enter a house because the people living there have welcomed them. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “any house where you are welcomed” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐκεῖ μένετε

Alternate translation: “stay in that same house”

καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ἐξέρχεσθε

Alternate translation: “until you leave that place”

Luke 9:5

καὶ ὅσοι ἂν μὴ δέχωνται ὑμᾶς, ἐξερχόμενοι

It may be helpful to make this two sentences. Alternate translation: “Here is what you should do in any town where people do not receive you. When you leave”

τὸν κονιορτὸν ἀπὸ τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν ἀποτινάσσετε

This action was an expression of strong rejection in this culture. It showed that someone did not want even the dust of a town to remain on them. If there is a similar gesture in your culture, you could consider using it here in your translation. (See: Symbolic Action)

εἰς μαρτύριον ἐπ’ αὐτούς

Alternate translation: “as a warning to them”

Luke 9:6

ἐξερχόμενοι

Alternate translation: “they left the place were Jesus was”

θεραπεύοντες πανταχοῦ

Luke says everywhere as a figurative generalization. Alternate translation: “healing wherever they went” (See: Hyperbole)

Luke 9:7

δὲ Ἡρῴδης

This phrase marks a break in the main story line. Luke is giving background information about Herod. Alternate translation: “Meanwhile, Herod” (See: Background Information)

Ἡρῴδης ὁ τετράρχης

See how you translated the term tetrarch in 3:1 Alternate translation: “Herod, who ruled the region of Galilee” (See: Translate Unknowns)

διηπόρει

Alternate translation: “he was confused” or “he could not understand”

διὰ τὸ λέγεσθαι ὑπό τινων

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “because some people were saying” (See: Active or Passive)

ὅτι Ἰωάννης ἠγέρθη ἐκ νεκρῶν

Luke reports in 3:20 that Herod put John in prison. When John sends messengers to Jesus in 7:18-19, he does this from prison. But by this point in the story, John is dead, because Herod has executed him. Luke assumes that his readers will know that. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could tell them explicitly. Alternate translation: “that John the Baptist, whom Herod had executed, had risen from the dead” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Ἰωάννης

Luke assumes that his readers will know he is referring to John the Baptist. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 9:8

ὑπό τινων δὲ, ὅτι Ἠλείας ἐφάνη

The expression it was said carries forward from the previous verse and applies to this phrase. Alternate translation: “and it was said by some that Elijah had appeared” (See: Ellipsis)

ἄλλων δὲ, ὅτι προφήτης τις τῶν ἀρχαίων ἀνέστη

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “and some people were saying that Elijah had appeared” (See: Active or Passive)

ἄλλων δὲ, ὅτι προφήτης τις τῶν ἀρχαίων ἀνέστη

The expression it was said also applies to this phrase. Alternate translation: “but it was said by others that one of the prophets from long ago had come back to life” (See: Ellipsis)

ἄλλων δὲ, ὅτι προφήτης τις τῶν ἀρχαίων ἀνέστη

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form as well. Alternate translation: “but others were saying that one of the prophets from long ago had come back to life” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 9:9

Ἰωάννην ἐγὼ ἀπεκεφάλισα, τίς δέ ἐστιν οὗτος

Herod is assuming that it is impossible for John to have risen from the dead. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “It cannot be John, because I had his head cut off, so who is this” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Ἰωάννην ἐγὼ ἀπεκεφάλισα

Herod speaks of himself figuratively as the person who did this action, representing the entire group of people who were responsible for it. Herod’s soldiers would actually have carried out the execution, on his orders. Alternate translation: “I commanded my soldiers to cut off John’s head” (See: Synecdoche)

Luke 9:10

ὑποστρέψαντες, οἱ ἀπόστολοι

The implication is that the apostles returned to where Jesus was. Alternate translation: “when the apostles came back to where Jesus was” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὅσα ἐποίησαν

The phrase as much as they had done refers to what they did when they went to the cities where Jesus sent them. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “what had happened as they proclaimed the good news and healed the sick in the cities where Jesus had sent them” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

πόλιν καλουμένην Βηθσαϊδά

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “a city whose name was Bethsaida” (See: Active or Passive)

Βηθσαϊδά

Bethsaida is the name of a city. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 9:11

τῆς Βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “how God would rule” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 9:12

ἡ δὲ ἡμέρα ἤρξατο κλίνειν

Luke provides this background information to help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now it was getting towards the end of the day” or “Now the end of the day was approaching” (See: Background Information)

οἱ δώδεκα

See how you translated this in 8:1. You may have decided to translate the nominal adjective Twelve with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “his 12 apostles” or “the 12 men whom he had appointed to be apostles” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

οἱ δώδεκα

You may have decided instead in 8:1 to translate this as a title, the Twelve, even if your language does not ordinarily use adjectives as nouns. If so, you can do the same thing here. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 9:13

οὐκ εἰσὶν…πλεῖον ἢ

The disciples are figuratively expressing a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “There are only” (See: Litotes)

ἄρτοι πέντε

This means loaves of bread, which are lumps of flour dough that a person has shaped and baked. Alternate translation: “five loaves of bread” (See: Translate Unknowns)

εἰ μήτι πορευθέντες, ἡμεῖς ἀγοράσωμεν εἰς πάντα τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον βρώματα

The disciples are not making a serious suggestion here. They actually mean to communicate the opposite of the literal meaning of their words. Alternate translation: “and we certainly cannot go and buy food for all these people” (See: Irony)

Luke 9:14

ὡσεὶ ἄνδρες πεντακισχίλιοι

Luke assumes that readers will know that this number does not include the women and children who were likely also present. (This is not a case where a masculine term includes women.) If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “about 5,000 men, not counting the women and children” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

κατακλίνατε αὐτοὺς

Alternate translation: “Tell them to sit down to eat”

Luke 9:15

καὶ

Luke uses this word to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “So” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

ἐποίησαν οὕτως

These two phrases the same thing. Luke is using repetition for clarity and perhaps, by drawing things out, to create some suspense about what will happen next. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “the disciples had all the people sit down as Jesus had instructed” (See: Parallelism)

Luke 9:16

λαβὼν δὲ τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους

Alternate translation: “Then Jesus took the five loaves of bread”

ἀναβλέψας εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν

This describes Jesus looking toward the sky. The Jews believed that heaven, the abode of God, was located above the sky. Alternate translation: “looking up beyond the sky towards God in heaven” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

εὐλόγησεν αὐτοὺς

The word them refers to the loaves of bread and the fish, not to the people who had sat down to eat. Alternate translation: “he gave thanks for the food”

Luke 9:17

ἔφαγον καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν πάντες

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “they all ate until they had had enough” (See: Active or Passive)

κόφινοι

Here, baskets refers to containers made of woven material. In biblical times, baskets were often made from strong plant materials, such as peels of wood or reeds that grew near the water. If your readers would not be familiar with baskets, you could use a general term. Alternate translation: “containers” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 9:18

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

προσευχόμενον κατὰ μόνας

The disciples were with Jesus, but he was praying personally and privately by himself. Alternate translation: “praying by himself”

Luke 9:19

οἱ…ἀποκριθέντες εἶπαν

Together the two words answering and said mean that the disciples responded to the question that Jesus asked them. Alternate translation: “they responded” (See: Hendiadys)

Ἰωάννην τὸν Βαπτιστήν, ἄλλοι δὲ, Ἠλείαν, ἄλλοι δὲ

The disciples are answering Jesus in a compressed way, leaving out words that a sentence would ordinarily need to be complete. Alternate translation: “Some say that you are John the Baptist, but others say that you are Elijah, and others say” (See: Ellipsis)

ὅτι προφήτης τις τῶν ἀρχαίων ἀνέστη

It may be helpful to clarify how this answer relates to Jesus’ question. Alternate translation: “that you are one of the prophets from long ago who has come back to life” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀνέστη

This means risen from the dead. Alternate translation: “has come back to life” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 9:20

εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς

Alternate translation: “Jesus said to his disciples”

Πέτρος δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν

Together the two words answering and said mean that Peter responded to the follow-up question that Jesus asked his disciples. Alternate translation: “Then Peter responded” (See: Hendiadys)

τὸν Χριστὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ

Christ is the Greek word for “Messiah.” Alternate translation: “You are the Messiah whom God promised to send” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 9:21

αὐτοῖς, παρήγγειλεν μηδενὶ λέγειν τοῦτο

If it would be clearer in your language, you could make the verb rather than the object negative. You could also express this as a direct quotation. Alternate translation: “commanding them not to tell this to anyone” or “commanding them, ‘Do not tell this to anyone’” (See: Direct and Indirect Quotations)

Luke 9:22

δεῖ τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ παθεῖν

Here Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Son of Man, am going to have to suffer many things” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

δεῖ τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ παθεῖν

See how you translated the title Son of Man in 5:24. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah, am going to have to suffer many things” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

καὶ ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, καὶ ἀρχιερέων, καὶ γραμματέων

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “The elders, chief priests, and scribes will reject him” or (if you translated in the first person) “The elders, chief priests, and scribes will reject me” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ ἀποκτανθῆναι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “and they will kill him” or (if you translated in the first person) “and they will kill me” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι

This word at the beginning of this phrase indicates a contrast between what this phrase describes and what the previous phrases described. Alternate translation: “but he will be raised on the third day” or (if you translated in the first person) “but I will be raised on the third day” (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “but he will come back to life on the third day” or (if you translated in the first person) “but I will come back to life on the third day” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “but he will come back to life on day three” or (if you translated in the first person) “but I will come back to life on day three” (See: Ordinal Numbers)

καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι

In the idiom of this culture, today was the “first day,” tomorrow was the “second day,” and the day after tomorrow was thethird day. To make sure that this is clear to your readers, you may wish to use a different expression than “the third day” or “day three,” especially if, in your culture, this would mean one day longer than Jesus intends. Otherwise, your readers may be confused when they read later in the book that Jesus died on a Friday and came back to life on a Sunday, if that would be “the second day” or “day two” according to the way your culture reckons time. Alternate translation: “and he will spend the next full day in the grave, but on the day after that, he will come back to life” or (if you translated in the first person) “and I will spend the next full day in the grave, but on the day after that, I will come back to life” (See: Idiom)

Luke 9:23

πρὸς πάντας

Alternate translation: “to all of his disciples who were with him”

ὀπίσω μου ἔρχεσθαι

To follow or to come after Jesus represents being one of his disciples. Alternate translation: “be my disciple” (See: Metaphor)

ἀρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν

Alternate translation: “he must forsake his own desires”

ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καθ’ ἡμέραν

The image is of a condemned prisoner being forced to carry the cross on which he would be crucified to the place where he would be executed. Luke assumes that his readers will recognize this image from their own culture. But if it would not be familiar to your readers, you could use a more general expression. Alternate translation: “he must be willing every day to suffer and die for my sake” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καθ’ ἡμέραν

To take up a cross figuratively represents being willing to suffer and die. Alternate translation: “he must be willing every day to suffer and die for my sake” (See: Metaphor)

καὶ ἀκολουθείτω μοι

Here, to follow Jesus means to obey him. Alternate translation: “and obey me in that way” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 9:24

ὃς δ’ ἂν ἀπολέσῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ

This phrase is an idiom. Jesus is not encouraging his disciples to do self-destructive things. Alternate translation: “but whoever is willing to give up everything for me” (See: Idiom)

Luke 9:25

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖται ἄνθρωπος, κερδήσας τὸν κόσμον ὅλον, ἑαυτὸν δὲ ἀπολέσας ἢ ζημιωθείς?

Jesus does not expect his disciples to tell him what benefit this would be. Rather, he is using the question form as a teaching tool. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “It would not benefit a person to get everything he wanted in this world and yet be lost eternally.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖται ἄνθρωπος, κερδήσας τὸν κόσμον ὅλον, ἑαυτὸν δὲ ἀπολέσας ἢ ζημιωθείς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “For what benefit would it be to a person to gain the whole world but to lose or destroy himself” (See: Active or Passive)

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖται ἄνθρωπος, κερδήσας τὸν κόσμον ὅλον, ἑαυτὸν δὲ ἀπολέσας ἢ ζημιωθείς

The terms losing and destroying mean the same thing. Jesus uses them together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “For what benefit would it be to a person to get everything he wanted in this world but to completely destroy himself” (See: Doublet)

ἄνθρωπος

Jesus is using the term man in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “a person” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖται ἄνθρωπος, κερδήσας τὸν κόσμον ὅλον, ἑαυτὸν δὲ ἀπολέσας ἢ ζημιωθείς

Jesus says the whole world as an overstatement for emphasis. Alternate translation: “For what benefit would it be to a person to get everything he wanted in this world but to lose or destroy himself” (See: Hyperbole)

Luke 9:26

τοὺς ἐμοὺς λόγους

Jesus is using the term words figuratively to describe the things he teaches by using words. Alternate translation: “my teaching” (See: Metonymy)

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

Here Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Son of Man” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

See how you translated the title Son of Man in 5:24. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τοῦ Πατρὸς

The Father is an important title for God. Alternate translation: “God the Father” (See: Translating Son and Father)

Luke 9:27

λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν ἀληθῶς

Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the importance of what he will say next. Alternate translation: “Now listen very carefully” (See: Idiom)

εἰσίν τινες τῶν αὐτοῦ ἑστηκότων, οἳ οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου, ἕως ἂν ἴδωσιν τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

Jesus is using the third person to talk about the people he is talking to. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the second person. Alternate translation: “some of you who are standing here will not die before you see the kingdom of God” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου, ἕως ἂν ἴδωσιν τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

Jesus is figuratively expressing a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “will see the kingdom of God before they die” or (if you are translating in the second person) “will see the kingdom of God before you die” (See: Litotes)

γεύσωνται θανάτου

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “die” (See: Idiom)

τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “God ruling as king” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 9:28

ἐγένετο δὲ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

μετὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους

The phrase these words refers to what Jesus said to his disciples in the preceding verses. Luke uses the term words figuratively to describe the things that Jesus said by using words. Alternate translation: “after Jesus said these things to his disciples” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 9:29

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new development within this episode. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for this purpose. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

Luke 9:30

ἰδοὺ

Here, Luke uses the word behold to alert readers to pay attention to the surprising information that follows. Alternate translation: “suddenly” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 9:31

οἳ ὀφθέντες ἐν δόξῃ

This phrase gives information about how Moses and Elijah looked. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “who appeared in glorious splendor” or “who were shining brightly” (See: Active or Passive)

τὴν ἔξοδον αὐτοῦ

Luke is using a polite way of referring to Jesus’ death. Alternate translation: “how Jesus would leave this world” or “how Jesus would die” (See: Euphemism)

ἣν ἤμελλεν πληροῦν ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ

Alternate translation: “which was soon going to happen in Jerusalem”

Luke 9:32

δὲ

Luke uses this word to introduce background information about what Peter, James, and John were doing while Jesus was speaking with Moses and Elijah. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Background Information)

ὁ…Πέτρος καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ ἦσαν βεβαρημένοι ὕπνῳ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “sleep was weighing heavily upon Peter and James and John” (See: Active or Passive)

ὁ…Πέτρος καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ ἦσαν βεβαρημένοι ὕπνῳ

Luke speaks of sleep figuratively as if it were something that could be like a weight pressing down on a person. Alternate translation: “Peter and James and John all felt very sleepy” (See: Personification)

εἶδον τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ

As in 2:9, the implication is that this glory manifested visibly as a bright light. Alternate translation: “they saw brilliant light shining around Jesus” or “they saw a very bright light coming from Jesus” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

καὶ τοὺς δύο ἄνδρας τοὺς συνεστῶτας αὐτῷ

The phrase the two men refers to Moses and Elijah. Alternate translation: “and they also saw Moses and Elijah”

Luke 9:33

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new development within this episode. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for this purpose. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν τῷ διαχωρίζεσθαι αὐτοὺς ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

The pronoun they refers to Moses and Elijah, not to the disciples. Alternate translation: “as Moses and Elijah were about to leave Jesus” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἡμᾶς…ποιήσωμεν

Since Peter wants to make it possible for Moses and Elijah to stay, when he says for us, he likely means “all six of us.” So if your language distinguishes between exclusive and inclusive “us,” use the inclusive form in that case. However, when Peter says let us, he is likely referring to himself and to James and John, so use the exclusive form of “us” in that case. (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

σκηνὰς

The term tents means simple, temporary places in which to sit or sleep. Peter probably had in mind that he and the other two disciples would build them from the materials available on the mountain such as tree branches. Alternate translation: “shelters” (See: Translate Unknowns)

μὴ εἰδὼς ὃ λέγει

To call attention to a development in the story, Luke uses the present tense in past narration. See how you decided to approach this usage in 7:40. If it would not be natural to use the present tense in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “He did not know what he was saying”

Luke 9:34

ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος

Alternate translation: “While Peter was saying these things” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἐφοβήθησαν

These adult disciples were not afraid of clouds. Rather, given all the unusual things that had already taken place on this mountain, they were afraid of what might happen to them once the cloud came completely over them. Alternate translation: “they were very apprehensive” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

εἰσελθεῖν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν νεφέλην

This can be expressed in terms of what the cloud did. Alternate translation: “the cloud surrounded them”

Luke 9:35

φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐκ τῆς νεφέλης

Luke expects readers to understand that this voice could only have belonged to God. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “God spoke to them from the cloud” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὁ Υἱός μου

This is an important title for Jesus, the Son of God. (See: Translating Son and Father)

ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could indicate who has done the action. Alternate translation: “the one I have chosen” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 9:36

ἐν τῷ γενέσθαι τὴν φωνὴν

Alternate translation: “after the voice had spoken”

εὑρέθη Ἰησοῦς μόνος

The term found is an idiom that means “could be found” or “was there.” Alternate translation: “only Jesus was there” (See: Idiom)

εὑρέθη Ἰησοῦς μόνος

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say Jesus was found alone with an active form. Alternate translation: “only Jesus was there” (See: Active or Passive)

αὐτοὶ ἐσίγησαν, καὶ οὐδενὶ ἀπήγγειλαν

These two phrases mean the same thing. (The Greek verb in the first phrase does not always mean to make no sound. It can also mean to keep a secret.) Luke uses the two phrases together for emphasis. In your translation, you could also use repetition for emphasis, or, if it would be clearer in your language, you could combine the phrases. Alternate translation: “they kept it a secret and did not tell anyone” or “they said nothing about it to anyone” (See: Doublet)

οὐδενὶ ἀπήγγειλαν…οὐδὲν

Luke uses a double negative in Greek for emphasis here, “told no one … nothing.” The second negative does not cancel the first to create a positive meaning, “told someone … something.” If for emphasis your language uses double negatives that do not cancel one another, it would be appropriate to use that construction here. (See: Double Negatives)

ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις

Here Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “at that time” (See: Idiom)

Luke 9:37

ἐγένετο δὲ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

Luke 9:38

ἰδοὺ

Luke uses the term behold to calls the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: Metaphor)

ἀνὴρ ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was a man in the crowd who” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Διδάσκαλε

Teacher is a respectful title. You can translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use.

ἐπιβλέψαι ἐπὶ

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “help” (See: Idiom)

Luke 9:39

ἰδοὺ

The man uses the term behold to calls Jesus’ attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: Metaphor)

πνεῦμα

The man uses this phrase to introduce the spirit into his story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there is an evil spirit that” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

μετὰ ἀφροῦ

When a person is having convulsions, they can have trouble breathing or swallowing. This causes white foam to form around their mouths. Alternate translation: “and foam comes out of his mouth” (See: Translate Unknowns)

μόγις ἀποχωρεῖ ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

The man is figuratively expressing a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “it attacks him very often” (See: Litotes)

συντρῖβον αὐτόν

The man speaks figuratively of the spirit as if it were a heavy weight whose attacks crush the boy. This is a reference to the injuries that the spirit causes. Alternate translation: “injuring him badly” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 9:41

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν

Together answering and said mean that Jesus responded to the man’s request. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus responded” (See: Hendiadys)

ὦ γενεὰ ἄπιστος καὶ διεστραμμένη, ἕως πότε ἔσομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς καὶ ἀνέξομαι ὑμῶν?

Jesus is speaking figuratively to something that he knows cannot hear him. He is addressing the entire generation of people who were living at that time, and they are not all present to hear him. He is doing this to show in a very strong way how he feels about this generation. He is actually speaking to the people who can hear him, the crowd that has gathered there. If your readers might not understand this kind of figurative speech, you could translate Jesus’ words as if he were speaking directly to the crowd, since they are included in the generation that Jesus is figuratively addressing. Alternate translation: “You have all gone wrong because you do not believe, so I hope I do not have to stay here and put up with you for very long!” (See: Apostrophe)

ὦ γενεὰ ἄπιστος καὶ διεστραμμένη, ἕως πότε ἔσομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς καὶ ἀνέξομαι ὑμῶν?

Jesus is using the question form for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You have all gone wrong because you do not believe, so I hope I do not have to stay here and put up with you for very long!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἄπιστος καὶ διεστραμμένη

The terms unbelieving and perverted mean similar things. Jesus uses them together for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine them into a single phrase. Alternate translation: “You have all gone wrong because you do not believe” (See: Doublet)

ἕως πότε ἔσομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς καὶ ἀνέξομαι ὑμῶν?

In both cases here, you is plural in Greek because Jesus is addressing a generation that is made up of many people. However, generation is a collective noun, and if your language would treat a collective noun as singular in a context like this, you could use the singular form of you. (See: Forms of You)

προσάγαγε ὧδε τὸν υἱόν σου

Jesus is now speaking to the father of the boy, and so your is singular here. (See: Forms of You)

Luke 9:42

ἔτι…προσερχομένου αὐτοῦ

The pronoun he refers to the boy, not to the father. Alternate translation: “while the boy was coming” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 9:43

ἐξεπλήσσοντο δὲ πάντες ἐπὶ τῇ μεγαλειότητι τοῦ Θεοῦ

Jesus performed the miracle, but the crowd recognized that God was the power behind the healing. Alternate translation: “Then they were all amazed that God would work so powerfully through Jesus in this way” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

πᾶσιν οἷς ἐποίει

The word he refers to Jesus, not to God the Father. Alternate translation: “everything Jesus was doing” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 9:44

θέσθε ὑμεῖς εἰς τὰ ὦτα ὑμῶν τοὺς λόγους τούτους

Jesus is using an idiom to tell his disciples to pay careful attention to what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “Now listen carefully to this and remember it” (See: Idiom)

ὁ γὰρ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου μέλλει παραδίδοσθαι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Someone is going to betray the Son of Man” (See: Active or Passive)

ὁ γὰρ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου μέλλει παραδίδοσθαι

Jesus is speaking about himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “Someone is going to betray me, the Son of Man” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ὁ γὰρ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου μέλλει παραδίδοσθαι

See how you translated the title Son of Man in 5:24. Alternate translation: “someone is going to betray me, the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων

The term hands figuratively represent power and control. Alternate translation: “to his enemies, who will have power over him” or (if you translated in the first person) “to my enemies, who will have power over me” (See: Metaphor)

εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων

It may be helpful to make explicit who these men are. Alternate translation: “to his enemies, who will have power over him” or (if you translated in the first person) “to my enemies, who will have power over me” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 9:45

τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο…περὶ τοῦ ῥήματος τούτου

Luke uses the term word figuratively to describe what Jesus said by using words. Alternate translation: “this saying … about this saying” or “this statement … about this statement” (See: Metonymy)

ἦν παρακεκαλυμμένον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you can say who did the action. Alternate translation: “God hid its meaning from them” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 9:46

ἐν αὐτοῖς

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that the pronoun them does not include Jesus. He was not arguing, along with the disciples, about who was the greatest. Alternate translation: “among the disciples” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

τίς ἂν εἴη μείζων αὐτῶν

Alternate translation: “which one of them was the greatest”

Luke 9:47

εἰδὼς τὸν διαλογισμὸν τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν

Here Luke uses hearts figuratively to represent the disciples’ thoughts and evaluations. Alternate translation: “knowing what they were thinking” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 9:48

τοῦτο τὸ παιδίον

Jesus is using the child as an extreme example. He is illustrating that since he will be present in even the most humble of his followers, the disciples do not need to argue among themselves about which of them is the greatest. Everyone who is working on behalf of Jesus possesses his full honor and dignity. Alternate translation: “even someone as seemingly insignificant as this child” (See: Hyperbole)

ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου

Here, name is a figurative way of referring to a person by reference to something associated with him. Alternate translation: “as someone who is working on my behalf” (See: Metonymy)

ἐμὲ δέχεται

This is a metaphor, but if it would be clearer in your language, you could translate it as a simile. Alternate translation: “it is as if he is welcoming me” (See: Metaphor)

τὸν ἀποστείλαντά με

Jesus assumes that his disciples will know that this means God. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “God, who sent me” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

οὗτός ἐστιν μέγας

Here Jesus uses the pronoun he in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “that is the person whom God considers to be great” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

Luke 9:49

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ Ἰωάννης εἶπεν

Together answering and said mean that John responded to what Jesus had just said. Alternate translation: “Then John responded” (See: Hendiadys)

εἴδομέν…μεθ’ ἡμῶν

When John says we, he is speaking of himself and some other disciples who spoke to this man, so we would be exclusive, if your language uses that form. However, when John says us, he seems to be referring to the disciples and Jesus traveling together, and since he is speaking to Jesus, us would be inclusive. (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί σου

The term name is a figurative way of referring to a person by reference to something associated with them. This expression means the person was acting with the power and authority of Jesus. Alternate translation: “on your behalf” or “as your representative” (See: Metonymy)

οὐκ ἀκολουθεῖ μεθ’ ἡμῶν

In this case, to follow Jesus does not seem to mean to be one of his disciples, as in 5:27, since this man was acting in Jesus’ name. Rather, in this context it seems to refer to traveling together in this group with Jesus. Alternate translation: “he does not travel with you in our group” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 9:50

μὴ κωλύετε

Jesus is figuratively expressing a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. You can state this positively. Alternate translation: “Allow him to continue” (See: Litotes)

Luke 9:51

ἐγένετο δὲ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐν τῷ συνπληροῦσθαι τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ἀναλήμψεως αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could use active verbal forms in place of these two passive forms, and in the second case you could say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “when it was almost time for God to take him up” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐν τῷ συνπληροῦσθαι τὰς ἡμέρας

Here Luke uses days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “when it was almost time” (See: Idiom)

τῆς ἀναλήμψεως αὐτοῦ

The implication is that God would take Jesus back up to heaven, and the further implication is that this would be after Jesus died. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say one or both of those things explicitly. Alternate translation: “for God to take him up to heaven” or “for him to die and for God to take him back up to heaven” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήρισεν

Set his face is an idiom. Alternate translation: “he firmly decided” (See: Idiom)

Luke 9:52

πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ

The term face figuratively means the front of a person. Alternate translation: “ahead of him” (See: Metaphor)

κώμην Σαμαρειτῶν

Samaritan is a name that refers to a place that is in the region of Samaria or to a person who is from that region. Samaria was between Galilee and Judea, and the people who lived there were not Jewish and they were hostile to the Jews. The terms Samaritan and Samaria occur several times in this book. (See: How to Translate Names)

ὡς ἑτοιμάσαι αὐτῷ

This phrase means to make arrangements in anticipation of his arrival there, such as for food to eat, a place to stay, and possibly also a place to speak. Alternate translation: “to arrange his accommodations” (See: Idiom)

Luke 9:53

οὐκ ἐδέξαντο αὐτόν

Alternate translation: “the Samaritans did not want him to stay with them”

τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ἦν πορευόμενον εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ

Luke is using one part of Jesus to represent all of him. Luke may use the face because Jesus was facing in the direction he was traveling. Or this may echo the expression “he set his face” in 9:52. Alternate translation: “he was traveling toward Jerusalem” (See: Synecdoche)

ὅτι τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ἦν πορευόμενον εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ

The Samaritans and the Jews hated each other. Therefore the Samaritans did not want to help Jesus travel to Jerusalem, which was the Jewish capital and the place where the Jews held their major religious observances. Alternate translation: “because they did not want to help any Jew make a journey to Jerusalem” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 9:54

ἰδόντες

The word saw figuratively represents notice and attention. Alternate translation: “recognized that the Samaritans were not going to accommodate Jesus” (See: Metaphor)

θέλεις εἴπωμεν πῦρ καταβῆναι ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἀναλῶσαι αὐτούς?

James and John suggested this method of judgment because they knew that this was how the prophets such as Elijah had called down judgment upon people who rejected God. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “do you want us to tell fire to come down from heaven to consume them, as Elijah did” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

θέλεις εἴπωμεν

By us, James and John mean themselves, but not Jesus, so us is exclusive. (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

Luke 9:55

στραφεὶς…ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς

The pronoun them refers to James and John. Jesus did not condemn the Samaritans, as the disciples expected. Alternate translation: “Jesus turned around and rebuked James and John” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 9:57

τις

This was not one of the disciples. Alternate translation: “a certain person”

Luke 9:58

αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν, καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνώσεις

Jesus is using a figure of speech. By naming a creature that lives on land and a creature that flies in the air, Jesus is referring to all creatures. Alternate translation: “Every creature has a place to live” (See: Merism)

αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν

The word foxes describes land animals that are similar to small dogs. The word dens refers to holes that these animals dig in the ground as shelters. If your readers would not be familiar with this animal and its habits, you could describe them in general terms. Alternate translation: “Little animals live in holes in the ground” (See: Translate Unknowns)

τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνώσεις

In your language, it might seem that this phrase expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you could abbreviate it. However, you could also use an action clause to keep the sense of sky, to complement the idea of “ground” in the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “birds live in nests” or “birds that fly in the air live in nests” (See: Making Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information Explicit)

τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνώσεις

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. These words can be supplied from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “birds live in nests” or “birds that fly in the air live in nests” (See: Ellipsis)

ὁ…Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

Jesus is speaking about himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Son of Man” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ὁ…Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

See how you translated the title Son of Man in 5:24. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

οὐκ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ

Jesus implies that if this person were to follow him, he too might not have a home. Alternate translation: “does not have a home anywhere, so if you become his disciple, expect that you will not have a home either” or (if you translated in the first person) “do not have a home anywhere, so if you become my disciple, expect that you will not have a home either” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

οὐκ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ

This expression figuratively means “does not have anywhere to sleep,” by association with something that a person does in order to sleep, lay down his head. And a place to sleep, by association, means a home, since that is where people sleep. Alternate translation: “does not have a home anywhere” or (if you translated in the first person) “do not have a home anywhere” (See: Metonymy)

οὐκ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ

Jesus actually did find places to sleep wherever he went to teach and heal, but he says figuratively that he has no such place at all to emphasize that he has no permanent home. Alternate translation: “does not have a permanent home” or (if you translated in the first person) “do not have a permanent home” (See: Hyperbole)

Luke 9:59

ἀκολούθει μοι

As in 5:27, to follow Jesus means to become one of his disciples. Alternate translation: “I want you to be one of my disciples” (See: Metaphor)

ἐπίτρεψόν μοι ἀπελθόντι, πρῶτον θάψαι τὸν πατέρα μου

It is unclear whether the man’s father had died and that he would bury him immediately, or whether the man wanted to wait for a longer amount of time until his father died so that he could bury him then. The main point is that the man wanted to do something else first before going with Jesus. Alternate translation: “before I do that, let me go and bury my father”

ἐπίτρεψόν μοι ἀπελθόντι, πρῶτον θάψαι τὸν πατέρα μου

One possible meaning of this expression is that the man wanted to wait until he had received his inheritance from his father so that he could live on that money while traveling with Jesus. If so, then he would be referring to the inheritance by association with his father’s death, and he would be referring to his father’s death by association with his burial. Alternate translation: “let me wait until I receive my inheritance” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 9:60

ἄφες τοὺς νεκροὺς θάψαι τοὺς ἑαυτῶν νεκρούς

Jesus does not mean literally that dead people will bury other dead people. Instead, the expression the dead likely refers figuratively to those who do not follow Jesus and so are spiritually dead. Alternate translation: “Let people who are not concerned about spiritual things take care of everyday matters” (See: Metaphor)

τοὺς νεκροὺς

Jesus is using the adjective dead as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are dead” or “people who are not concerned about spiritual things” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “how God will rule” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 9:61

ἀκολουθήσω σοι

As in 5:27, to follow Jesus means to become one of his disciples. Alternate translation: “I want to be one of your disciples” (See: Metaphor)

πρῶτον δὲ ἐπίτρεψόν μοι

Alternate translation: “but before I do that, please let me”

τοῖς εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου

This person is referring figuratively to his family by association with where they live. Alternate translation: “to my family” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 9:62

οὐδεὶς ἐπιβαλὼν τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ ἄροτρον καὶ βλέπων εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω, εὔθετός ἐστιν τῇ Βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ

Jesus responds with an illustration that is designed to teach this person about what is required to be his disciple. He means that a person is not suitable for the kingdom to God if his past loyalties are more important to him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain this illustration. Alternate translation, add: “No one can plow straight if he is looking backwards, and in the same way, no one will be useful in the kingdom of God if his past loyalties are more important to him” (See: Metaphor)

οὐδεὶς ἐπιβαλὼν τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ ἄροτρον

Jesus refers figuratively to a person using a plow by describing one part of that activity, guiding the plow with the hand. Alternate translation: “No one who is using a plow” (See: Synecdoche)

οὐδεὶς ἐπιβαλὼν τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ ἄροτρον

A plow is a tool that farmers use to break up soil to prepare a field for planting. Plows have sharp, pointed prongs that dig into the soil. They usually have handles that the farmer uses to guide the plow. If your readers would not be familiar with this kind of tool, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “No one who needs to go straight forward” (See: Translate Unknowns)

βλέπων εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω

The implication is that anyone who is looking backwards while plowing cannot guide the plow where it needs to go. That person must focus on looking forward in order to plow well. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “looking backwards, and so not going in the right direction” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

εὔθετός ἐστιν τῇ Βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ

See how you decided to translate the phrase the kingdom of God in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “can really let God rule his life” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 10

Luke 10 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus sends seventy-two disciples to teach and heal (10:1-24)
  2. Jesus tells the Parable of the Good Samaritan (10:25-37)
  3. Jesus visits Mary and Martha (10:38-43)

Special concepts in this chapter

Harvest

Harvest refers to the time when people gather in the food they have planted so they can eat some of it right away and store the rest for future use. Jesus uses this as a metaphor to teach his followers that they need to go and tell other people about him so that those people can become part of God’s kingdom. (See: faith)

Neighbor

The Jews helped their Jewish neighbors who needed help, and they expected their Jewish neighbors to help them. Jesus wanted them to understand that people who were not Jews were also their neighbors, so he told them a story about this (10:29-37). (See: Parables)

Important textual issues in this chapter

“72”

In 10:1 and 10:17, some ancient manuscripts of the Bible read “72,” but others read “70.” ULT reads “72,” but it mentions in a footnote that scholars are divided as to which number was originally in the book of Luke.

“Jesus”

In 10:39, many of the best ancient manuscripts read “Jesus,” but some read “the Lord.” ULT reads “Jesus.”

In both of these cases, if a translation of the Bible exists in your region, you may wish to use the reading that it has. If a translation of the Bible does not exist in your region, you may wish to follow the example of ULT. (See: Textual Variants)

Luke 10:1

μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα

Luke uses this phrase to mark a new event in the story. If your language has a similar expression that it uses for this same purpose, you can use that here. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ὁ Κύριος

Here Luke refers to Jesus by the title the Lord to show his authority. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus”

ἑβδομήκοντα δύο

See the discussion of textual issues at the end of the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to say 72 or “70” in your translation. (See: Textual Variants)

ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς ἀνὰ δύο

This phrase is an idiom. Alternate translation: “sent them out two by two” or “sent them out in groups of two” (See: Idiom)

πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ

Here, face figuratively means the front of a person. Alternate translation: “ahead of him” or “to prepare the way for him” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 10:2

ἔλεγεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς

Jesus said these things to the 72 disciples before they actually went out. Alternate translation: “He had said to them” or “Before they went out, he told them” (See: Order of Events)

ὁ μὲν θερισμὸς πολύς, οἱ δὲ ἐργάται ὀλίγοι

This statement means, “There is a big crop, but there are not enough workers to bring it in.” Jesus is speaking figuratively. Alternate translation: “There are many people who are ready to enter God’s kingdom, but there are not enough disciples to help them understand how to do that” (See: Metaphor)

τοῦ Κυρίου τοῦ θερισμοῦ

Jesus continues to speak figuratively and extends his metaphor by describing God as the Lord of the harvest. Alternate translation: “God, who leads people to believe” (See: Biblical Imagery — Extended Metaphors)

ὅπως ἐργάτας ἐκβάλῃ εἰς τὸν θερισμὸν αὐτοῦ

Jesus extends his metaphor even further by describing disciples who help others to trust in him as laborers in the harvest. Alternate translation: “to send more disciples to go and help people trust in me” (See: Biblical Imagery — Extended Metaphors)

Luke 10:3

ὑπάγετε

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say explicitly where Jesus wants these disciples to go. Alternate translation: “Go to the cities and places where I am sending you” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἰδοὺ

Jesus uses the term behold to get his disciples to focus their attention on what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: Metaphor)

ἀποστέλλω ὑμᾶς ὡς ἄρνας ἐν μέσῳ λύκων

Wolves attack and kill sheep. This simile is a warning to the disciples whom Jesus is sending out that there will be people who will want to harm them. You could explain the meaning of this figurative expression in your translation. (However, you could also reproduce the simile, as suggested in the next note.) Alternate translation: “when I send you out, there are going to be some people who will want to harm you” (See: Simile)

ἀποστέλλω ὑμᾶς ὡς ἄρνας ἐν μέσῳ λύκων

Jesus’ disciples would have known that lambs are gentle animals that have been domesticated for their wool, milk, meat, and leather, and that wolves are predatory land animals, similar to large dogs, that hunt and kill in packs. If you would like to reproduce the simile, but your readers would not be familiar with these animals, you could use general terms. Alternate translation: “I am sending you out like harmless animals that will encounter a group of predators” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ὑμᾶς

Since Jesus is speaking to these 72 disciples as a group, you is plural here and through 10:12. (See: Forms of You)

Luke 10:4

μὴ βαστάζετε βαλλάντιον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ ὑποδήματα

Here Jesus is using the word carry in an idiomatic sense to mean “bring along.” He is not envisioning that these disciples might carry their sandals in their hands. Alternate translation: “Do not bring any money or provisions or extra clothes with you” (See: Idiom)

μὴ βαστάζετε βαλλάντιον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ ὑποδήματα

While Jesus probably means what he says literally about not bringing these specific items, he is also using them figuratively with larger meanings. The money bag represents the money it would contain. The sack represents the provisions someone would carry in it for a journey. The sandals represent, in this culture, more clothing and equipment than is strictly needed. Alternate translation: “Do not bring any money or provisions or extra clothes with you” (See: Metonymy)

μὴ βαστάζετε βαλλάντιον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ ὑποδήματα

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say explicitly why Jesus does not want his disciples to bring these things with them. As he will explain in 10:7, he wants the people who receive his message to provide for those who bring the message. Alternate translation: “Do not bring any money or provisions or extra clothes with you, because the people who receive my message will provide for you” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

μηδένα κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ἀσπάσησθε

Jesus is generalizing to indicate that these disciples should go quickly to the places where he is sending them to prepare the way for him. He is not telling them to be rude. Alternate translation: “make your journey as quickly as possible” (See: Hyperbole)

Luke 10:5

λέγετε, εἰρήνη τῷ οἴκῳ τούτῳ

Luke is quoting Jesus, and Jesus is quoting what he wants his disciples to say. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “say that you want there to be peace in that house” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

εἰρήνη τῷ οἴκῳ τούτῳ

The term house refers figuratively to the people who live in the house. Alternate translation: “May the people in this household have peace” (See: Metonymy)

εἰρήνη τῷ οἴκῳ τούτῳ

This was an idiomatic expression, based on the Hebrew concept of “shalom,” that was both a greeting and a blessing. Alternate translation: “I greet all of you in this household and I wish for God to bless you” (See: Idiom)

Luke 10:6

υἱὸς εἰρήνης

The expression son of refers figuratively to a person who shares the qualities of something. Alternate translation: “a person who wants peace with God and with people” (See: Idiom)

ἐπαναπαήσεται ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἡ εἰρήνη ὑμῶν

Here, upon creates a spatial metaphor. It means that this person will experience the peace that God gives in a special and lasting way. Alternate translation: “he will deeply experience the peace that you wish him” (See: Metaphor)

εἰ…μή γε

It may be helpful to restate the entire phrase. Alternate translation: “if there is no one there who wants peace with God and with people” (See: Ellipsis)

ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἀνακάμψει

Jesus describes peace as a living thing that could choose to leave one person and go to another person. Alternate translation: “you will experience that peace yourselves instead” (See: Personification)

Luke 10:7

ἐν αὐτῇ δὲ τῇ οἰκίᾳ μένετε

Jesus was not saying that they should stay in the house all the time and never leave it, but that they should make it their base of operations for as long as they were in that place. Alternate translation: “stay at that house”

τὰ παρ’ αὐτῶν

This phrase is an idiom. Alternate translation: “the food and drink that they provide” (See: Idiom)

ἄξιος γὰρ ὁ ἐργάτης τοῦ μισθοῦ αὐτοῦ

Jesus is quoting or creating a proverb, a short saying about something that is generally true in life, to explain the reason for these arrangements. You could translate the proverb directly into your language, or you could explain its meaning. Alternate translation: “for since you will be teaching and healing the people, they should provide you with a place to stay and food to eat” (See: Proverbs)

μὴ μεταβαίνετε ἐξ οἰκίας εἰς οἰκίαν

This expression describes staying in different houses rather than making one house the base of operations the whole time. Jesus is repeating his earlier instruction, remain in that house, for emphasis. Jesus is not saying that these disciples cannot go to meet with people in other homes. Alternate translation: “As I said, stay at that house”

Luke 10:8

καὶ δέχωνται ὑμᾶς

The pronoun they refers to the people living in this city. Alternate translation: “if the people there welcome you” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

ἐσθίετε τὰ παρατιθέμενα ὑμῖν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “eat whatever food the people of that city serve you” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 10:9

τοὺς…ἀσθενεῖς

Jesus is using the adjective sick as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “the people who are sick” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

ἐν αὐτῇ

Alternate translation: “who live in that city” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

λέγετε αὐτοῖς, ἤγγικεν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “tell them that the kingdom of God has come close to them” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

ἤγγικεν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

The idea behind the abstract noun kingdom can be expressed with a verb such as “rule.” This could mean: (1) The kingdom of God is close in location, that is, its activities are happening nearby. Alternate translation: “God is ruling in this area” (2) The kingdom of God is close in time, that is, it will begin soon. Alternate translation: “God will soon begin to rule as king” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 10:10

καὶ μὴ δέχωνται ὑμᾶς

This is a direct contrast to the similar expression in 10:8. Once again the pronoun they refers to the people living in this city. Alternate translation: “if the people there do not welcome you” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

Luke 10:11

καὶ τὸν κονιορτὸν τὸν κολληθέντα ἡμῖν, ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ὑμῶν εἰς τοὺς πόδας ἀπομασσόμεθα ὑμῖν; πλὴν τοῦτο γινώσκετε, ὅτι ἤγγικεν ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

Luke is quoting Jesus, and Jesus is quoting what he wants his disciples to say. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation (continuing from the end of the previous verse): “that you are going to wipe even the dust from their city off your feet as a warning to them, but that you still want them to know that the kingdom of God came close to them” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

καὶ τὸν κονιορτὸν τὸν κολληθέντα ἡμῖν, ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ὑμῶν εἰς τοὺς πόδας ἀπομασσόμεθα ὑμῖν

This is a symbolic action by which these disciples are to show that they do not want to have the slightest connection with the people of any city who reject Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain its significance. Alternate translation: “Because you have rejected Jesus, we want to have nothing to do with you. We do not even want to have the dust from your town on our feet” (See: Symbolic Action)

ἀπομασσόμεθα

Since Jesus was sending these people out in groups of two, two people would be saying this. So languages that have a dual form of “we” should use that form. (See: Forms of ‘You’ — Dual/Plural)

πλὴν τοῦτο γινώσκετε

The phrase introduces a warning. Alternate translation: “But we must warn you” (See: Idiom)

ἤγγικεν ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

See how you translated the similar sentence in 10:9. (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 10:12

λέγω ὑμῖν, ὅτι

Jesus says this to emphasize that what he is about to tell these disciples is very important. Alternate translation: “Take special note that”

ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ

Jesus is using the term day to refer figuratively to a specific time. Alternate translation: “when God judges everyone for what they have done” (See: Idiom)

ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ

Jesus expected his disciples to understand that he was referring to the time when God will bring final judgment. Alternate translation: “when God judges everyone for what they have done” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Σοδόμοις…ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται, ἢ τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ

Jesus uses the name of the city, Sodom, to refer figuratively to the people who lived there. Alternate translation: “God will judge the people of that town more severely than he will judge the people of Sodom” (See: Metonymy)

Σοδόμοις…ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται, ἢ τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ

Jesus assumes that these disciples will know that God destroyed the city of Sodom because the people in it were so wicked. The implication is that it must therefore be an extremely serious offense to reject the messengers of the kingdom of God. Alternate translation: “God will judge the people of that town more severely than he will judge the people of Sodom, even though he destroyed their city because they were so wicked” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 10:13

οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν! οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά!

Jesus is speaking figuratively to two cities that he knows cannot hear him. He is doing this to show in a very strong way how he feels about those cities. He is actually speaking to the people who can hear him, the disciples whom he is sending out. If your readers might not understand this kind of figurative speech, you could translate Jesus’ words as if he were speaking directly to his disciples. Alternate translation: “Chorazin and Bethsaida are two of the cities whose people God will judge severely for rejecting my message” (See: Apostrophe)

οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν! οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά!

See how you translated this phrase in 6:24. Alternate translation: “how terrible it will be for you, Chorazin and Bethsaida!” (See: Idiom)

οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν! οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά!

Jesus is using the names of these cities to refer figuratively to the people who live there. Alternate translation: “How terrible it will be for you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida!” (See: Metonymy)

οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν! οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά!

Jesus is addressing an individual city in each of these phrases, so you is singular in both cases. However, if you decide to translate this as “you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida,” then you would be plural. (See: Forms of You)

Χοραζείν…Βηθσαϊδά!

These are the names of two cities. (See: How to Translate Names)

ὅτι εἰ ἐν Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις, αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν, πάλαι ἂν…μετενόησαν

Jesus is describing a situation that might have happened in the past but actually did not. He is doing this to express disappointment and regret about what is happening in the present. Be sure to translate this in such a way that your readers will know that this event actually did not happen but they will understand why Jesus is imagining it. Alternate translation: “I can well imagine that if the people of Tyre and Sidon had witnessed the miracles that I performed for you, they would have repented a long time ago” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

ὅτι εἰ ἐν Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις, αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν, πάλαι ἂν…μετενόησαν

Jesus assumes that these disciples will know that God destroyed the cities of Tyre and Sidon because the people in them were so wicked. So the implication is similar to the one about the people of Sodom. Alternate translation: “God destroyed the cities of Tyre and Sidon because they were so wicked. But even the people who lived in those cities would have repented if they had seen the miracles I did in Chorazin and Bethsaida. So the people of Chorazin and Bethsaida certainly should have repented as well” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι

Jesus uses the names of these cities to refer figuratively to the people who lived there. Alternate translation: “the people of Tyre and Sidon” (See: Metonymy)

Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι

Tyre and Sidon are the names of two cities. (See: How to Translate Names)

αἱ δυνάμεις, αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν

Since Jesus is addressing two cities, you would be dual here if your language uses that form. Otherwise, it would be plural. (See: Forms of ‘You’ — Dual/Plural)

ἂν ἐν σάκκῳ καὶ σποδῷ καθήμενοι μετενόησαν

Jesus is saying that the people of Tyre and Sidon would have performed these actions, which are signs of humility and sorrow, to show that they were very sorry for committing their sins. Alternate translation: “they would have shown how sorry they were for their sins … by sitting on the ground wearing rough clothes and putting ashes on their heads” (See: Symbolic Action)

Luke 10:14

Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι, ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται…ἢ ὑμῖν

Jesus uses the names of these cities, Tyre and Sidon, to refer figuratively to the people who lived there. Alternate translation: “God will judge you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida more severely than he will judge the people who lived in Tyre and Sidon” (See: Metonymy)

Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι, ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται…ἢ ὑμῖν

Jesus assumes that these disciples will know that God destroyed the cities of Tyre and Sidon because the people in them were so wicked. The implication, as in the case of Sodom, is that it must therefore be an extremely grave offense to reject the messengers of the kingdom of God. Alternate translation: “God will judge you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida more severely than he will judge the people who lived in Tyre and Sidon, even though he destroyed their cities because they were so wicked” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι, ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται…ἢ ὑμῖν

It may be helpful to state clearly the reason why God will judge Chorazin and Bethsaida. Alternate translation: “because you did not repent and believe in me even though you saw me do miracles, God will judge you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida more severely than he will judge the people who lived in Tyre and Sidon” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐν τῇ κρίσει

The disciples would have understood that Jesus was referring to the time when God will bring final judgment. Alternate translation: “at the time when God judges everyone for what they have done” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὑμῖν

Since Jesus is addressing two cities, you would be dual here if your language uses that form. Otherwise, it would be plural. Alternate translation: “you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida” (See: Forms of ‘You’ — Dual/Plural)

Luke 10:15

σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ?

Jesus is speaking figuratively to another city that he knows cannot hear him. He is doing this once again to show in a very strong way how he feels about this city. He is actually speaking to the people who can hear him, the disciples whom he is sending out. If your readers might not understand this kind of figurative speech, you could translate Jesus’ words as if he were speaking directly to his disciples. Alternate translation: “The people of Capernaum are wrong to think that God is going to honor them greatly” (See: Apostrophe)

σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ?

In Greek, the first word of the question that Jesus asks Capernaum is a negative word that can be used to turn a negative statement into a question that expects a negative answer. ULT shows this by adding, “will you?” Your language may have other ways of asking a question that expects a negative answer, for example, by changing the word order of a positive statement. Translate this in the way that would be clearest in your language. Alternate translation: “you people of Capernaum, do you really think that God is going to honor you greatly?” (See: Double Negatives)

σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ?

Jesus is using the question form to teach. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “you people of Capernaum are wrong to think that God is going to honor you greatly” (See: Rhetorical Question)

σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ?

To be exalted or “lifted up” is a spatial metaphor that figuratively indicates receiving honor. To be lifted all the way up to heaven (or “to the sky,” another possible meaning) figuratively means to receive very great honor. Alternate translation: “you people of Capernaum are wrong to think that God is going to honor you greatly” (See: Metaphor)

σύ, Καφαρναούμ

Jesus uses the name of this city to refer figuratively to the people who live there. Alternate translation: “you people of Capernaum” (See: Metonymy)

σύ, Καφαρναούμ

Jesus is addressing an individual city, so you is singular here and in the rest of this verse. However, if you decide to translate this as “you people of Capernaum,” then you would be plural. (See: Forms of You)

Καφαρναούμ

Capernaum is the name of a city. (See: How to Translate Names)

ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “God is going to honor you greatly” (See: Active or Passive)

ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state the reason why the people of Capernaum think that God would want to honor them. Alternate translation: “God is going to honor you greatly because you are such good people and your city is so prosperous” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τοῦ ᾍδου καταβήσῃ

To be brought down is another spatial metaphor. It figuratively indicates experiencing punishment and dishonor. To be brought down all the way to Hades, the underworld (that is, the abode of the dead), figuratively means to receive very great punishment or dishonor. Alternate translation: “God is going to punish you severely” (See: Metaphor)

τοῦ ᾍδου καταβήσῃ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “God is going to punish you severely” (See: Active or Passive)

τοῦ ᾍδου καταβήσῃ

It may be helpful to state clearly the reason why God will judge Capernaum. Alternate translation: “God is going to punish you severely because you did not repent and believe in me, even though you saw me do miracles” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 10:16

ὁ ἀκούων ὑμῶν, ἐμοῦ ἀκούει

You could translate this metaphor as a simile. Alternate translation: “When someone listens to you, it is as if they were listening to me” (See: Metaphor)

ὁ ἀθετῶν ὑμᾶς, ἐμὲ ἀθετεῖ

You could also translate this metaphor as a simile. Alternate translation: “when someone rejects you, it is as if they were rejecting me” (See: Metaphor)

ὁ…ἐμὲ ἀθετῶν, ἀθετεῖ τὸν ἀποστείλαντά με

You could also translate this metaphor as a simile. Alternate translation: “when someone rejects me, it is as if they were rejecting the one who sent me” (See: Metaphor)

τὸν ἀποστείλαντά με

This refers implictly to God, who appointed Jesus for this special task. Alternate translation: “God who sent me” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 10:17

ὑπέστρεψαν δὲ οἱ ἑβδομήκοντα δύο

Some languages will need to say that the 72 actually went out first, as UST does. Alternate translation: “So the 72 disciples went out and did as Jesus had told them to do, and then they returned” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἑβδομήκοντα δύο

As in 10:1, see the discussion of textual issues at the end of the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to say 72 or “70” in your translation. (See: Textual Variants)

τὰ δαιμόνια ὑποτάσσεται ἡμῖν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the demons obey us” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί σου

The term name refers figuratively to Jesus’ power and authority. Alternate translation: “when we command them using the authority that you gave us” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 10:18

ἐθεώρουν τὸν Σατανᾶν ὡς ἀστραπὴν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πεσόντα

Jesus uses a simile to express that while his 72 disciples were out proclaiming the kingdom of God, he discerned that this was a quick and decisive defeat for Satan. If your readers would be familiar with lightning, you could use the same simile in your translation. Otherwise, you could use another comparison to something that happens rapidly and evidently. (See: Simile)

ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πεσόντα

While Jesus actually did see this in his vision, if it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain the meaning of this image, as UST does. (See: Metaphor)

Σατανᾶν

Satan is the name of the devil. It occurs a few more times in this book. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 10:19

ἰδοὺ

Jesus uses behold to focus his disciples’ attention on what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: Metaphor)

τὴν ἐξουσίαν τοῦ πατεῖν ἐπάνω ὄφεων καὶ σκορπίων

This could mean: (1) Jesus may be referring to actual snakes and scorpions and saying that God will protect his disciples from these dangers everywhere they travel to proclaim the kingdom. Alternate translation: “protection from snakes and scorpions, even if you step on them” (2) The phrase snakes and scorpions may be a figurative way of describing evil spirits. Alternate translation: “the power to defeat evil spirits” (See: Metaphor)

ὄφεων

In context, this clearly means poisonous snakes. If your readers would not be familiar with snakes, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “poisonous biting animals” (See: Translate Unknowns)

σκορπίων

The term scorpions describes small animals that are related to spiders. They have two claws and a poisonous stinger in their tail. If your readers would not be familiar with scorpions, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “poisonous stinging animals” (See: Translate Unknowns)

καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ ἐχθροῦ

This phrase continues the meaning from earlier in the sentence. The enemy is Satan, as described in the previous verse. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “I have also given you authority to overcome the resistance of Satan” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

οὐδὲν ὑμᾶς οὐ μὴ ἀδικήσῃ

Here Jesus uses a double negative for emphasis, “nothing in no way will hurt you.” The second negative does not cancel the first to create a positive meaning, “something in some way might hurt you.” If your language uses double negatives for emphasis that do not cancel one another, it would be appropriate to use that construction here. (See: Double Negatives)

Luke 10:20

ἐν τούτῳ μὴ χαίρετε, ὅτι τὰ πνεύματα ὑμῖν ὑποτάσσεται, χαίρετε δὲ ὅτι τὰ ὀνόματα ὑμῶν ἐνγέγραπται ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

Jesus is not actually telling the disciples not to rejoice over the way God has allowed them to deliver people who were oppressed by demons. Rather, he is exaggerating to emphasize that the disciples should rejoice even more that their names are written in heaven. Alternate translation: “rejoice that your names are written in heaven even more than you rejoice that the spirits submit to you” (See: Hyperbole)

τὰ πνεύματα ὑμῖν ὑποτάσσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the demons must obey you” (See: Active or Passive)

τὰ ὀνόματα ὑμῶν ἐνγέγραπται ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who has done the action. Alternate translation: “God has written down your names in heaven” (See: Active or Passive)

τὰ ὀνόματα ὑμῶν ἐνγέγραπται ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

While it may be literally true that there is a written record of names in heaven, you may wish to express the meaning and significance of this in your translation. Alternate translation: “God in heaven knows that you belong to him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 10:21

ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ

Here Luke uses the term hour figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “At that same time” (See: Idiom)

ἐξομολογοῦμαί σοι, Πάτερ

Use your best judgment about whether the formal or informal form of you would be more natural in your language here. Jesus is speaking as an adult son would to a father with whom he had a close relationship. (See: Forms of ‘You’ — Formal or Informal)

Πάτερ

Father is an important title for God. (See: Translating Son and Father)

Κύριε τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ τῆς γῆς

Jesus is using a figure of speech to describe something by naming its two components. Together heaven and earth represent everything that exists. Alternate translation: “you who rule over everything that exists” (See: Merism)

ταῦτα

Jesus is likely using this expression to refer to his identity as God’s Son and God’s identity as his Father. He describes these things in the next verse and says that only people to whom he reveals these identities can understand them, just as he says here that they are revealed only to certain people. Since the expression is explained in the next verse, you do not need to explain its meaning further here. (See: When to Keep Information Implicit)

σοφῶν καὶ συνετῶν

Jesus is using the adjectives wise and intelligent as nouns in order to indicate people who have those qualities. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “people who are wise and intelligent” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

σοφῶν καὶ συνετῶν

Because God had concealed the truth from these people, they actually were not wise and intelligent, even though they thought they were. Alternate translation: “people who think they are wise and intelligent” (See: Irony)

σοφῶν καὶ συνετῶν

The terms wise and intelligent mean similar things. Jesus uses the two terms together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “people who think they understand everything” (See: Doublet)

νηπίοις

Infants refers figuratively to people who may not have much education, but who are willing to accept Jesus’ teachings in the same way that little children willingly listen to those they trust. You could explain the meaning of this metaphor in your translation, or you could translate it as a simile, as UST does. Alternate translation: “people who trust my teachings implicitly” (See: Metaphor)

ἔμπροσθέν σου

Jesus says before you to mean “where you could see” or “in your sight.” Sight, in turn, figuratively means attention and judgment. Alternate translation: “in your judgment” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 10:22

πάντα μοι παρεδόθη ὑπὸ τοῦ Πατρός μου

You can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “My Father has handed everything over to me” (See: Active or Passive)

οὐδεὶς γινώσκει τίς ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς, εἰ μὴ ὁ Πατήρ

If, in your language, it would appear that Jesus is making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “only the Father knows who the Son is” (See: Connect — Exception Clauses)

γινώσκει τίς ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς

Here, the Greek word translated knows means to know from personal experience. God the Father knows Jesus in this way. Alternate translation: “is acquainted with the Son” or “is acquainted with me”

γινώσκει τίς ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς

Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. Alternate translation: “knows who I am” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ὁ Υἱὸς…ὁ Πατήρ

These are important titles that describe the relationship between God and Jesus. (See: Translating Son and Father)

οὐδεὶς γινώσκει…τίς ἐστιν ὁ Πατὴρ, εἰ μὴ ὁ Υἱὸς

If, in your language, it would appear that Jesus is making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “only the Son knows who the Father is” or “only I know who the Father is” or “only I am acquainted with the Father” (See: Connect — Exception Clauses)

γινώσκει…τίς ἐστιν ὁ Πατὴρ

Here the Greek word translated knows means to know from personal experience. Jesus knows God his Father in this way. Alternate translation: “is acquainted with the Father” or “am acquainted with the Father”

ᾧ ἐὰν βούληται ὁ Υἱὸς ἀποκαλύψαι

Alternate translation: “whoever the Son wants to introduce the Father to” or (if you translated in the first person) “whoever I want to introduce the Father to”

Luke 10:23

καὶ στραφεὶς πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς κατ’ ἰδίαν, εἶπεν

The implication is that a crowd was present when the 72 disciples returned to report to Jesus what they had done, and that this crowd heard what Jesus told them and what he prayed to God. But now Jesus is speaking only to the disciples in a way that the crowd will not be able to hear him. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus said, in the direction of his disciples so that only they could hear him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

μακάριοι οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ οἱ βλέποντες ἃ βλέπετε

Jesus is using the term eyes to describe these disciples by reference to one part of them, the part they are using to witness the great works that reveal who he is. Alternate translation: “How good it is for you to see what you see” (See: Synecdoche)

μακάριοι οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ οἱ βλέποντες ἃ βλέπετε

The phrase what you see probably refers to the great works of healing and miracles that Jesus is doing, which reveal who he is. Alternate translation: “How good it is for you to see the things that I am doing” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 10:24

καὶ οὐκ εἶδαν

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could give the reason why the prophets and kings did not see these things. Alternate translation: “but could not see them because they lived before this time” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἃ ἀκούετε

The phrase what you hear probably refers to the teachings of Jesus. Alternate translation: “the things that you have heard me say” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

καὶ οὐκ ἤκουσαν

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could give the reason why the prophets and kings did not hear these things. Alternate translation: “but could not hear them because they lived before this time” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 10:25

ἰδοὺ

Luke uses the term behold to calls the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: Metaphor)

νομικός τις

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was a lawyer who” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

νομικός

See how you translated this in 7:30. Alternate translation: “an expert in the Jewish law” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἀνέστη

By standing up, this lawyer was indicating that he had a question to ask Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain that this was the reason for his action. Alternate translation: “stood up to show that he wanted to ask a question” (See: Symbolic Action)

ἐκπειράζων αὐτὸν

Alternate translation: “to see how well he would answer”

Διδάσκαλε

Teacher was a respectful title. You can translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use.

τί ποιήσας, ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω?

The lawyer is using the term inherit in a figurative sense to mean “come to possess” or “have.” Alternate translation: “what must I do in order to have everlasting life” (See: Metaphor)

τί ποιήσας, ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω?

This lawyer may be asking about a single deed that would be worthy of eternal life, because he uses a verb form that does not indicate continuing action. Alternate translation: “What one thing do I need to do so that God will give me eternal life?” (See: Verbs)

τί ποιήσας, ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω

The lawyer means implicitly that he would inherit or “come to possess” this everlasting life from God. Alternate translation: “what must I do so that God will give me everlasting life” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 10:26

ἐν τῷ νόμῳ τί γέγραπται? πῶς ἀναγινώσκεις?

Jesus is using these questions to get this man to reflect on the Jewish law and apply it to his own question. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this as a statement that incorporates both of Jesus’ questions. Alternate translation: “Tell me what Moses wrote about that in the law and how you understand it.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἐν τῷ νόμῳ τί γέγραπται? πῶς ἀναγινώσκεις?

These two phrases mean similar things. Jesus may be using repetition for emphasis and clarity. Both phrases have to do with what the law says. The first phrase views this objectively in terms of what is written there, and the second phrase views this subjectively from the perspective of a person reading it. You do not need to put both phrases in your translation if your readers might wonder why Jesus was saying basically the same thing twice. Alternate translation: “Tell me what answer a person would find to your question in the law of Moses.” (See: Parallelism)

ἐν τῷ νόμῳ τί γέγραπται?

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “What did Moses write in the law?” (See: Active or Passive)

πῶς ἀναγινώσκεις?

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “What do you understand it to be saying?” (See: Idiom)

Luke 10:27

ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν

Together answering and said mean that the lawyer responded to the question that Jesus asked him. Alternate translation: “The lawyer responded” (See: Hendiadys)

ἀγαπήσεις

Here it may not be clear whether to use the singular or plural form of you because this is a short quotation from the Scriptures and the context is not given. The word is actually singular because, even though Moses said this to the Israelites as a group, each individual person was supposed to obey this command. So in your translation, use the singular forms of you your, and yourself in this verse, if your language marks that distinction. (See: Singular Pronouns that refer to Groups)

ἀγαπήσεις

The Scriptures are using a statement to give a command. Alternate translation: “You must love” (See: Statements — Other Uses)

ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας σου, καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ σου, καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ἰσχύϊ σου, καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ διανοίᾳ σου

Moses is using a figure of speech that describes something by listing its parts. Alternate translation: “with your entire being” (See: Merism)

ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας σου, καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ σου

The words heart and soul figuratively represent a person’s inner being. If you do not translate all four of the terms here with a single phrase, you can represent these two together. Alternate translation: “with all of your inner self” (See: Metaphor)

καὶ, τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν

The lawyer is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. These words can be supplied from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation (filling in ellipsis): “and you must also love your neighbor as much as you love yourself” (See: Ellipsis)

Luke 10:28

τοῦτο ποίει, καὶ ζήσῃ

Jesus is describing a conditional situation. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express it that way. Alternate translation: “If you do this, then God will give you eternal life” (See: Connect — Hypothetical Conditions)

ζήσῃ

Alternate translation: “God will give you eternal life”

Luke 10:29

ὁ δὲ θέλων δικαιῶσαι ἑαυτὸν, εἶπεν

Alternate translation: “But the lawyer wanted to prove that he had done what he needed to do, so he said”

τίς ἐστίν μου πλησίον?

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate the reason why the lawyer asked this specific question. Alternate translation: “whom should I consider to be my neighbor, that is, someone I need to love as I love myself?” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 10:30

ὑπολαβὼν δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν

Together answering and said mean that Jesus responded to the question that the lawyer asked him. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus responded” (See: Hendiadys)

ὑπολαβὼν δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν

Jesus answers the man’s question by telling a brief story that provides an illustration. Alternate translation: “As an answer to the man’s question, Jesus told him this story” (See: Parables)

ἄνθρωπός τις

This introduces a new character in the parable. Alternate translation: “There was a man who” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

κατέβαινεν ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλὴμ εἰς Ἰερειχὼ

Jesus says going down because this man would have had to travel from a mountain height down into a valley to go from Jerusalem to Jericho. Alternate translation: “was traveling from Jerusalem to Jericho” (See: Idiom)

λῃσταῖς περιέπεσεν

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that this does not mean that the man fell down accidentally. Rather, this is an idiom. Alternate translation: “some robbers attacked him” (See: Idiom)

ἐκδύσαντες αὐτὸν

Alternate translation: “after they had taken everything he had” or “after they had stolen of all his things” (See: Idiom)

καὶ πληγὰς ἐπιθέντες

This expression means that the robbers also beat this man. Alternate translation: “and beaten him” (See: Idiom)

ἡμιθανῆ

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “almost dead.” (See: Idiom)

Luke 10:31

κατὰ συνκυρίαν

This expression means that this event was not anything that anyone had planned. Alternate translation: “it just so happened that”

ἱερεύς τις

This expression introduces a new character in the parable. Alternate translation: “there was a priest who” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἱερεύς τις

Jesus assumes that his listeners will know that a priest is a religious leader. This detail is important to the story. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “there was a priest, a religious leader, who” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτὸν

Since a priest is a religious leader, the audience would assume that he would help the injured man. Since he did not, this phrase could be introduced with a contrasting word to call attention to this unexpected result. Alternate translation: “but when the priest saw the injured man” (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

ἀντιπαρῆλθεν

The implication is that the priest did not help the man. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “he did not help him, but instead walked past him on the other side of the road” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 10:32

καὶ Λευείτης

This expression introduces a new character in the parable. Alternate translation: “there was also a Levite” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

καὶ Λευείτης

Jesus is leaving out some words, but they can be inferred from the rest of the story. Alternate translation: “there was also a Levite traveling on that road who” (See: Ellipsis)

καὶ Λευείτης

Jesus assumes that his listeners will know that a Levite was someone who served in the temple. This detail is important to the story. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “there was also a Levite, someone who served in the temple, who” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὁμοίως…καὶ Λευείτης κατὰ τὸν τόπον, ἐλθὼν καὶ ἰδὼν ἀντιπαρῆλθεν

Since Levites served in the temple, the audience would assume that this Levite would help the injured man. Since he did not, this phrase could be introduced with a contrasting word to call attention to this unexpected result. Alternate translation: “likewise a Levite also came to the place, but when he saw him, he walked past him on the other side of the road” (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

ἀντιπαρῆλθεν

The implication is that the Levite did not help the man. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “he did not help the injured man, but instead walked past him on the other side of the road” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 10:33

Σαμαρείτης δέ τις

This expression introduces a new character in the parable. Alternate translation: “But there was also a Samartian who” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Σαμαρείτης δέ τις

Jesus assumes that his listeners will know that Jews and Samaritans were bitter enemies. This detail is important to the story. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “But there was a Samaritan, whose people were enemies of the Jews, who” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Σαμαρείτης δέ τις

Since Jews and Samaritans were enemies, the listeners would have assumed that this Samaritan would not help an injured Jewish man. Since he did help him, Jesus introduces this character with a contrasting word that calls attention to this unexpected result. You can do the same in your translation. (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

ἐσπλαγχνίσθη

Alternate translation: “he felt sorry for him and wanted to help him”

Luke 10:34

κατέδησεν τὰ τραύματα αὐτοῦ, ἐπιχέων ἔλαιον καὶ οἶνον

The Samaritan would have put the oil and wine on the wounds first, and then bound up the wounds. Alternate translation: “he put oil and wine on the wounds and then wrapped them with cloth” (See: Order of Events)

ἐπιχέων ἔλαιον καὶ οἶνον

The wine was used to clean the wounds, and the oil was used to prevent infection. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “pouring oil and wine on them to help heal them” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὸ ἴδιον κτῆνος

The Greek term translated as animal refers to an animal that carried heavy loads. In this culture, it was probably a donkey. You could say that, but if your readers might not know what a donkey is, you could use a more general expression. Alternate translation: “his own pack animal” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 10:35

δύο δηνάρια

See how you translated the term denarii in 7:41. Alternate translation: “two silver coins” or “an amount equivalent to two days’ wages” (See: Biblical Money)

τῷ πανδοχεῖ

Alternate translation: “the person who was in charge of the inn”

ὅ τι ἂν προσδαπανήσῃς, ἐγὼ ἐν τῷ ἐπανέρχεσθαί με ἀποδώσω σοι

The Samaritan is describing a hypothetical situation and saying what he would do if the condition were true. Alternate translation: “if you need to spend more than this, then I will repay you when I return” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

Luke 10:36

τίς τούτων τῶν τριῶν πλησίον δοκεῖ σοι γεγονέναι, τοῦ ἐμπεσόντος εἰς τοὺς λῃστάς?

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this as two questions. Alternate translation: “What do you think? Which of these three men acted like a neighbor to the man whom the robbers attacked?”

πλησίον…γεγονέναι

Alternate translation: “acted like a neighbor”

τοῦ ἐμπεσόντος εἰς τοὺς λῃστάς

As in 10:30, be sure it is clear in your translation that this does not mean that the man fell down accidentally. Rather, this is an idiom. Alternate translation: “the man whom the robbers attacked” (See: Idiom)

Luke 10:37

πορεύου καὶ σὺ ποίει ὁμοίως

The implication is that the lawyer has given the correct answer. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly, and you could also indicate what do likewise means. Alternate translation: “You are right. In the same way, you should also be a neighbor to people who need your help” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 10:38

ἐν δὲ τῷ πορεύεσθαι αὐτοὺς

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event. Alternate translation: “The next thing that happened on their journey was that” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

αὐτὸς εἰσῆλθεν…ὑπεδέξατο αὐτόν

Luke figuratively says he and him, meaning Jesus, to describe the entire group of Jesus and his disciples. Alternate translation: “they entered … welcomed them” (See: Synecdoche)

γυνὴ δέ τις ὀνόματι Μάρθα

This introduces Martha as a new character. Your language may have its own way of introducing new people. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “There was a woman named Martha who lived there” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Μάρθα

Martha is the name of a woman. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 10:39

καὶ τῇδε ἦν ἀδελφὴ καλουμένη Μαριάμ

This introduces Mary as a new character. Alternate translation: “Now Martha had a sister whose name was Mary” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

καλουμένη Μαριάμ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whose name was Mary” (See: Active or Passive)

Μαριάμ

Mary is the name of a woman. (See: How to Translate Names)

παρακαθεσθεῖσα πρὸς τοὺς πόδας τοῦ Ἰησοῦ

This was the customary and respectful position for a learner at this time. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “she sat respectfully on the floor near Jesus to learn from him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τοῦ Ἰησοῦ

See the discussion of textual issues at the end of the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to use this reading in your translation, or another reading, “the Lord.” The note below discusses a translation issue in that reading, for those who decide to include it. (See: Textual Variants)

τοῦ Ἰησοῦ

If you use the variant reading “the Lord” at this place in your translation, you may wish to indicate that this is referring to Jesus by a respectful title. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus”

ἤκουεν τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ

Luke uses the term word figuratively to describe what Jesus said while he was at Martha’s house. Alternate translation: “and listened to what he said” or “and listened to him teaching” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 10:40

ἡ δὲ Μάρθα περιεσπᾶτο περὶ πολλὴν διακονίαν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “But all Martha could think about was the big meal she was preparing” (See: Active or Passive)

οὐ μέλει σοι, ὅτι ἡ ἀδελφή μου μόνην με κατέλιπεν διακονεῖν?

Martha is complaining that Jesus is allowing Mary to sit listening to him when there is so much work to do. Martha respects the Lord, so she uses a rhetorical question to make her complaint more polite. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate her words as a statement. Alternate translation: “it seems as if you do not care that my sister has left me alone to serve.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 10:41

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῇ ὁ Κύριος

Together answering and said mean that Jesus responded to Martha’s request. Alternate translation: “But the Lord replied to her” (See: Hendiadys)

ὁ Κύριος

Here Luke refers to Jesus by the respectful title the Lord. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus”

Μάρθα, Μάρθα

Jesus repeats Martha’s name for emphasis. Alternate translation: “My dear Martha”

μεριμνᾷς καὶ θορυβάζῃ περὶ πολλά

The terms anxious and troubled mean similar things. Jesus uses the two terms together for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate them with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “you are worrying too much about things” (See: Doublet)

θορυβάζῃ περὶ πολλά

If you do not combine the term for troubled with the word anxious into a single phrase, you could say are … troubled with an active form. Alternate translation: “you are … letting too many things bother you” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 10:42

ἑνός δέ ἐστιν χρεία

Jesus says one thing as an overstatement for emphasis. Other things actually are necessary for life, but this is the most important one. Alternate translation: “but one thing is more important than all the others” (See: Hyperbole)

ἑνός δέ ἐστιν χρεία

The implication is that this most important thing is what Jesus is teaching about God, and that Martha should have been concentrating on that. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “but one thing, what I am teaching about God, is more important than all the others, and you should have been concentrating on that” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Μαριὰμ…τὴν ἀγαθὴν μερίδα ἐξελέξατο

While Jesus spoke just earlier about “one thing” as opposed to “many things,” here he seems to contrast only two things, the good part with another part, perhaps not “the bad part,” but at least the part that is not to be preferred. This likely refers to the two activities that Mary and Martha have chosen to pursue while Jesus is present in their home. Alternate translation: “Mary has chosen the better activity”

ἥτις οὐκ ἀφαιρεθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτῆς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. This could mean one of two things. Alternate translation: (1) “I will not take that opportunity away from her” (2) “God will not let her lose what she has gained from listening to me” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 11

Luke 11 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus teaches about prayer (11:1-13)
  2. Jesus teaches about driving out demons and other subjects (11:14-36)
  3. Jesus criticizes the Pharisees and experts in the law (11:37-54)

ULT sets the lines in 11:2-4 farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because they are a special prayer.

Special concepts in this chapter

The Lord’s Prayer

When Jesus’ followers asked him to teach them how to pray, he taught them this prayer. He did not expect them to use the same words every time they prayed, but he did want them to know what God wanted them to pray about.

Jonah

Jonah was an Old Testament prophet whom God sent to the Gentile city of Nineveh to tell the people there to repent. When he went and preached to them, they did repent. (See: prophet, prophecy, prophesy, seer, prophetess and sin, sinful, sinner, sinning and repent, repentance)

Light and darkness

The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, that is, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. The Bible speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, that is, to understand what they are doing wrong and begin to obey God. (See: righteous, righteousness, unrighteous, unrighteousness, upright, uprightness)

Washing

The Pharisees would wash themselves and the things they ate with. They would even wash things that were not dirty. The law of Moses did not tell them to wash those things, but they would wash them anyway. They did that because they thought that if they obeyed both the rules that God had made and some rules that their ancestors had added, God would think that they were better people. (See: law, law of Moses, law of Yahweh, law of God and clean, wash)

Important textual issues in this chapter

Bread and stone, fish and snake

In 11:11, some ancient manuscripts have a longer reading, which also is found in Matthew 7:9. It says, “Which father among you, if your son asks for a loaf of bread, will give him a stone? Or a fish, will give him a snake?” ULT uses the shorter reading, which mentions just the fish and snake. This shorter reading is well attested to in many other ancient manuscripts. If a translation of the Bible exists in your region, you may wish to follow its reading. If a translation of the Bible does not exist in your region, you may wish to follow the example of ULT. (See: Textual Variants)

Luke 11:1

καὶ ἐγένετο

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

Ἰωάννης

This disciple is referring to John the Baptist. You could say that explicitly in your translation. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:2

Πάτερ

Jesus is commanding the disciples to honor the name of God the Father by addressing him as Father when praying to him. This is an important title for God. (See: Translating Son and Father)

ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου

Jesus is not saying that God’s name is not already holy in itself. Rather, he is referring to how people consider God’s name. Alternate translation: “may people treat your name as holy” or “may people regard your name as holy” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “may people treat your name as holy” or “may people regard your name as holy” (See: Active or Passive)

ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου

The term name is a figurative way of referring to an entire person by reference to something associated with them. Alternate translation: “may all people honor you” (See: Metonymy)

ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου

See how you decided to translate the phrase the kingdom of God in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” As the General Introduction to Luke explains, in one sense, the kingdom of God is already present on earth, while in another sense, it is still a future reality. Try to translate this in a way that acknowledges both aspects. Alternate translation: “Come and rule more and more throughout the earth” (See: Abstract Nouns)

σου

Here, your is singular because Jesus is teaching his disciples how to pray to God. If your language has a formal form of “you” that it uses to address a superior respectfully, you may wish to use that form for your in its two instances here and for you in 11:4. Alternatively, it might be more appropriate in your culture to address God using a familiar form, such as friends would use with one another. Use your best judgment about what form to use. (See: Forms of ‘You’ — Formal or Informal)

Luke 11:3

δίδου ἡμῖν

This is an imperative, but it should be translated as a polite request rather than as a command. It may be helpful to add an expression such as “please” to make this clear. Alternate translation: “Please give us” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

δίδου ἡμῖν

Jesus teaches his disciples to speak to God in the plural because he wants them to pray together in community about the matters he describes. Since the word us would refer to the people praying, but not to God, it would be exclusive, if your language marks that form. (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον

Jesus refers figuratively to bread, one common food, to mean food in general. Alternate translation: “the food we need that day” (See: Synecdoche)

Luke 11:4

ἄφες ἡμῖν…μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς

These are imperatives, but they should be translated as polite requests rather than as commands. It may be helpful to add an expression such as “please” in each case to make this clear. Alternate translation: “Please forgive us … please do not lead us” (See: Imperatives — Other Uses)

παντὶ ὀφείλοντι ἡμῖν

Jesus uses the image of being in debt figuratively to describe having sinned against a person. Alternate translation: “everyone who has sinned against us” (See: Metaphor)

μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν

You could state this in a positive form. Alternate translation: “please lead us away from temptation”

Luke 11:5

τίς ἐξ ὑμῶν ἕξει φίλον, καὶ πορεύσεται πρὸς αὐτὸν μεσονυκτίου

Jesus is using a hypothetical situation to teach his disciples. Alternate translation: “Suppose one of you went to the house of a friend in the middle of the night” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

καὶ εἴπῃ αὐτῷ, φίλε, χρῆσόν μοι τρεῖς ἄρτους

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “and asked his friend to let him borrow three loaves of bread” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

χρῆσόν μοι τρεῖς ἄρτους

Alternate translation: “let me borrow three loaves of bread” or “give me three loaves of bread, and I will pay you back later”

Luke 11:6

ἐπειδὴ φίλος μου παρεγένετο ἐξ ὁδοῦ πρός με, καὶ οὐκ ἔχω ὃ παραθήσω αὐτῷ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation (continuing the sentence from the previous verse): “explaining that another friend has just arrived on a journey and that he does not have enough food to feed him” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

ἐπειδὴ

The speaker uses this word to introduce the reason why he is making this request at this time. If you translate this as a direct quotation, it may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Let me tell you why I am asking” (See: Connect — Reason-and-Result Relationship)

παρεγένετο ἐξ ὁδοῦ πρός με

The speaker uses the term road figuratively to describe being on a journey. Alternate translation: “another friend of mine is on a journey and has just arrived at my house” (See: Metonymy)

ὃ παραθήσω αὐτῷ

It is unlikely that the speaker has no food at all in his house that he could serve his friend. Rather, this is an exaggeration for emphasis. Alternate translation: “enough food to feed him” (See: Hyperbole)

ὃ παραθήσω αὐτῷ

There are two other possibilities for why the speaker says this: (1) The issue could be, as UST implies, that while his family has the ingredients to make a meal, they do not want to make a weary traveler wait the time it would take for them to bake bread and prepare other food. Alternate translation: “any food prepared to feed him” (2) The implication may be that the speaker wants to extend hospitality by sharing a meal with his guest, and so he needs enough food for a family meal. Alternate translation: “enough food to share a meal with him” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:7

ἀποκριθεὶς εἴπῃ

The word answering indicates that what this friend may say would be a response. Alternate translation: “he may reply” (See: Hendiadys)

εἴπῃ, μή μοι κόπους πάρεχε; ἤδη ἡ θύρα κέκλεισται, καὶ τὰ παιδία μου μετ’ ἐμοῦ εἰς τὴν κοίτην εἰσίν; οὐ δύναμαι ἀναστὰς δοῦναί σοι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “he may tell you not to bother him, because he has already locked the door for the night and his children are in bed with him, so he cannot get up and give you anything” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

ἤδη ἡ θύρα κέκλεισται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who has done the action. Alternate translation: “We have already closed and locked the door” (See: Active or Passive)

οὐ δύναμαι ἀναστὰς

The friend inside is not literally incapable of getting up. Rather, this is an exaggeration for emphasis. Alternate translation: “It would be very difficult for me to get up” (See: Hyperbole)

Luke 11:8

λέγω ὑμῖν

Even though Jesus began this hypothetical situation by asking “which of you,” that is, “which one of you,” here he is addressing all of the disciples together, not the hypothetical single disciple who might go to a friend’s house at midnight. So here, the word you is plural. (See: Forms of You)

διά γε τὴν ἀναίδειαν αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun persistence with a verb such as “continue.” Alternate translation: “because you continue to ask him urgently” (See: Abstract Nouns)

ἐγερθεὶς

Alternate translation: “getting out of bed”

Luke 11:9

ὑμῖν λέγω…ὑμῖν…εὑρήσετε…ὑμῖν

In the first instance in this verse, you is plural because Jesus is speaking to the disciples. In the next three instances, even though Jesus is describing what could be an individual situation of a person praying to God, you is also plural because Jesus is still speaking to the disciples as a group. (See: Forms of You)

αἰτεῖτε…ζητεῖτε

It might be customary in your language to say what a person would be asking for and seeking, and from whom. Alternate translation: “keep asking God for what you need … keep seeking what you need from God” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

δοθήσεται ὑμῖν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God will give it to you” or “you will receive it” (See: Active or Passive)

κρούετε

To knock at a door means to hit it a few times to let a person inside the house know you are standing outside. You could translate this expression with the way people in your culture show that they have arrived at a house, such as “call out” or “cough” or “clap.” (See: Translate Unknowns)

κρούετε

Jesus is using the expression knock figuratively to mean getting someone’s attention. Alternate translation: “seek God’s attention in prayer” or “let God know you are depending on him” (See: Metaphor)

ἀνοιγήσεται ὑμῖν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God will open the door for you” or “God will welcome you inside” (See: Active or Passive)

ἀνοιγήσεται ὑμῖν

This phrase continues the metaphor of prayer as knocking on a door. Alternate translation: “God will give you what you need” or “God will enable you to do what you are praying about” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 11:10

τῷ κρούοντι

See how you translated the word “knock” in 11:9. Alternate translation: “to the one who calls out” or “to the one who coughs” or “to the one who claps” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἀνοιγήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God will open the door” or “God will welcome you inside” (See: Active or Passive)

ἀνοιγήσεται

This phrase continues the metaphor of prayer as knocking on a door. Alternate translation: “God will give you what you need” or “God will enable you to do what you are praying about” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 11:11

τίνα δὲ ἐξ ὑμῶν τὸν πατέρα αἰτήσει ὁ υἱὸς ἰχθύν, καὶ ἀντὶ ἰχθύος, ὄφιν αὐτῷ ἐπιδώσει?

See the discussion of textual issues at the end of the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to use this reading or a longer one that is found in some ancient manuscripts. (See: Textual Variants)

τίνα δὲ ἐξ ὑμῶν τὸν πατέρα αἰτήσει ὁ υἱὸς ἰχθύν, καὶ ἀντὶ ἰχθύος, ὄφιν αὐτῷ ἐπιδώσει

Alternate translation: “Which of you fathers, if his son asked for a fish, would give him a snake instead of a fish”

τίνα δὲ ἐξ ὑμῶν τὸν πατέρα αἰτήσει ὁ υἱὸς ἰχθύν, καὶ ἀντὶ ἰχθύος, ὄφιν αὐτῷ ἐπιδώσει?

Jesus is using the question form to teach his disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “None of you fathers would give your son a snake if he asked for a fish!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τίνα δὲ ἐξ ὑμῶν τὸν πατέρα αἰτήσει ὁ υἱὸς ἰχθύν, καὶ ἀντὶ ἰχθύος, ὄφιν αὐτῷ ἐπιδώσει?

Jesus is also using a hypothetical situation to teach, and you could translate his words that way. Alternate translation: “Suppose one of you had a son who asked for a fish to eat. None of you fathers would give him a snake instead.” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

ὄφιν

In this culture, people did not eat snakes. So Jesus is saying that a father would not give a son something the son could not eat if the son asked for something that he could eat. If people do eat snakes in your culture, you could use the name of something that they do not eat, or you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “something he cannot eat” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:12

ἢ καὶ αἰτήσει ᾠόν, ἐπιδώσει αὐτῷ σκορπίον

Jesus is speaking in an abbreviated way. Alternate translation: “Or if a son asked for an egg, would his father give him a scorpion” (See: Ellipsis)

ἢ καὶ αἰτήσει ᾠόν, ἐπιδώσει αὐτῷ σκορπίον?

Jesus is using the question form to teach his disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “And no father would give his son a scorpion if he asked for an egg!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἢ καὶ αἰτήσει ᾠόν, ἐπιδώσει αὐτῷ σκορπίον?

Jesus is also using a hypothetical situation to teach. You could translate his words that way. Alternate translation: “Or suppose a son asked for an egg to eat. His father would not give him a scorpion instead.” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

σκορπίον

A scorpion is a small animal related to the spider. It has two claws and a poisonous stinger in its tail. If your readers would not be familiar with scorpions, you could use a more general term. Alternate translation: “a poisonous stinging animal” (See: Translate Unknowns)

σκορπίον

In this culture, people did not eat scorpions. So Jesus is saying that a father would not give a son something the son could not eat if the son asked for something that he could eat. If people do eat scorpions in your culture, you could use the name of something that they do not eat, or you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “something he cannot eat” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:13

εἰ…ὑμεῖς πονηροὶ ὑπάρχοντες, οἴδατε

Jesus is speaking as if this were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might misunderstand and think that what Jesus is saying is not certain, then you can translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “since you who are evil know” (See: Connect — Factual Conditions)

πόσῳ μᾶλλον ὁ Πατὴρ ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, δώσει Πνεῦμα Ἅγιον τοῖς αἰτοῦσιν αὐτόν?

Jesus is using the question form to teach his disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “your Heavenly Father will even more certainly give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 11:14

καὶ

Luke uses this word to begin relating a new event by introducing background information that will help readers understand what happens. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Connect — Background Information)

ἦν ἐκβάλλων δαιμόνιον κωφόν

The demon itself was not unable to speak. Rather, it was preventing the man whom it was controlling from speaking. Alternate translation: “Jesus was driving out a demon that was causing a man to be unable to speak” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐγένετο δὲ

Luke uses this phrase to mark where the action begins that this episode centers around. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for this purpose. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

τοῦ δαιμονίου ἐξελθόντος

Luke is relating this episode briefly, and he does not say from whom the demon had gone out. Your language may require you to say that. Alternate translation: “when the demon had gone out of the man” or “once the demon had left the man” (See: Ellipsis)

ἐλάλησεν ὁ κωφός

Alternate translation: “the man who had been unable to speak then spoke”

Luke 11:15

ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ

These people are using the name of this chief demon figuratively to refer by association to his power, which they are accusing Jesus of using. Alternate translation: “By the power of Beelzebul” (See: Metonymy)

Βεελζεβοὺλ

Beelzebul is the name of the supposed ruler of the demons. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 11:16

ἕτεροι δὲ πειράζοντες

The pronoun him refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Other people challenged Jesus” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

σημεῖον ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἐζήτουν παρ’ αὐτοῦ

Luke uses the term heaven to refer to God figuratively by association, since heaven is the abode of God. Alternate translation: “demanding that he ask God to do a miracle” (See: Metonymy)

σημεῖον ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἐζήτουν παρ’ αὐτοῦ

The implication is that the people who were challenging Jesus wanted him to ask God for a miracle to prove that his authority came from God. Alternate translation: “by demanding that he ask God to do a miracle to show that God had given him his authority” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:17

πᾶσα βασιλεία ἐφ’ ἑαυτὴν διαμερισθεῖσα ἐρημοῦται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could use active verbs to express the ideas behind the two passive verb forms divided and is made desolate. Alternate translation: “If the people of a kingdom fight among themselves, they will destroy their own kingdom” (See: Active or Passive)

βασιλεία

Jesus uses the term kingdom to refer figuratively to the people who live in it. Alternate translation: “the people of a kingdom” (See: Metonymy)

οἶκος ἐπὶ οἶκον πίπτει

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. The sense of divided can be supplied from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “any house that is divided against itself will collapse” (See: Ellipsis)

οἶκος ἐπὶ οἶκον πίπτει

The term house refers figuratively to the people of a family who live in the same house. Alternate translation: “if family members fight against each other, they will ruin their family” (See: Metonymy)

πίπτει

This image of a house collapsing figuratively depicts the destruction of a family when the members fight against each other. Alternate translation: “they will ruin their family” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 11:18

εἰ δὲ καὶ ὁ Σατανᾶς ἐφ’ ἑαυτὸν διεμερίσθη, πῶς σταθήσεται ἡ βασιλεία αὐτοῦ?

Jesus is using the question form as a teaching tool. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “But if Satan is divided against himself, then his kingdom cannot last.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

εἰ δὲ καὶ ὁ Σατανᾶς ἐφ’ ἑαυτὸν διεμερίσθη, πῶς σταθήσεται ἡ βασιλεία αὐτοῦ?

Jesus is also using a conditional statement to teach. Specifically, he is suggesting a condition that is not true in order to show by the results of the condition that it is certainly not true. Alternate translation: “Suppose Satan and all the other members of his kingdom are fighting among themselves. In that case, his kingdom cannot last.” (See: Connect — Contrary to Fact Conditions)

εἰ…ὁ Σατανᾶς ἐφ’ ἑαυτὸν διεμερίσθη

Here Jesus uses the person of Satan to refer figuratively to all of the demons who follow Satan, as well as to Satan himself. Alternate translation: “if Satan and all of his demons are … fighting among themselves” (See: Synecdoche)

εἰ…ὁ Σατανᾶς ἐφ’ ἑαυτὸν διεμερίσθη

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “if Satan and all of his demons are … fighting among themselves” (See: Active or Passive)

πῶς σταθήσεται ἡ βασιλεία αὐτοῦ?

Jesus asks figuratively how a kingdom could stand as if it were a building or a person. Alternate translation: “how can his kingdom last?” or “then his kingdom cannot last.” (See: Metaphor)

ὅτι λέγετε, ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλειν με τὰ δαιμόνια

The implication is that if Jesus is doing this, then Satan’s kingdom is divided against itself. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. It may also be helpful to say who people considered Beelzebul to be. Alternate translation: “You are saying that I make demons leave people by using the power of Beelzebul, the ruler of the demons. That would mean that Satan is divided against himself” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Βεελζεβοὺλ

See how you translated the name Beelzebul in 11:15. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 11:19

εἰ δὲ ἐγὼ ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια, οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν ἐν τίνι ἐκβάλλουσιν?

Jesus is using the question form as a teaching tool. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “If I am making demons leave people by using the power of Beelzebul, then your followers must be using that same power.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

εἰ δὲ ἐγὼ ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια, οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν ἐν τίνι ἐκβάλλουσιν?

Jesus is also using a conditional statement to teach. Specifically, he is suggesting a condition that is not true in order to show by the results of the condition that it is certainly not true. Alternate translation: “Suppose I am making demons leave people by using the power of Beelzebul. In that case, your followers must be using that same power themselves.” (See: Connect — Contrary to Fact Conditions)

εἰ δὲ ἐγὼ ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια, οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν ἐν τίνι ἐκβάλλουσιν?

The implication is that the people challenging Jesus would not say that their own followers were using the power of Beelzebul, and so they should agree that he is not using that power himself. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “If I am making demons leave people by using the power of Beelzebul, then your followers must be using that same power. But you do not believe that is true about them. So it must not be true about me, either” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Βεελζεβοὺλ

See how you translated the name Beelzebul in 11:15. (See: How to Translate Names)

οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν

Here, Jesus uses the word sons figuratively to mean “followers.” Alternate translation: “your followers” (See: Metaphor)

αὐτοὶ ὑμῶν κριταὶ ἔσονται

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express the implications of this statement more explicitly. Alternate translation: “your own followers will say that you are wrong for claiming that I make demons leave people by using the power of Beelzebul, because they know that they are not using that power themselves” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:20

εἰ…ἐν δακτύλῳ Θεοῦ, ἐγὼ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια, ἄρα ἔφθασεν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

Jesus speaks as if this were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might misunderstand and think that what Jesus is saying is not certain, then you can translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “So I must be making demons leave people by the power of God. This shows that the kingdom of God has come to you” (See: Connect — Factual Conditions)

ἐν δακτύλῳ Θεοῦ

This phrase refers figuratively to God’s power. Alternate translation: “by the power of God” (See: Metonymy)

ἔφθασεν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” This could mean: (1) The kingdom of God has arrived in this place, that is, its activities are happening here. Alternate translation: “God is ruling in this area” (2) The kingdom of God has arrived in time, that is, it already beginning. Alternate translation: “God is beginning to rule as king” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 11:21

ὅταν ὁ ἰσχυρὸς καθωπλισμένος

To help the people in the crowd understand what he has been teaching, Jesus tells a brief story that provides an illustration. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus told the crowd this story to help them understand. ‘When a strong man who has all his weapons’” (See: Parables)

ὁ ἰσχυρὸς καθωπλισμένος

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “a strong man who has all his weapons” (See: Active or Passive)

φυλάσσῃ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ αὐλήν

Jesus speaks of one part of a house, its courtyard or entrance area, to refer figuratively to the entire house. Alternate translation: “is guarding his own house” (See: Synecdoche)

ἐν εἰρήνῃ ἐστὶν τὰ ὑπάρχοντα αὐτοῦ

This expression means that no one will disturb the man’s possessions, that is, they are safe from being stolen. Alternate translation: “no one can steal his possessions” (See: Idiom)

Luke 11:22

ἰσχυρότερος αὐτοῦ

Jesus is using the adjective stronger as a noun in order to indicate a type of person. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “someone who is stronger than he is” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

τὰ σκῦλα αὐτοῦ διαδίδωσιν

Jesus speaks figuratively of the first man’s possessions as if they were the spoils of war. He also says figuratively that the stronger man will divide these possessions, as if he were a soldier who needed to share them with other soldiers. Alternate translation: “take away his possessions” (See: Metaphor)

τὰ σκῦλα αὐτοῦ διαδίδωσιν

The implication of this parable is that Jesus must be stronger than Satan, because he has been overpowering him and rescuing the people whom Satan formerly controlled. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “take away his possessions. So I must be stronger than Satan and overpowering Satan, because I am taking away from him the people he formerly controlled” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:23

ὁ μὴ ὢν μετ’ ἐμοῦ, κατ’ ἐμοῦ ἐστιν; καὶ ὁ μὴ συνάγων μετ’ ἐμοῦ, σκορπίζει

Jesus is not referring to a specific individual. Rather, he is making a general statement that applies to any person or group of people. Alternate translation: “Anyone who is not with me is against me, and anyone who does not gather with me scatters” or “Those who are not with me are against me, and those who do not gather with me scatter”

ὁ μὴ ὢν μετ’ ἐμοῦ

Alternate translation: “Anyone who is not working with me”

κατ’ ἐμοῦ ἐστιν

Alternate translation: “is working against me”

ὁ μὴ συνάγων μετ’ ἐμοῦ, σκορπίζει

Jesus is referring implicitly to the work of gathering disciples to follow him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “anyone who is not working to help people come and follow me is keeping them away from me” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:24

ὅταν τὸ ἀκάθαρτον πνεῦμα ἐξέλθῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, διέρχεται δι’ ἀνύδρων τόπων ζητοῦν ἀνάπαυσιν

Jesus is using a hypothetical situation to teach. Alternate translation: “Suppose a demon goes out of a person. And suppose it then wanders through the desert looking for another place to live” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

τὸ ἀκάθαρτον πνεῦμα

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “a demon” (See: Idiom)

τοῦ ἀνθρώπου

Here Jesus is using the term man in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “a person” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

ἀνύδρων τόπων

Jesus is describing the desert figuratively by reference to the lack of water there. Alternate translation: “the desert” (See: Metonymy)

ζητοῦν ἀνάπαυσιν

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “looking for another place to live” (See: Idiom)

καὶ μὴ εὑρίσκον, λέγει, ὑποστρέψω εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου, ὅθεν ἐξῆλθον

Jesus continues to use a hypothetical situation to teach. If you show that directly in your translation, it may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “And suppose the demon does not find another place to live. Then it would say, ‘I will return to my house from which I came’” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

λέγει, ὑποστρέψω εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου, ὅθεν ἐξῆλθον

Luke is quoting Jesus, and Jesus is quoting the unclean spirit. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “it says that it will return to the house from which it came” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

τὸν οἶκόν μου, ὅθεν ἐξῆλθον

The demon is referring figuratively to the person it formerly controlled as its house. Alternate translation: “the person I used to control” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 11:25

εὑρίσκει σεσαρωμένον καὶ κεκοσμημένον

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “it finds that someone has swept the house and put it in order” (See: Active or Passive)

εὑρίσκει σεσαρωμένον καὶ κεκοσμημένον

Jesus speaks about the person whom the demon left by continuing the metaphor of a house. You could express this metaphor as a simile if that would be helpful to your readers. Alternate translation: “the demon finds that the person it left is like a house that someone has swept clean and organized by putting everything where it belongs” (See: Biblical Imagery — Extended Metaphors)

εὑρίσκει σεσαρωμένον καὶ κεκοσμημένον

The implication is that the house is still empty. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the demon finds that the person it left is like a house that someone has swept clean and organized by putting everything where it belongs, but which is still empty” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:26

γίνεται τὰ ἔσχατα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκείνου, χείρονα τῶν πρώτων

Here the adjectives last and first function as nouns. They are plural, and ULT supplies the noun things in each case to show that. If your language does not use adjectives in this way, you could supply a more specific singular noun. Alternate translation: “the final condition of that person is worse than his original condition” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκείνου

Here Jesus is using the term man in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “that person” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

Luke 11:27

ἐγένετο δὲ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐπάρασά…φωνὴν…εἶπεν

The idiom lifting up her voice means that the woman spoke loudly. Alternate translation: “said in a loud voice” (See: Idiom)

ἐπάρασά…φωνὴν…εἶπεν

Lifting up her voice tells how the woman said what she did. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these two terms. Alternate translation: “shouted out” (See: Hendiadys)

μακαρία ἡ κοιλία ἡ βαστάσασά σε, καὶ μαστοὶ οὓς ἐθήλασας

The woman who is shouting out to Jesus is using some of a woman’s body to refer to the whole woman. Alternate translation: “How good it is for the woman who gave birth to you and nursed you” or “How happy the woman must be who gave birth to you and nursed you” (See: Synecdoche)

μακαρία ἡ κοιλία ἡ βαστάσασά σε, καὶ μαστοὶ οὓς ἐθήλασας

While this woman is speaking about the mother of Jesus, she is actually pronouncing a blessing on him. Alternate translation: “I bless you, because this world is a better place because your mother brought you into it”

Luke 11:28

μενοῦν, μακάριοι

Jesus is not saying that his mother is not blessed. He is saying that the people he is about to describe are even more blessed. Alternate translation: “It is even better for”

οἱ ἀκούοντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ φυλάσσοντες

Alternate translation: “those who listen carefully to the message God has spoken and obey it”

τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

Jesus uses the term word figuratively to describe the message that has come from God in the form of words. Alternate translation: “the message God has spoken” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 11:29

τῶν δὲ ὄχλων ἐπαθροιζομένων

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say what these crowds were. Alternate translation: “as the crowds around Jesus were growing larger” or “as more people kept joining the crowds around Jesus” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη γενεὰ πονηρά ἐστιν; σημεῖον ζητεῖ

Jesus uses the term generation figuratively to mean the people who were born in the current generation. Alternate translation: “The people living at this time are evil people. They seek” (See: Metonymy)

σημεῖον ζητεῖ

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate the purpose of the sign that the people were seeking. Alternate translation: “They want me to perform a miracle to prove that I have come from God” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

σημεῖον οὐ δοθήσεται αὐτῇ, εἰ μὴ τὸ σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ

If, in your language, it would appear that Jesus was making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “God will only give it the sign of Jonah” (See: Connect — Exception Clauses)

σημεῖον οὐ δοθήσεται αὐτῇ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “God will not give it a sign” (See: Active or Passive)

τὸ σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ

Alternate translation: “a miracle like the one that God did for Jonah”

Luke 11:30

καθὼς…ἐγένετο Ἰωνᾶς τοῖς Νινευείταις σημεῖον, οὕτως ἔσται καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say explicitly in what way Jesus will be a sign to this generation the way Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites. Alternate translation: “God did a miracle to show the people who lived long ago in the city of Nineveh that Jonah was his prophet. He brought Jonah out alive after he had been inside the great fish for three days. In the same way, God will do a miracle to show the people living at this time that I have come from him. He will bring me out alive after I have been in the grave for three days” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τοῖς Νινευείταις

Ninevites describes the people who lived in the ancient city of Nineveh. (See: How to Translate Names)

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Son of Man” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

See how you translated this title in 5:24. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ

Jesus uses the term generation figuratively to mean the people who were born in the current generation. Alternate translation: “to the people living at this time” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 11:31

βασίλισσα νότου

This means the Queen of Sheba. Sheba was a kingdom south of Israel. Alternate translation: “The Queen of Sheba” (See: How to Translate Names)

ἐγερθήσεται…μετὰ τῶν ἀνδρῶν τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης

In this culture, a person would stand up to give testimony in a legal proceeding. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain that this will be the reason for her action. Alternate translation: “will stand up … to give testimony before God against the people who lived at this time” (See: Symbolic Action)

ἐν τῇ κρίσει

Alternate translation: “at the time when God judges people”

τῶν ἀνδρῶν τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης

Here Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “the people who lived at this time” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

ἦλθεν ἐκ τῶν περάτων τῆς γῆς

This is an idiom that means she came from very far away. Alternate translation: “she traveled a great distance” or “she came from a faraway place” (See: Idiom)

τὴν σοφίαν Σολομῶνος

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun wisdom with an adjective such as “wise.” Alternate translation: “the wise things that Solomon said” (See: Abstract Nouns)

ἰδοὺ

Jesus uses the term behold to get the crowd to focus its attention on what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “now listen carefully” (See: Metaphor)

πλεῖον Σολομῶνος ὧδε

Jesus is using the adjective greater as a noun in order to indicate a kind of person. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate the word with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “someone who is greater than Solomon is here” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

πλεῖον Σολομῶνος ὧδε

Jesus is speaking about himself in the third person. Alternate translation: “I, who am greater than Solomon, am here” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

πλεῖον Σολομῶνος ὧδε

It may be helpful to state explicitly that these people have not listened to Jesus. Alternate translation: “even though I, who am greater than Solomon, am here, the people of this time have not listened to me” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:32

ἄνδρες Νινευεῖται

It may be helpful to state explicitly that Nineveh refers to the ancient city of Nineveh. Alternate translation: “The people who lived in the ancient city of Nineveh” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἄνδρες

Here, men is generic and includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “The people” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

ἀναστήσονται…μετὰ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης

Here, rise up means to stand up. In this culture, people would stand up to give testimony in a legal proceeding. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain that this will be the reason for their action. Alternate translation: “will stand up … to give testimony before God against the people who lived at this time” (See: Symbolic Action)

ἐν τῇ κρίσει

Alternate translation: “at the time when God judges people”

τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης

Alternate translation: “the people who lived at this time”

ἰδοὺ

Jesus uses the term behold to get the crowd to focus its attention on what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “indeed” (See: Metaphor)

πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ ὧδε

Jesus is using the adjective greater as a noun in order to indicate a kind of person. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate the word with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “someone who is greater than Jonah is here” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ ὧδε

Jesus is speaking about himself in the third person. Alternate translation: “I, who am greater than Jonah, am here” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ ὧδε

It may be helpful to state explicitly that these people have not repented after hearing the message of Jesus. Alternate translation: “even though I, who am greater than Jonah, am here, you still have not repented after hearing my message” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:33

οὐδεὶς λύχνον ἅψας

To help the people in the crowd understand what he has been teaching, Jesus offers a brief illustration. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus gave the crowd this illustration to help them understand. ‘No one who lights a lamp’” (See: Parables)

κρύπτην

This expression means a place in a house that would not ordinarily be seen. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could use the name of any part of a dwelling in your culture that would not ordinarily be seen. Alternate translation: “a closet” (See: Translate Unknowns)

τὸν μόδιον

The term the measure refers to a container for dry material that had a capacity of about eight liters or about two gallons. You can represent the term in your translation with the name of a corresponding container in your culture. Alternate translation: “a basket” or “a bowl” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could supply the understood subject and verb in this clause. It may also be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Instead, a person places a lighted lamp on a lampstand” (See: Ellipsis)

Luke 11:34

ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου

The eye is a lamp in a figurative sense. It is not a source of light, but a channel of light. Alternate translation: “Your eye lets light into your body” (See: Metaphor)

σου

Even though Jesus is speaking to the crowd, he is addressing an individual situation, so your and you are singular in 11:34-36. But if the singular form of these pronouns would not be natural in your language for someone who was speaking to a group of people, you could use the plural forms in your translation. (See: Singular Pronouns that refer to Groups)

ὅταν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς ᾖ, καὶ ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτεινόν ἐστιν

Jesus is drawing an extended comparison between physical vision and spiritual receptivity. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain the comparison. Alternate translation: “When your eye is healthy, it lets light into your whole body. In the same way, if you are willing to obey God, you will understand and live by his message for every part of your life” (See: Biblical Imagery — Extended Metaphors)

ἐπὰν δὲ πονηρὸς ᾖ, καὶ τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινόν

Jesus continues to draw an extended comparison between physical vision and spiritual receptivity. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain the comparison. Alternate translation: “But when your eye is unhealthy, it does not let light into any of your body. In the same way, if you are not willing to obey God, you will not understand and live by his message for any part of your life” (See: Biblical Imagery — Extended Metaphors)

ἐπὰν δὲ πονηρὸς ᾖ

In this context, Jesus is using the term evil to contrast with healthy, so it means “unhealthy.” Alternate translation: “But when your eye is unhealthy”

Luke 11:35

σκόπει…μὴ τὸ φῶς τὸ ἐν σοὶ σκότος ἐστίν

Jesus continues to draw an extended comparison between physical vision and spiritual receptivity. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain the comparison. Alternate translation: “It would be dangerous for you to think that you could see clearly if you actually could not. In the same way, be careful not to think that you understand and live by God’s message if you really do not” (See: Biblical Imagery — Extended Metaphors)

Luke 11:36

ἔσται φωτεινὸν ὅλον, ὡς ὅταν ὁ λύχνος τῇ ἀστραπῇ φωτίζῃ σε

Jesus now uses a simile to connect the illustration of the lamp with the extended metaphor of the eye. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain the meaning of the simile. Alternate translation: “light will come into your whole body. In the same way, if you are willing to obey God, you will be able to understand his message and live by it completely, just as a lamp shines a bright light that allows you to see yourself and everything around you clearly” (See: Simile)

Luke 11:37

ἐν δὲ τῷ λαλῆσαι

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Alternate translation: “and when Jesus had finished saying these things” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐρωτᾷ αὐτὸν Φαρισαῖος

To call attention to a development in the story, Luke uses the present tense in past narration. See how you decided to approach this usage in 7:40. If it would not be natural to use the present tense in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “a Pharisee asked him”

Φαρισαῖος

This introduces a new character into the story. Alternate translation: “a Pharisee who was there” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἀνέπεσεν

It was the custom in this culture at a relaxed meal such as this one for host and guests to eat while lying down comfortably around the table. You could translate this by using the expression in your language for the customary posture at a meal. Alternate translation: “sat down at the table” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 11:38

οὐ πρῶτον ἐβαπτίσθη

The Pharisees had a rule that people had to wash their hands before eating in order to be ceremonially clean before God. Alternate translation: “wash his hands in order to be ceremonially clean” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:39

ὁ Κύριος

Here Luke refers to Jesus by the respectful title the Lord. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus”

ὑμεῖς οἱ Φαρισαῖοι τὸ ἔξωθεν τοῦ ποτηρίου καὶ τοῦ πίνακος καθαρίζετε, τὸ δὲ ἔσωθεν ὑμῶν γέμει ἁρπαγῆς καὶ πονηρίας

It becomes clear from the second part of this sentence that Jesus is using the cup and the bowl figuratively in the first part to represent the Pharisees. Alternate translation: “You Pharisees are careful to maintain good appearances on the outside, but your true character is that you are greedy and wicked people” (See: Metaphor)

ὑμεῖς…τὸ ἔξωθεν τοῦ ποτηρίου καὶ τοῦ πίνακος καθαρίζετε

Washing of the outside of containers was a part of the ritual practices of the Pharisees. Alternate translation: “as part of your rituals, you … always clean the things that you are going to eat and drink from” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὸ δὲ ἔσωθεν ὑμῶν γέμει ἁρπαγῆς καὶ πονηρίας

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the ideas behind the abstract nouns greed and evil with adjectives, as UST does. Alternate translation: “but your true character is that you are greedy and wicked people” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 11:40

ἄφρονες

Jesus is using an adjective as a noun. ULT adds the term ones to show this. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate the term with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “You foolish people” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

οὐχ ὁ ποιήσας τὸ ἔξωθεν, καὶ τὸ ἔσωθεν ἐποίησεν?

Jesus is using the question form to challenge and correct the Pharisees. If it would be clearer for your readers, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “The one who made the outside also made the inside!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 11:41

τὰ ἐνόντα δότε ἐλεημοσύνην

Jesus assumes that the Pharisees will know that he is now referring literally to the cups and bowls because he wants to speak about what they contain. So in this saying, they no longer represent the Pharisees figuratively. Alternate translation: “give to the poor what is in your cups and bowls” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὰ ἐνόντα δότε ἐλεημοσύνην

Jesus is referring to food by association with the cups and bowls that the food is inside. Alternate translation: “share your food with the poor” (See: Metonymy)

ἰδοὺ

Jesus uses the term behold to get the Pharisees to focus their attention on what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “indeed” (See: Metaphor)

πάντα καθαρὰ ὑμῖν ἐστιν

The implication is that if the Pharisees devote themselves to what is most important, helping people in need, then they will recognize that ceremonial cleansing is less important and less worthy of their attention. Alternate translation: “you will not have to be so concerned about ritually washing cups and bowls” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:42

ἀποδεκατοῦτε τὸ ἡδύοσμον, καὶ τὸ πήγανον, καὶ πᾶν λάχανον

The implication is that the Pharisees are counting the leaves on their garden herbs and giving a tenth of those to God, and that by doing that, they are going to almost absurd extremes in pursuing that devotional practice. Alternate translation: “you are so extreme that you give every tenth leaf from your mint and rue and other garden plants to God” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὸ ἡδύοσμον, καὶ τὸ πήγανον

These are the names of herbs. People put just a little bit of their leaves into their food to give it flavor. If your readers would not know what mint and rue are, you could use the name of herbs that they would know. (See: Translate Unknowns)

πᾶν λάχανον

This does not mean every herb that exists, but every herb that the Pharisees were growing in their gardens. Alternate translation: “every other herb in your gardens” (See: Hyperbole)

τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ Θεοῦ

Alternate translation: “to make sure that people are treated fairly and compassionately, as God would want”

ταῦτα…κἀκεῖνα

By these things, Jesus means the justice and the love of God. By those things, he means devotional practices such as tithing. Your language may have its own way of expressing distinctions like this. Alternate translation: “the latter, and … the former”

κἀκεῖνα μὴ παρεῖναι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this double negative, which consists of a negative particle and a negative verb, as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “while making sure to express your devotion to God as well” (See: Double Negatives)

Luke 11:43

τὴν πρωτοκαθεδρίαν

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “the best seats” (See: Idiom)

τοὺς ἀσπασμοὺς

The implication is that people would greet the Pharisees in public by addressing them with honorary titles. Alternate translation: “for people to greet you with special titles” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:44

ἐστὲ ὡς τὰ μνημεῖα τὰ ἄδηλα, καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ περιπατοῦντες ἐπάνω οὐκ οἴδασιν

Jesus is saying that the Pharisees are like unmarked graves because they appear to be ceremonially clean, and so people do not realize that they should avoid them and their teaching. Alternate translation: “you are like burial places that people should not go near, but people do not realize that because the places are unmarked” (See: Simile)

ἐστὲ ὡς τὰ μνημεῖα τὰ ἄδηλα

The implication is that these graves are unseen, that is, people do not know that they are there, because they do not have markers such as the stones or plaques that are customarily used to identify graves and to memorialize the people who are buried in them. Alternate translation: “you are like unmarked graves” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

μνημεῖα

The term graves refers to holes dug in the ground where dead bodies are buried. If your readers would not be familiar with graves, you can use a general term. Alternate translation: “burial places” (See: Translate Unknowns)

καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ περιπατοῦντες ἐπάνω

Here Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “that people walk over” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

οὐκ οἴδασιν

The implication is that if the Jews walked over a grave, they would become ceremonially unclean because they had come close to a dead body. Unmarked graves would cause them to do that accidentally. Alternate translation: “do not realize that and so become ceremonially unclean” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

οὐκ οἴδασιν

Jesus is using the implied ceremonial uncleanness figuratively to represent not doing what pleases God. He has just said in 11:42 that this is really a matter of showing love and justice to others. Alternate translation: “without realizing it and so, because they follow your teaching, they do not do the things that God wants them to do most” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 11:45

ἀποκριθεὶς δέ τις τῶν νομικῶν λέγει αὐτῷ

To call attention to a development in the story, Luke uses the present tense in past narration. See how you decided to approach this usage in 7:40. If it would not be natural to use the present tense in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “Then one of the experts in the Jewish law who was there said to him”

ἀποκριθεὶς…λέγει

Together the two verbs answering and says mean that this lawyer was responding to what Jesus had said about the Pharisees. Alternate translation: “responded” (See: Hendiadys)

τις τῶν νομικῶν

This phrase introduces a new character into the story. Alternate translation: “one of the experts in the Jewish law who was there” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

τις τῶν νομικῶν

See how you translated this in 7:30. Alternate translation: “one of the experts in the Jewish law who was there” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Διδάσκαλε

Teacher is a respectful title. You could translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use.

ταῦτα λέγων, καὶ ἡμᾶς ὑβρίζεις

Alternate translation: “those are not very nice things to say, and they apply to us too”

Luke 11:46

καὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς νομικοῖς οὐαί

The implication is that Jesus did intend to condemn the actions of the experts in the law along with the actions of the Pharisees. Alternate translation: “God is just as displeased with you experts in the law” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τοῖς νομικοῖς

See how you translated this in 11:45. Alternate translation: “experts in the Jewish law” (See: Translate Unknowns)

φορτίζετε τοὺς ἀνθρώπους φορτία δυσβάστακτα

Jesus is figuratively describing the many rules that these experts give people as burdens that are too heavy to carry. Alternate translation: “you give people more rules than they can possibly follow” (See: Metaphor)

τοὺς ἀνθρώπους

Here Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “people” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

αὐτοὶ ἑνὶ τῶν δακτύλων ὑμῶν οὐ προσψαύετε τοῖς φορτίοις

Jesus uses the least possible thing someone could do to help someone else carry a burden, lifting part of it with a single finger, to emphasize how little these experts are actually doing to help people follow the law of Moses. Alternate translation: “you are not doing anything at all to help people truly obey the law” (See: Hyperbole)

Luke 11:47

πατέρες

Jesus is using the term fathers in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “ancestors” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

Luke 11:48

μαρτυρεῖτε καὶ συνευδοκεῖτε τοῖς ἔργοις τῶν πατέρων ὑμῶν

The implication is that the Pharisees and experts in the law are not really honoring the prophets whom their ancestors killed when they build elaborate tombs for them. Rather, their ancestors began the job by actually killing them, and now they are finishing the job by burying them. Alternate translation: “you show that you approve of and agree with what your ancestors did when you bury the prophets to finish the job of killing them” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τῶν πατέρων ὑμῶν

Jesus is using the term fathers in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “your ancestors” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

ὑμεῖς…οἰκοδομεῖτε

The implication is that the Pharisees and law experts are building tombs for the prophets, as 11:47 says explicitly. Alternate translation: “you are building tombs for them” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 11:49

διὰ τοῦτο

The expression Because of this refers to the way that the current generation was effectively continuing the actions of its ancestors, who had killed the prophets. Alternate translation: “Because you are just as hostile to the prophets as your ancestors were”

ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶπεν

Jesus speaks figuratively of God’s wisdom as if it were able to speak by itself. Alternate translation: “God in his wisdom said” or “God wisely said” (See: Personification)

ἀποστελῶ εἰς αὐτοὺς προφήτας καὶ ἀποστόλους, καὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν ἀποκτενοῦσιν καὶ διώξουσιν

Jesus is saying that God was not so foolish or naïve as to think that the Israelites would welcome the message of the prophets and apostles. God in his wisdom knew that they would oppose his messengers. But he sent them anyway, because their message was necessary and important. Alternate translation: “I am going to send prophets and apostles to them with my message, even though I know they will persecute and kill some of them” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀποκτενοῦσιν καὶ διώξουσιν

Here, Jesus may be expressing a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word persecute may be telling why and how the people would kill the prophets. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the meaning with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “persecute even to the point of killing” (See: Hendiadys)

Luke 11:50

ἵνα ἐκζητηθῇ τὸ αἷμα πάντων τῶν προφητῶν, τὸ ἐκχυννόμενον ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, ἀπὸ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης

The implication seems to be that God will also send prophets to the people living at this time because the people’s violent persecution of the prophets will constitute a conscious, deliberate rejection of God’s message that will provide grounds for definitive judgment. That is because the people of this time should know better than to persecute the prophets, based on the prominent bad example of their own ancestors. Alternate translation: “so that the people living at this time, who should have known better, can be held accountable for the blood that people have shed of all the prophets since the beginning of the world” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἵνα ἐκζητηθῇ…ἀπὸ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “so that God can hold the people living at this time accountable for” (See: Active or Passive)

τὸ αἷμα…τὸ ἐκχυννόμενον

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who has done the action. Alternate translation: “the blood … that people have shed” (See: Active or Passive)

τὸ αἷμα…τὸ ἐκχυννόμενον

Jesus uses the term the blood … that has been shed to refer to the deaths of the prophets figuratively by association with their blood. Alternate translation: “the deaths” (See: Metonymy)

ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου

Alternate translation: “since the beginning of the world” or “since God made the world”

τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης

Jesus uses the term generation figuratively to mean the people who were born in the current generation. Alternate translation: “the people living at this time” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 11:51

αἵματος Ἂβελ…αἵματος Ζαχαρίου

Jesus uses the terms the blood of Abel … the blood of Zechariah to refer to the deaths of these men figuratively by association with the shedding of their blood. Alternate translation: “the death of Abel … the death of Zechariah” (See: Metonymy)

Ἂβελ

Abel is the name of a man. He was the son of Adam, the first man, and God commended him for doing what was right. His brother Cain murdered him. (See: How to Translate Names)

Ζαχαρίου

Zechariah is the name of a man. It is not the same man as father of John the Baptist, whose story Luke tells at the beginning of this book. Rather, Jesus means the priest whom King Joash ordered the officials of Judah to stone to death in the temple courtyard after he rebuked the people of Judah for worshipping idols. See 2 Chronicles 24:21. (See: How to Translate Names)

τοῦ οἴκου

Jesus figuratively calls the temple the house, meaning the “house of God,” since God’s presence was in the temple. Alternate translation: “the temple” (See: Metaphor)

ἐκζητηθήσεται ἀπὸ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God will hold the people living at this time accountable for all these deaths” (See: Active or Passive)

τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης

Jesus uses the term generation figuratively to mean the people who were born in the current generation. Alternate translation: “the people living at this time” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 11:52

τοῖς νομικοῖς

See how you translated this in 11:45. Alternate translation: “experts in the Jewish law” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἤρατε τὴν κλεῖδα τῆς γνώσεως

Jesus speaks figuratively about the knowledge of God’s truth as if it were in a building whose door was locked, and about proper teaching as if it were a key that could unlock that door. Alternate translation: “you prevent people from knowing God’s truth” (See: Metaphor)

τὴν κλεῖδα

A key is a small metal device that opens a lock that is used to keep things like a door, a box, or a drawer closed. If your readers would not know what a key is, you could use the name of a comparable device in your culture. (See: Translate Unknowns)

αὐτοὶ οὐκ εἰσήλθατε, καὶ τοὺς εἰσερχομένους ἐκωλύσατε

Jesus continues the metaphor by saying figuratively that these experts in the law have not gone into the building where they could learn God’s truth, and they have not given others the key that would allow them to unlock the door and go inside to learn. Alternate translation: “you do not know God’s truth yourselves, and you are preventing others from knowing it as well” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 11:53

κἀκεῖθεν ἐξελθόντος αὐτοῦ

In this verse and the next verse, Luke comments on what happened as a result of the episode he has just related. Alternate translation: “After Jesus left the Pharisee’s house” (See: End of Story)

Luke 11:54

ἐνεδρεύοντες αὐτὸν θηρεῦσαί τι ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ

Luke speaks figuratively of the scribes and Pharisees trying to find grounds to accuse Jesus as if they were hunters hiding behind cover in order to catch an animal. Luke then speaks figuratively of what Jesus was saying as if it were the animal that these hunters were trying to catch. Alternate translation: “listening carefully to Jesus to see if they could use something he said to accuse him of teaching the wrong things” (See: Metaphor)

τι ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ

Luke figuratively describes what Jesus was saying by association with his mouth, by which he spoke these things. Alternate translation: “something he said” (See: Metonymy)

Luke 12

Luke 12 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus teaches about trusting and honoring God (12:1-12)
  2. Jesus tells a parable about a man who trusted in money (12:13-21)
  3. Jesus teaches not to trust in money (12:22-34)
  4. Jesus teaches about being ready for his return (12:35-59)

Special concepts in this chapter

“Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit”

Jesus says in 12:10 that anyone who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven. This is a descriptive statement, not a prescriptive one. Jesus is not saying that if people happen to speak certain words, then God will refuse to forgive them, no matter how sorry they are afterwards. Rather, it is the Holy Spirit who brings conviction of sin and of the need to repent. “Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit” means attributing the influence of the Holy Spirit to evil powers, as the Pharisees did when they said in 11:15 that Jesus drove out demons by the power of Beelzebul, the ruler of demons. By definition, then, if a person thinks that the influence of the Holy Spirit is an evil influence, they will not respond to it, and so they will not experience conviction of sin, repent, and be forgiven. That is why people who “blaspheme against the Holy Spirit” will not be forgiven. (See: blasphemy, blaspheme, blasphemous and Holy Spirit, Spirit of God, Spirit of the Lord, Spirit)

Servants

God expects his people to remember that everything in the world belongs to God. God gives his people things so they can serve him. He wants them to please him by doing what he wants them to do with everything he has given them. One day Jesus will ask his servants what they have done with everything he gave them to use. He will give a reward to those who have done what he wanted them to do, and he will punish those who have not. Jesus teaches about this in 12:34-40.

Division

Jesus knew that those who did not choose to follow him would hate those who did choose to follow him. He also knew that most people love their families more than they love anyone else. So he wanted his followers to understand that following and pleasing him had to be more important to them than having their family love them. Jesus teaches about this in 12:49-53.

Luke 12:1

ἐν οἷς

Luke uses these words to mark the beginning of a new event. This phrase seems to refer back to 11:54. Alternate translation: “While the scribes and Pharisees were still looking for a way to trap him” (See: Introduction of a New Event)

ἐπισυναχθεισῶν τῶν μυριάδων τοῦ ὄχλου, ὥστε καταπατεῖν ἀλλήλους

Luke provides this background information to give the setting for the events he is about to describe. Alternate translation: “while tens of thousands of the common people were gathering” (See: Connect — Background Information)

μυριάδων

The word myriads is the plural of the Greek word “myriad,” which means ten thousand (10,000). You can express this number in the way that would be most natural in your language. Alternate translation: “tens of thousands” (See: Translate Unknowns)

τοῦ ὄχλου

In this context, the word crowd refers to ordinary people. Alternate translation: “of the common people”

ἐπισυναχθεισῶν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “were coming together” or “were crowding around” (See: Active or Passive)

ὥστε καταπατεῖν ἀλλήλους

This could be an exaggeration to emphasize how tightly packed together the crowd as. Alternate translation: “so that they were all tightly packed together” (See: Hyperbole)

ἤρξατο λέγειν πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ πρῶτον

This could mean: (1) Jesus addressed his disciples before speaking to the crowd. Alternate translation: “Jesus first started speaking to his disciples, and said to them” (2) This was the first thing Jesus said to his disciples when he began to speak to them. Alternate translation: “Jesus started speaking to his disciples, and the first thing he said was”

προσέχετε ἑαυτοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης, τῶν Φαρισαίων, ἥτις ἐστὶν ὑπόκρισις

Jesus is describing the influence of the Pharisees figuratively by comparing its spread throughout the community to the way yeast spreads through a whole batch of dough or batter. You could represent this metaphor as a simile in your translation. Alternate translation: “Be careful that you do not become hypocrites like the Pharisees, whose behavior is influencing everyone around them, just as yeast spreads through a whole batch of dough” (See: Metaphor)

ζύμης

Yeast is a substance that causes fermentation and expansion within a batch of dough or batter. If your readers would not be familiar with yeast, you could use the name of a substance that they would be familiar with, or you could use a general term. Alternate translation: “leaven” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 12:2

δὲ

But connects the statement it introduces to the previous statement about the hypocrisy of the Pharisees. In your translation, you can use the term that would show this connection in the way that is most natural in your language. (See: Connecting Words and Phrases)

οὐδὲν…συνκεκαλυμμένον ἐστὶν, ὃ οὐκ ἀποκαλυφθήσεται, καὶ κρυπτὸν ὃ οὐ γνωσθήσεται

These two phrases mean similar things. Jesus uses them together to emphasize the truth of what he is saying. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine them, especially if including both phrases might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “people will learn about everything that others try to hide” (See: Parallelism)

οὐδὲν…συνκεκαλυμμένον ἐστὶν, ὃ οὐκ ἀποκαλυφθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this double negative as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “everything that is now concealed will be revealed” (See: Double Negatives)

οὐδὲν…συνκεκαλυμμένον ἐστὶν, ὃ οὐκ ἀποκαλυφθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could use active verbal forms in place of the two passive forms here, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God will reveal everything that people are now concealing” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ κρυπτὸν ὃ οὐ γνωσθήσεται

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. These words can be supplied from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “and nothing is hidden that will not be known” (See: Ellipsis)

καὶ κρυπτὸν ὃ οὐ γνωσθήσεται

Supplying nothing from earlier in the sentence shows that this is a double negative. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate it as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “and everything that is now hidden will be known” (See: Double Negatives)

καὶ κρυπτὸν ὃ οὐ γνωσθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could use active verbal forms in place of the two passive forms here, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “and God will let everyone know about everything that people are now hiding” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 12:3

ὅσα ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ εἴπατε

Jesus uses the image of darkness to represent the idea of concealment. Alternate translation: “whatever you have said secretly” (See: Metaphor)

ἐν τῷ φωτὶ ἀκουσθήσεται

Jesus uses the image of light to represent the idea of no concealment. Alternate translation: “people will hear openly” (See: Metaphor)

ἐν τῷ φωτὶ ἀκουσθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “people will hear openly” (See: Active or Passive)

πρὸς τὸ οὖς ἐλαλήσατε

Alternate translation: “whispered to another person” (See: Idiom)

ἐν τοῖς ταμείοις

Jesus uses the image of this location to represent the idea of privacy. Alternate translation: “privately” (See: Metaphor)

κηρυχθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “people will proclaim” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐπὶ τῶν δωμάτων

Houses in Israel had flat roofs that were reached by stairs or ladders, so people could easily go up and stand on top of them. If houses are different in your culture and you think your readers might wonder how people would get up onto housetops and stand there, you could translate this with a general expression. Alternate translation: “from a high place from which everyone will be able to hear” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 12:4

λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν, τοῖς φίλοις μου

Jesus readdresses his disciples to mark a shift in his speech to a new topic, about not being afraid. Alternate translation: “Let me tell you, friends”

τὸ σῶμα

Jesus speaks figuratively about a person by association with the body, which is mortal. Alternate translation: “a person” (See: Metonymy)

μὴ ἐχόντων περισσότερόν τι ποιῆσαι

Alternate translation: “cannot cause any more harm”

Luke 12:5

φοβήθητε τὸν…ἔχοντα ἐξουσίαν

The expression the one refers to God. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Fear God, who … has authority” or “Fear God, because he … has authority” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

μετὰ τὸ ἀποκτεῖναι

Jesus is not suggesting that God actively kills each person. Alternate translation: “after a person dies”

Γέενναν

Gehenna is the Greek name for a place, the Valley of Hinnom just outside Jerusalem. (See: How to Translate Names)

Γέενναν

Jesus figuratively uses the name of this place, where refuse was thrown and fires burned continually, to mean hell. (See: Metaphor)

Luke 12:6

οὐχὶ πέντε στρουθία πωλοῦνται ἀσσαρίων δύο

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who does the action. Alternate translation: “Do people not sell five sparrows for only two small copper coins” (See: Active or Passive)

οὐχὶ πέντε στρουθία πωλοῦνται ἀσσαρίων δύο?

Jesus is using this question to teach the disciples. He is not asking them to verify the market price for sparrows. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “You know that five sparrows are sold for only two small copper coins.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

στρουθία

Sparrows are small, seed-eating birds. If your readers would not know what sparrows are, you could use a general expression instead. Alternate translation: “small birds” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἀσσαρίων δύο

The word assaria is the plural of “assarion.” An assarion was a small copper coin equivalent to about half an hour’s wage. You could try to express this amount in terms of current monetary values, but that might cause your Bible translation to become outdated and inaccurate, since those values can change over time. So instead you might say something more general or give the equivalent in wages. Alternate translation: “two small copper coins” or “half an hour’s wages” (See: Biblical Money)

ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔστιν ἐπιλελησμένον ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God never forgets a single one of them” (See: Active or Passive)

ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔστιν ἐπιλελησμένον ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this double negative, which consists of a negative particle and a negative verb, as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “God is always aware of every one of them” (See: Double Negatives)

ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔστιν ἐπιλελησμένον ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

The expression before God means “in front of God,” that is, “where God can see.” Sight, in turn, figuratively represents attention. Alternate translation: “God is always aware of every one of them” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 12:7

καὶ αἱ τρίχες τῆς κεφαλῆς ὑμῶν πᾶσαι ἠρίθμηνται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who has done the action. Alternate translation: “God has even counted all the hairs on your head” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ αἱ τρίχες τῆς κεφαλῆς ὑμῶν πᾶσαι ἠρίθμηνται

Jesus is figuratively using one small part of a person, the hairs on the head, to indicate the entire person. Alternate translation: “God is aware of everything about you, right down to the smallest detail” (See: Synecdoche)

τῆς κεφαλῆς ὑμῶν

Although head is singular because Jesus is describing an individual situation, your is plural because he is speaking to his disciples as a group. (See: Forms of You)

ἠρίθμηνται

This word can also mean “counted.” Jesus is not necessarily saying that God has assigned a number to each individual hair on a person’s head. Alternate translation: “counted”

μὴ φοβεῖσθε, πολλῶν στρουθίων διαφέρετε

The implication is that if God is aware of and concerned for sparrows, which are of less value, then God is certainly aware of and concerned for people, who are of greater value. And so followers of Jesus do not need to be afraid, since God is watching over them. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “You are more valuable than many sparrows, so God is certainly even more aware of you and concerned for you, and so you do not need to be afraid” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 12:8

λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν

Jesus readdresses his disciples to mark a shift in his speech to a new topic, confession. Alternate translation: “Let me tell you”

πᾶς ὃς ἂν ὁμολογήσῃ ἐν ἐμοὶ ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say explicitly what someone would confess or acknowledge. Alternate translation: “whoever tells other people that he believes in me” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων

Here, before means “in front of” or “in the presence of” other people. Alternate translation: “in the presence of other people” or “so other people can hear” (See: Metaphor)

τῶν ἀνθρώπων

Here Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “other people” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου ὁμολογήσει, ἐν αὐτῷ

Here Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Son of Man, will also say that he belongs to me” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

See how you translated this title in 5:24. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀγγέλων

Here, before means “in front of” or “in the presence of.” Alternate translation: “in the presence of the angels” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 12:9

ὁ δὲ ἀρνησάμενός με ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀνθρώπων

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say explicitly what someone who denies might say. Alternate translation: “whoever denies to others that he is my disciple” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀνθρώπων

Here, before means “in front of” or “in the presence of.” Alternate translation: “in the presence of other people” or “so other people can hear” (See: Metaphor)

τῶν ἀνθρώπων

Here, Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “other people” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

ἀπαρνηθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will would do the action. Alternate translation: “the Son of Man will deny that he belongs to him” or (if you translated with the first person) “I will deny that he belongs to me” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀγγέλων

Here, before means “in front of” or “in the presence of.” Alternate translation: “in the presence of the angels” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 12:10

καὶ πᾶς ὃς ἐρεῖ λόγον εἰς τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

Jesus uses word figuratively to describe something someone might say by using words. Alternate translation: “And everyone who says something bad about the Son of Man” (See: Metonymy)

τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

Here Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “me, the Son of Man” (See: First, Second or Third Person)

τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

See how you translated this title in 5:24. Alternate translation: “me, the Messiah” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀφεθήσεται αὐτῷ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God will forgive” (See: Active or Passive)

οὐκ ἀφεθήσεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God will not extend forgiveness” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 12:11

ὅταν…εἰσφέρωσιν ὑμᾶς

The implication is that the opponents of Jesus would do this to his disciples. Alternate translation: “when my opponents bring you” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐπὶ τὰς συναγωγὰς

Jesus is referring figuratively to local Jewish tribunals by reference to the place where they met, in synagogues. Alternate translation: “to be tried by local Jewish tribunals” (See: Metonymy)

τὰς ἀρχὰς, καὶ τὰς ἐξουσίας

These two terms mean similar things. Jesus may be using them together for emphasis. He is referring to officials of the Roman Empire. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could combine the terms into a single phrase. Alternate translation: “the officials whom the Romans have appointed” (See: Doublet)

Luke 12:12

τὸ…Ἅγιον Πνεῦμα διδάξει ὑμᾶς…ἃ δεῖ εἰπεῖν

Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit will tell you … what to say” or “the Holy Spirit will give you … the words to say”

ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ

Jesus is using the term hour figuratively to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “at that time” or “in that moment” (See: Idiom)

Luke 12:13

εἶπεν δέ τις ἐκ τοῦ ὄχλου αὐτῷ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. Alternate translation: “Then a man who was there in the crowd said to Jesus” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

Διδάσκαλε

Teacher is a respectful title. You can translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use.

μερίσασθαι μετ’ ἐμοῦ τὴν κληρονομίαν

In this culture, inheritances came from the father, usually after the father had died. You may need to make explicit that the speaker’s father had probably died. Alternate translation: “to divide the family property with me now that our father is dead” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 12:14

ἄνθρωπε

Here Jesus is using the impersonal term man to put some social distance between himself and the questioner, by contrast with the way he called his disciples “friends” in 12:4. He is effectively rebuking the man for asking such a question. Your language might have a way of addressing people in a similar situation. Alternate translation: “Mister”

τίς με κατέστησεν κριτὴν ἢ μεριστὴν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς?

Jesus is using the question form to rebuke the man. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “No one appointed me to be a judge or mediator over you.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

κριτὴν ἢ μεριστὴν

These two terms mean similar things. Jesus may be using them together for emphasis as he rebukes this man. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate them with a single word that would carry the meaning of both terms. Alternate translation: “an arbitrator” (See: Doublet)

κριτὴν ἢ μεριστὴν

Jesus could also be using these two words to express a single idea. The term mediator may explain for what purpose a person was appointed as a judge, specifically, to settle disputes. Alternate translation: “a judge who settles disputes” (See: Hendiadys)

ὑμᾶς

The term you refers to the man and his brother. It would be in the dual form if your language uses that form. Otherwise, it would be plural. (See: Forms of ‘You’ — Dual/Plural)

Luke 12:15

εἶπεν…πρὸς αὐτούς

The implication is that Jesus said what follows to the whole crowd, which included the man who asked about the inheritance. Alternate translation: “Jesus said to the crowd” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὁρᾶτε

Jesus figuratively uses a word for seeing to indicate a need for caution. Alternate translation: “Watch out” or “Be careful” (See: Metaphor)

πάσης πλεονεξίας

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun covetousness with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “the urge to have more things” (See: Abstract Nouns)

τῷ περισσεύειν τινὶ…ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐτῷ

Alternate translation: “the number of things he has”

Luke 12:16

εἶπεν δὲ παραβολὴν πρὸς αὐτοὺς

Jesus now gives a brief illustration to teach something that is true in a way that is easy to understand and remember. Alternate translation: “Then he told them this story to help them understand this teaching” (See: Parables)

αὐτοὺς

The pronoun them refers to the whole crowd, to which Jesus is continuing to speak. Alternate translation: “the whole crowd” (See: Pronouns — When to Use Them)

εὐφόρησεν

Alternate translation: “produced a very good harvest”

Luke 12:17

διελογίζετο ἐν ἑαυτῷ λέγων, τί ποιήσω, ὅτι οὐκ ἔχω ποῦ συνάξω τοὺς καρπούς μου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “he asked himself what he should do, since he did not have anywhere to store his crops” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

ποῦ

This is a generalization for emphasis. As the man says in the next verse, he already does have some barns. He means that those barns do not have the capacity to store this new large harvest. Alternate translation: “anywhere large enough” or “enough room in my barns” (See: Hyperbole)

Luke 12:18

εἶπεν, τοῦτο ποιήσω: καθελῶ μου τὰς ἀποθήκας καὶ μείζονας οἰκοδομήσω, καὶ συνάξω ἐκεῖ πάντα τὸν σῖτον καὶ τὰ ἀγαθά μου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “he finally decided that he should tear down the barns he had and build bigger barns so that he could store all of his grain and other possessions in them” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

τὰς ἀποθήκας

The term barns describes buildings in which farmers store crops they have harvested. If your readers would not be familiar with barns, you could use a general term. Alternate translation: “storage buildings” (See: Translate Unknowns)

τὰ ἀγαθά μου

Alternate translation: “my other possessions”

Luke 12:19

ἐρῶ τῇ ψυχῇ μου, ψυχή, ἔχεις πολλὰ ἀγαθὰ κείμενα εἰς ἔτη πολλά; ἀναπαύου, φάγε, πίε, εὐφραίνου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation, and then another quotation within that one. Alternate translation: “He told himself that he had many goods stored up for many years, and so he could relax, eat, drink, be merry” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

τῇ ψυχῇ μου

The man figuratively addresses one part of himself, his soul or inner being, in order to speak to all of himself. Alternate translation: “to myself” (See: Synecdoche)

Luke 12:20

εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Θεός, ἄφρων, ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ, τὴν ψυχήν σου ἀπαιτοῦσιν ἀπὸ σοῦ; ἃ δὲ ἡτοίμασας, τίνι ἔσται?

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation, and then another quotation within that one. Alternate translation: “But God told him that he was very foolish, because he was going to die that night, and the things he had stored up would belong to someone else” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

ἄφρων

God is using the adjective foolish as a noun in order to indicate what kind of person this man is. ULT adds the term one to show this. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate the term with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “You foolish person” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ, τὴν ψυχήν σου ἀπαιτοῦσιν ἀπὸ σοῦ

This is an indefinite construction, such as many languages use, but God is the actual subject. Alternate translation: “I am demanding your soul from you this very night”

ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ, τὴν ψυχήν σου ἀπαιτοῦσιν ἀπὸ σοῦ

The term soul means the life of a person. God is using the same term as the man did, but with a different meaning, to show that he was foolish to have such confidence in his possessions. Alternate translation: “you are going to lose your life this very night” (See: Idiom)

τὴν ψυχήν σου ἀπαιτοῦσιν ἀπὸ σοῦ

This expression speaks about death in a discreet way. Alternate translation: “you are going to die” (See: Euphemism)

ἃ δὲ ἡτοίμασας, τίνι ἔσται?

God does not expect the man to tell him who will inherit his things. Rather, God is using the question as a teaching tool, to make the man realize that he could not count on possessing those things, and so he was wrong to put his confidence in them. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate these words as a statement or an exclamation. Alternate translation: “the things you have stored up will belong to someone else!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 12:21

ὁ θησαυρίζων

Alternate translation: “a person who saves up valuable things”

μὴ εἰς Θεὸν πλουτῶν

Jesus uses the term rich figuratively to mean using one’s time and possessions for the things that are important to God. Alternate translation: “has not invested in the things that matter to God” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 12:22

εἶπεν…πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ

Since Peter asks in 12:41 whether Jesus has been speaking only to the disciples, or also to the crowd as well, the implication is that Jesus did not say these things to his disciples privately, as in 12:1-12, but rather to them publicly so that the crowd could also hear. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “he said to his disciples, as the crowd was listening” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

διὰ τοῦτο

By this Jesus means the lesson of the story, that it is foolish to be overly concerned about having a lot of food and possessions. Alternate translation: “In light of what this story teaches” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

λέγω ὑμῖν, μὴ μεριμνᾶτε

Jesus says this to emphasize what he is about to tell his disciples. Alternate translation: “I want you to know that you should not worry”

τῷ σώματι τί ἐνδύσησθε

Alternate translation: “about having clothes to put on your body”

Luke 12:23

ἡ γὰρ ψυχὴ πλεῖόν ἐστιν τῆς τροφῆς, καὶ τὸ σῶμα τοῦ ἐνδύματος

Jesus leaves out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “Life is more than food, and the body is more than clothes” (See: Ellipsis)

ἡ γὰρ ψυχὴ πλεῖόν ἐστιν τῆς τροφῆς, καὶ τὸ σῶμα τοῦ ἐνδύματος

This is a general statement of value. Alternate translation: “There is more to life than the food you eat, and there is more to the body than the clothes that you wear”

Luke 12:24

τοὺς κόρακας

The word ravens refers to large black birds, and it can apply either to crows or to actual ravens. If your readers would not be familiar with either of those birds, you could use a general term. Alternate translation: “the birds” (See: Translate Unknowns)

οὐκ…ταμεῖον οὐδὲ ἀποθήκη

These two words mean similar things. Jesus may be using them together to express a general meaning. Alternate translation: “no place to store food” (See: Doublet)

οὐκ…ταμεῖον οὐδὲ ἀποθήκη

These are places where food is stored. If your readers would not be familiar with either term, you could use a more general one. Alternate translation: “no place to store food” (See: Translate Unknowns)

πόσῳ μᾶλλον ὑμεῖς διαφέρετε τῶν πετεινῶν!

This is an exclamation, not a question. Jesus uses the exclamation to emphasize the point he wants his listeners to realize. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this as a statement. Alternate translation: “You need to realize how much more valuable people are to God than birds.” (See: Exclamations)

Luke 12:25

τίς…ἐξ ὑμῶν μεριμνῶν, δύναται ἐπὶ τὴν ἡλικίαν αὐτοῦ προσθεῖναι πῆχυν?

Jesus is using the question form to teach his disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation. Alternate translation: “no one can make his life any longer by being anxious!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἐπὶ τὴν ἡλικίαν αὐτοῦ προσθεῖναι πῆχυν

Jesus is speaking figuratively of the lifespan as if it were measured in length rather than in time. Alternate translation: “make his life any longer” (See: Metaphor)

πῆχυν

A cubit is a measure of length equal to about half a meter or about a foot and a half. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this length using the measure that is customary your culture. (See: Translate Unknowns)

πῆχυν

The implication may be that since a cubit is a relatively short distance, it figuratively represents only a short time. Alternate translation: “even a little bit” or “even a short time” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 12:26

εἰ οὖν οὐδὲ ἐλάχιστον δύνασθε, τί περὶ τῶν λοιπῶν μεριμνᾶτε?

Jesus is using the question form to teach his disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “Since you cannot do even this small thing, you should not worry about the other things!” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἐλάχιστον

Jesus is using the adjective least as a noun. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “such a very little thing” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

τῶν λοιπῶν

The implication in context is that Jesus is referring to having food to eat and clothes to wear. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “having food and clothing” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 12:27

κατανοήσατε τὰ κρίνα πῶς αὐξάνει

Alternate translation: “Think about how the lilies grow”

τὰ κρίνα

The word lilies describes beautiful flowers that grow wild in the fields. If your language does not have a word for this flower, you could use the name of a similar flower that your readers would recognize, or you could use a general term. Alternate translation: “the flowers” (See: Translate Unknowns)

οὐδὲ νήθει

In this context, to spin means to make thread or yarn for cloth. It does not mean to turn in a circle while standing in one place. If your readers might be confused by the term, you could explain the meaning with a phrase. Alternate translation: “and they do not make thread for cloth” or “and they do not make yarn for cloth” (See: Translate Unknowns)

λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν, οὐδὲ Σολομὼν

Jesus says this to emphasize what he is about to tell his disciples. Alternate translation: “I can assure you that not even Solomon”

Σολομὼν ἐν πάσῃ τῇ δόξῃ αὐτοῦ

This could mean one of two things. You could express the idea behind the abstract noun glory in either way. Alternate translation: (1) “Solomon, who had great wealth” (2) “Solomon, who wore beautiful clothes” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Σολομὼν

Solomon is the name of a man, a great king of Israel. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 12:28

εἰ…ἐν ἀγρῷ τὸν χόρτον ὄντα σήμερον, καὶ αὔριον εἰς κλίβανον βαλλόμενον, ὁ Θεὸς οὕτως ἀμφιέζει

Jesus speaks figuratively of God making the wild plants beautiful as if God were putting beautiful clothing on them. Alternate translation: “if God makes the wild plants beautiful like this, even though they are alive today and are thrown into the oven tomorrow” (See: Metaphor)

εἰ…ἐν ἀγρῷ τὸν χόρτον ὄντα σήμερον, καὶ αὔριον εἰς κλίβανον βαλλόμενον, ὁ Θεὸς οὕτως ἀμφιέζει

Jesus speaks as if this were a hypothetical situation, but he means that it must be true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might misunderstand and think that what Jesus is saying is uncertain, then you can translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “since God makes the wild plants so beautiful, even though they are alive today and are thrown into the oven tomorrow” (See: Connect — Factual Conditions)

ἐν ἀγρῷ τὸν χόρτον ὄντα σήμερον, καὶ αὔριον εἰς κλίβανον βαλλόμενον

While Jesus uses a term that typically means grass, in this context he must implicitly mean wild plants in general, since he is referring back to the wild lilies he has just mentioned. So you could express this with a general term in your translation. Alternate translation: “the wild plants, which are alive today and tomorrow are thrown into the oven” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἐν ἀγρῷ τὸν χόρτον ὄντα σήμερον, καὶ αὔριον εἰς κλίβανον βαλλόμενον

It would be particularly appropriate to use a general term in your translation if your readers would not know what grass is. Alternate translation: “the wild plants, which are alive today and tomorrow are thrown into the oven” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἐν ἀγρῷ τὸν χόρτον ὄντα σήμερον, καὶ αὔριον εἰς κλίβανον βαλλόμενον

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who does the action. Alternate translation: “the grass in the field, which exists today, but tomorrow someone throws it into an oven” or, if you decided to say “plants,” “the wild plants, which exist today, but tomorrow someone throws them into an oven” (See: Active or Passive)

ἐν ἀγρῷ τὸν χόρτον ὄντα σήμερον, καὶ αὔριον εἰς κλίβανον βαλλόμενον

The implication is that dried plant matter would be used for fuel, for heating and cooking. If your readers would not be familiar with this practice, you could describe it explicitly. Alternate translation: “the grass in the field, which exists today, but tomorrow people use it for fuel” or, if you decided to say “plants,” “the wild plants, which exist today, but tomorrow people use them for fuel” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

πόσῳ μᾶλλον ὑμᾶς

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply these words from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “how much more will God clothe you” (See: Ellipsis)

πόσῳ μᾶλλον ὑμᾶς

This is an exclamation, not a question. Jesus is emphasizing that God will certainly take care of people even better than he takes care of grass. Alternate translation: “God will certainly clothe you even better” (See: Exclamations)

Luke 12:29

ὑμεῖς μὴ ζητεῖτε τί φάγητε, καὶ τί πίητε

The word seek has a specific meaning here. It does not mean to look for these things because they have been lost. Alternate translation: “do not concentrate on what you will eat and drink”

Luke 12:30

πάντα τὰ ἔθνη τοῦ κόσμου

The term nations means non-Jewish people groups. The term all is not a generalization for emphasis. Jesus is saying that this is the way of life for any group that does not know God. Alternate translation: “all the people groups who do not know God” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὑμῶν…ὁ Πατὴρ

Father is an important title for God. (See: Translating Son and Father)

Luke 12:31

ζητεῖτε τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ

As in 12:29, the word seek has a specific meaning here. Alternate translation: “concentrate on God’s kingdom”

ταῦτα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God will also give you these things” (See: Active or Passive)

ταῦτα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν

In context, the expression these things refers to food and clothing. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “God will also give you the food and clothing that you need” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 12:32

τὸ μικρὸν ποίμνιον

Jesus speaks to his disciples as if they were a small group of sheep or goats. The image means that as a shepherd cares for his flock, God will care for the disciples. Alternate translation: “my dear disciples” (See: Metaphor)

ὁ Πατὴρ

Father is an important title for God. (See: Translating Son and Father)

Luke 12:33

πωλήσατε τὰ ὑπάρχοντα ὑμῶν, καὶ δότε ἐλεημοσύνην

This culture referred to charitable donations or gifts to the poor as alms. Alternate translation: “Sell your possessions and give the proceeds to the poor” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ποιήσατε ἑαυτοῖς

The implication is that this will be the result of selling one’s possessions and giving the proceeds to the poor. Alternate translation: “In this way you will make for yourselves” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

βαλλάντια μὴ παλαιούμενα, θησαυρὸν ἀνέκλειπτον ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

These two phrases mean basically the same thing. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine them, especially if putting both phrases in your translation might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “treasure that will always be safe in heaven” (See: Parallelism)

βαλλάντια μὴ παλαιούμενα

If you would like to reproduce the figure of speech that Jesus uses, but you think your readers might not know what purses are, you could explain that term, or you could use the name of a different container that people in your culture use to keep valuable things safe. Alternate translation: “moneybags that will not get holes in them” or “a jar that will never break” (See: Translate Unknowns)

βαλλάντια μὴ παλαιούμενα

Jesus is figuratively describing valuable things that will last by reference to purses or moneybags that will keep these things safe because they will never wear out. He makes this clear by speaking literally of unfailing treasure right afterwards. Alternate translation: “wealth that will always be safe” (See: Metonymy)

θησαυρὸν ἀνέκλειπτον

You could state this in a positive form. Alternate translation: “treasure that will always last”

ὅπου κλέπτης οὐκ ἐγγίζει

Jesus speaks figuratively of a thief coming near to wealth to mean stealing it. Alternate translation: “where no thief ever steals anything” (See: Metonymy)

οὐδὲ σὴς διαφθείρει

Jesus leaves out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “and where no moth ever destroys anything” (See: Ellipsis)

σὴς

A moth is a small insect that eats holes in fabric. If your readers would not know what a moth is, you could use the name of a different insect they would recognize that destroys materials, such as an ant or termite. (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 12:34

ὅπου…ἐστιν ὁ θησαυρὸς ὑμῶν, ἐκεῖ καὶ ἡ καρδία ὑμῶν ἔσται

Jesus speaks figuratively of a person’s heart and treasure being in the same location. Alternate translation: “the things you value are the things you will think about and try to obtain” (See: Metaphor)

ὅπου…ἐστιν ὁ θησαυρὸς ὑμῶν

Jesus uses the word treasure figuratively to mean what a person values. Alternate translation: “the things you value” (See: Metaphor)

καὶ ἡ καρδία ὑμῶν ἔσται

Here, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and desires. Alternate translation: “are the things you will think about and want to have” (See: Metaphor)

ὑμῶν…ὑμῶν

Jesus is speaking of each individual person’s values and desires, but your is plural because he is addressing the disciples as a group. You could use the singular form of your in your translation if that is what your language would do in a context like this. (See: Forms of You)

Luke 12:35

ἔστωσαν ὑμῶν αἱ ὀσφύες περιεζωσμέναι

To help his disciples understand what he has been teaching, Jesus provides an illustration. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus gave his disciples this illustration to help them understand. ‘Wrap the lower part of your robe around your hips’” (See: Parables)

ἔστωσαν ὑμῶν αἱ ὀσφύες περιεζωσμέναι

People in this culture wore long flowing robes. They would wrap the lower part of the robe around their hips to keep it out of the way while they engaged in physical activity. Alternate translation: “Wrap the lower part of your robe around your hips” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἔστωσαν ὑμῶν αἱ ὀσφύες περιεζωσμέναι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Wrap the lower part of your robe around your hips” (See: Active or Passive)

ἔστωσαν ὑμῶν αἱ ὀσφύες περιεζωσμέναι

The implication within the illustration is that a servant would do this in order to be ready to do any physical activity that was needed as soon as the master returned. Alternate translation: “Be dressed and ready to serve” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἔστωσαν ὑμῶν αἱ ὀσφύες περιεζωσμέναι

Jesus is speaking of what an individual should do, but your is plural because he is addressing the disciples as a group. You could use the singular form of your in your translation if that is what your language would do in a context like this. (See: Forms of You)

καὶ οἱ λύχνοι καιόμενοι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “and keep the lamps burning” (See: Active or Passive)

καὶ οἱ λύχνοι καιόμενοι

The implication within the illustration is that a servant would do this so that the house would be well lit when the master returned. Alternate translation: “and make sure that the house is well lit” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 12:36

ὑμεῖς ὅμοιοι ἀνθρώποις προσδεχομένοις

This is a simile. Alternate translation: “you should be like people who are waiting” (See: Simile)

ὑμεῖς ὅμοιοι ἀνθρώποις προσδεχομένοις

The implication is that Jesus’ disciples should be like this as they wait for his return. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “as you wait for my return, you should be like people who are waiting” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀνθρώποις

Since household servants would probably include women as well as men, Jesus is likely using the term men here in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “people” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

πότε ἀναλύσῃ ἐκ τῶν γάμων

Alternate translation: “to come home after a wedding celebration”

κρούσαντος

See how you translated the word “knock” in 11:9. Alternate translation: “calls out” or “coughs” or “claps” (See: Translate Unknowns)

εὐθέως ἀνοίξωσιν αὐτῷ

The phrase open for him refers to the door of the master’s house. It was the responsibility of his servants to open it for him. Alternate translation: “they can open the door for him right away” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 12:37

μακάριοι

Alternate translation: “How good it will be for”

οὓς ἐλθὼν, ὁ Κύριος εὑρήσει γρηγοροῦντας

Alternate translation: “whose master finds them waiting for him when he returns” or “who are ready when the master returns”

ἀμὴν, λέγω ὑμῖν

Jesus says this to emphasize what he is about to tell his disciples. Alternate translation: “I can assure you”

παρελθὼν, διακονήσει αὐτοῖς

The implication is that, because the servants were faithful in their tasks and they were ready to serve their master when he arrived, the master will now reward them by serving them. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “he will come and serve them as a reward” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 12:38

κἂν ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ κἂν ἐν τῇ τρίτῃ φυλακῇ ἔλθῃ

Alternate translation: “Even if he comes in the second or third watch of the night”

ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ…φυλακῇ

The second watch of the night was from 9:00 p.m. until midnight. Alternate translation: “late at night” (See: Translate Unknowns)

κἂν ἐν τῇ τρίτῃ φυλακῇ

The third watch was from midnight until 3:00 a.m. Alternate translation: “or even after midnight” (See: Translate Unknowns)

καὶ εὕρῃ οὕτως, μακάριοί εἰσιν ἐκεῖνοι

Alternate translation: “how good it will be for servants whom he finds waiting for him” or “how good it will be for servants who are ready when he returns”

Luke 12:39

τοῦτο δὲ γινώσκετε

Jesus says this to encourage his disciples to think carefully about what he is going to tell them. Alternate translation: “Now I want you to think carefully about this”

εἰ ᾔδει ὁ οἰκοδεσπότης

To help his disciples understand what he has been teaching, Jesus provides a further illustration. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus gave his disciples this further illustration to help them understand. ‘If the owner of the house had known’” (See: Parables)

εἰ ᾔδει ὁ οἰκοδεσπότης ποίᾳ ὥρᾳ ὁ κλέπτης ἔρχεται

The illustration that Jesus chooses involves a hypothetical situation. Alternate translation: “Suppose a thief were going to rob a house, and suppose the owner of the house knew when the thief was coming” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

ποίᾳ ὥρᾳ

Jesus uses the term hour figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “when” or “at what time” (See: Idiom)

οὐκ ἂν ἀφῆκεν διορυχθῆναι τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “he would not have let the thief break into his house” (See: Active or Passive)

οὐκ ἂν ἀφῆκεν διορυχθῆναι τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ

If you translated the earlier part of this verse as a hypothetical condition, you can translate this part as the result. You may want to make this part a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “Then he would not let the thief break into his house” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

Luke 12:40

ᾗ ὥρᾳ οὐ δοκεῖτε

Jesus is using the term hour figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “at a time when you are not expecting him” (See: Idiom)

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεται

Here Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Son of Man, will return” (and for the previous phrase, “at a time when you are not expecting me”) (See: First, Second or Third Person)

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεται

See how you translated the title Son of Man in 5:24. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah, will return” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 12:41

εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Πέτρος

Luke says this to reintroduce Peter as a participant in the story. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could remind them who Peter was. Alternate translation: “Then Peter, one of his disciples, asked” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἡμᾶς

By us, Peter means “me and the rest of your disciples” but not Jesus himself. So us would be exclusive, if your language marks that distinction. (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

πάντας

Peter is generalizing to mean “everyone who can hear you.” Alternate translation: “everyone here” or “the crowd” (See: Hyperbole)

Luke 12:42

ὁ Κύριος

Here, Luke refers to Jesus by the respectful title the Lord. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus”

τίς ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ πιστὸς οἰκονόμος ὁ φρόνιμος

Jesus uses a question to answer Peter’s question indirectly. He means that he expected that those who recognized that they should be like faithful managers would understand that the parable had been about them. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “I said it for everyone who would recognize that they should be like a faithful, wise manager” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τίς ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ πιστὸς οἰκονόμος ὁ φρόνιμος

In the course of using a question to answer Peter’s question indirectly, Jesus provides a further illustration. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus gave Peter this further illustration to answer his question. ‘I said it for everyone who would recognize that they should be like a faithful, wise manager’” (See: Parables)

ὃν καταστήσει ὁ Κύριος ἐπὶ τῆς θεραπείας αὐτοῦ

Jesus refers to the other servants figuratively as the master’s care by association with the way they care for him. Alternate translation: “will put in charge of his other servants” (See: Metonymy)

ὃν καταστήσει ὁ Κύριος ἐπὶ τῆς θεραπείας αὐτοῦ

The implication, as the rest of the parable makes clear, is that the master is making this arrangement temporarily and provisionally because he is going to be absent for a time. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “will put in charge of his other servants while he goes away for a while” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 12:43

μακάριος ὁ δοῦλος ἐκεῖνος

Alternate translation: “How good it will be for that servant”

ὃν ἐλθὼν, ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦ εὑρήσει ποιοῦντα οὕτως

Alternate translation: “if his master finds him doing that work when he comes back”

Luke 12:44

ἀληθῶς λέγω ὑμῖν

Jesus says this to emphasize what he is about to tell his disciples. Alternate translation: “I can assure you”

ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τοῖς ὑπάρχουσιν αὐτοῦ καταστήσει αὐτόν

Alternate translation: “he will put him in charge of all of his property”

Luke 12:45

ἐὰν δὲ εἴπῃ ὁ δοῦλος ἐκεῖνος ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ, χρονίζει ὁ κύριός μου ἔρχεσθαι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “But if that servant thinks to himself that his master is going to come back later than he said” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

ἐὰν δὲ εἴπῃ ὁ δοῦλος ἐκεῖνος ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ…καὶ ἄρξηται

The illustration that Jesus is using involves a hypothetical situation. Alternate translation: “But suppose that servant thinks to himself … and suppose he begins” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

εἴπῃ…ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ

Here, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts. Alternate translation: “thinks to himself” (See: Metaphor)

χρονίζει ὁ κύριός μου ἔρχεσθαι

Alternate translation: “My master is going to come back later than he said”

τοὺς παῖδας καὶ τὰς παιδίσκας

Jesus is figuratively using the two types of servants to mean all of the master’s servants. Alternate translation: “all the other servants” (See: Merism)

Luke 12:46

ἥξει ὁ κύριος τοῦ δούλου ἐκείνου

If you translated the previous verse as a hypothetical condition, you can translate this verse as the result of that condition. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Then the master of that servant will arrive” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ᾗ οὐ προσδοκᾷ, καὶ ἐν ὥρᾳ ᾗ οὐ γινώσκει

These two phrases mean the same thing. Jesus is likely using the repetition to emphasize that the return of the master will be completely unexpected by the servant. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases, especially if putting both of them in your translation might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “at a time that is a complete surprise to the servant” (See: Parallelism)

ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ᾗ οὐ προσδοκᾷ

Here, Jesus uses the term day figuratively to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “at a time when he is not expecting him” (See: Idiom)

ἐν ὥρᾳ ᾗ οὐ γινώσκει

Here, Jesus uses the term hour figuratively to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “at a time when he does not think he will come” (See: Idiom)

διχοτομήσει αὐτὸν

The expression cut him in two could mean one of two things, depending on how the word unfaithful is understood (see next note): (1) If unfaithful means “untrustworthy,” then the expression is probably figurative, since the master could not reassign this servant to less important responsibilities if he cut him in two. Alternate translation: “will punish him severely” (2) If unfaithful means “unbelieving,” then the expression is more literal, since it would describe something that will happen when God judges the world. Alternate translation: “destroy his body” (See: Metaphor)

τὸ μέρος αὐτοῦ μετὰ τῶν ἀπίστων θήσει

The term that ULT translates as unfaithful could mean: (1) It may mean “untrustworthy.” The meaning would be that the master will assign this servant to less important responsibilities, along with other servants who have shown that they cannot be trusted with important ones. Alternate translation: “will give him unimportant responsibilities, like other servants who have shown that they cannot be trusted” (2) It may mean “unbelieving.” The master in the parable represents God, and Jesus would be speaking of what God will do, when he judges the world, to people who show by their disobedience that they do not have genuine faith. Alternate translation: “will assign him a place with the unbelievers”

τῶν ἀπίστων

Jesus is using the adjective unfaithful as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this expression with an equivalent phrase. The meaning will depend on how you decided to translate unfaithful (see previous note). Alternate translation: (1) “servants who have shown that they cannot be trusted” (2) “people who have shown that they are not genuine believers” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

Luke 12:47

ἐκεῖνος δὲ ὁ δοῦλος, ὁ γνοὺς τὸ θέλημα τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ, καὶ μὴ ἑτοιμάσας ἢ ποιήσας πρὸς τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ, δαρήσεται πολλάς

Jesus is describing a hypothetical situation. It may be helpful to use two sentences if you translate it that way. Alternate translation: “Suppose a servant knew what his master wanted him to do, and suppose he did not get ready or do what the master wanted. Then his master would punish him severely” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

τὸ θέλημα τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ

Alternate translation: “what his master wanted him to do”

δαρήσεται πολλάς

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “his master will punish him severely” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 12:48

ὁ δὲ μὴ γνοὺς, ποιήσας δὲ ἄξια πληγῶν, δαρήσεται ὀλίγας

Jesus is describing a hypothetical situation. It may be helpful to use two sentences if you translate it that way. Alternate translation: “But suppose a servant did not know what his master wanted him to do, and suppose he did things that deserved punishment. Then his master would punish him lightly” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

δαρήσεται ὀλίγας

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “his master would punish him lightly” (See: Active or Passive)

παντὶ…ᾧ ἐδόθη πολύ, πολὺ ζητηθήσεται παρ’ αὐτοῦ; καὶ ᾧ παρέθεντο πολύ, περισσότερον αἰτήσουσιν αὐτόν

These two clauses mean the same thing. Jesus is using repetition for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine them, especially if putting both of them in your translation might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “if someone entrusts many resources to a person, he will expect that person to produce much from those resources” (See: Parallelism)

παντὶ…ᾧ ἐδόθη πολύ, πολὺ ζητηθήσεται παρ’ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could use active verbal forms to express the meaning of the two passive verbal forms here. Alternate translation: “the master will require more of everyone to whom he has given much” (See: Active or Passive)

ᾧ παρέθεντο πολύ, περισσότερον αἰτήσουσιν αὐτόν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could use active verbal forms to express the meaning of the two passive verbal forms here. Alternate translation: “the master will ask even more of the one to whom he has given much property to care for” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 12:49

πῦρ ἦλθον βαλεῖν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν

Jesus is speaking figuratively of the effects of his ministry and teaching. In context, since he says contrastingly in 12:51 that he did not come to bring peace to the earth, fire likely represents the passionate responses to him, both favorable and unfavorable, that would lead to the divisions he describes in 12:52-53. Alternate translation: “My coming will lead to conflict among people” (See: Metaphor)

τὴν γῆν

Jesus says the earth figuratively to mean the people living on the earth. Alternate translation: “people” (See: Metonymy)

τί θέλω εἰ ἤδη ἀνήφθη

This exclamation emphasizes how much Jesus wants this to happen. Alternate translation: “I wish very much that this fire were already lit” (See: Exclamations)

τί θέλω εἰ ἤδη ἀνήφθη

This exclamation continues the metaphor of fire as conflict. Alternate translation: “how I wish that people were already taking sides” (See: Metaphor)

ἤδη ἀνήφθη

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the fire were already burning” or “people were already taking sides” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 12:50

δὲ

Jesus uses this word to indicate that he cannot do what the previous sentence describes until after he does what this sentence describes. Alternate translation: “But first” (See: Connect — Contrast Relationship)

βάπτισμα…ἔχω βαπτισθῆναι

Jesus speaks figuratively of baptism to describe how he must suffer. Just as water covers a person during baptism, suffering will overwhelm Jesus. Alternate translation: “I must be overwhelmed by suffering” (See: Metaphor)

βάπτισμα…ἔχω βαπτισθῆναι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “suffering must overwhelm me” (See: Active or Passive)

πῶς συνέχομαι ἕως ὅτου τελεσθῇ

This exclamation emphasizes how distressed Jesus is. Alternate translation: “I am terribly distressed and will continue to be distressed until my suffering is completed” (See: Exclamations)

πῶς συνέχομαι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you can say what is doing the action. Alternate translation: “this suffering will continue to distress me terribly” (See: Active or Passive)

ἕως ὅτου τελεσθῇ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you can say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “until I have endured all of it” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 12:51

δοκεῖτε ὅτι εἰρήνην παρεγενόμην δοῦναι ἐν τῇ γῇ?

Jesus is not asking the people in the crowd to tell him what they think. He is using the question form as a teaching tool. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate these words as a statement. Alternate translation: “Do not think that I came to bring peace on the earth.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

δοκεῖτε ὅτι εἰρήνην παρεγενόμην δοῦναι ἐν τῇ γῇ

Jesus says the earth figuratively to mean the people living on the earth. Alternate translation: “Do you think that I came to make peace between people” (See: Metonymy)

εἰρήνην…δοῦναι ἐν τῇ γῇ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun peace with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “to make people get along with one another” (See: Abstract Nouns)

οὐχί…ἀλλ’ ἢ διαμερισμόν

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. These words can be supplied from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “No … I came to bring division instead” (See: Ellipsis)

οὐχί…ἀλλ’ ἢ διαμερισμόν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun division with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “No … my coming will cause people to oppose each other” (See: Abstract Nouns)

λέγω ὑμῖν

Jesus uses this expression to emphasize what he is about to tell his disciples and the crowd. Alternate translation: “I want you to understand”

Luke 12:52

πέντε ἐν ἑνὶ οἴκῳ

Jesus uses the term house to refer figuratively to people who live together in a house, that is, to a family. Alternate translation: “five members of the same family” (See: Metonymy)

διαμεμερισμένοι

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “who will take sides against one another” (See: Active or Passive)

τρεῖς ἐπὶ δυσὶν, καὶ δύο ἐπὶ τρισίν

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. You can supply these words from what he says figuratively earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “three of the family members will be on one side, and the other two will be on the opposing side” (See: Ellipsis)

τρεῖς ἐπὶ δυσὶν, καὶ δύο ἐπὶ τρισίν

These two phrases mean the same thing. Jesus is likely using repetition for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “three of the family members will be on one side, and the other two will be on the opposing side” (See: Parallelism)

Luke 12:53

διαμερισθήσονται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Family members will oppose one another” (See: Active or Passive)

πατὴρ ἐπὶ υἱῷ, καὶ υἱὸς ἐπὶ πατρί

These two phrases mean the same thing. Jesus is likely using repetition for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases and make them a sentence of their own. Alternate translation: “Fathers and sons will oppose one another” (See: Parallelism)

μήτηρ ἐπὶ τὴν θυγατέρα, καὶ θυγάτηρ ἐπὶ τὴν μητέρα

These two phrases mean the same thing. Jesus is likely using repetition for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases and make them a sentence of their own. Alternate translation: “mothers and daughters will oppose one another” (See: Parallelism)

πενθερὰ ἐπὶ τὴν νύμφην αὐτῆς, καὶ νύμφη ἐπὶ τὴν πενθεράν

These two phrases mean the same thing. Jesus is likely using repetition for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases and make them a sentence of their own. Alternate translation: “mothers-in-law and daughters-in-law will oppose one another” (See: Parallelism)

Luke 12:54

ὅταν ἴδητε νεφέλην ἀνατέλλουσαν

A cloud rising in this direction would indicate that rain was coming in Israel, because the sea was to the west. If rainstorms tend to come from a different direction in your region, you could use a general expression here. Alternate translation: “clouds forming in a certain direction” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

λέγετε, ὅτι ὄμβρος ἔρχεται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “you say that it is going to rain” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

καὶ γίνεται οὕτως

Alternate translation: “and it does rain”

Luke 12:55

νότον πνέοντα

Wind coming from this direction would indicate that hot weather was coming in Israel, because the desert was to the south. If hot winds blow from a different direction in your region, you could use a general expression here. Alternate translation: “the wind is blowing from a certain direction” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

λέγετε, ὅτι καύσων ἔσται

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “you say that it is going to be very hot” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

καὶ γίνεται

Alternate translation: “and it does get hot”

Luke 12:56

ὑποκριταί!

The implication, which Jesus draws out in the rest of this verse, is that people who could understand the weather from signs such as wind and clouds also ought to be able to understand what God was doing through Jesus from the signs surrounding his ministry. So if they did not welcome him, it was not because they did not see or understand these signs. Rather, it was because they were pretending not to see or understand them. Alternate translation: “You are pretending not to understand!” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὸ πρόσωπον

Jesus uses the term face figuratively to mean “appearance.” Alternate translation: “the appearance” (See: Metaphor)

τὸν καιρὸν δὲ τοῦτον, πῶς οὐκ οἴδατε δοκιμάζειν?

Jesus is using the question form to rebuke the crowd. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “so you ought to be able to understand what is happening right now.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 12:57

τί δὲ καὶ ἀφ’ ἑαυτῶν, οὐ κρίνετε τὸ δίκαιον?

Jesus is using the question form to rebuke the crowd. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “You ought to discern on your own what is right.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

Luke 12:58

ὡς γὰρ ὑπάγεις μετὰ τοῦ ἀντιδίκου σου ἐπ’ ἄρχοντα

Jesus is using a hypothetical situation to teach the crowd. Alternate translation: “Suppose you owed someone money, and suppose they were taking you to court to collect it” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

ὡς γὰρ ὑπάγεις μετὰ τοῦ ἀντιδίκου σου ἐπ’ ἄρχοντα

This hypothetical situation is also an illustration designed to help the people understand that they should be welcoming Jesus. Just as the debtor is going to be judged imminently, God is going to judge them imminently based on their responses to Jesus, and so they should make a positive response now, before it is too late. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus gave the crowd this illustration to help them understand. ‘Suppose you owed someone money, and suppose he was taking you to court to collect it’” (See: Parables)

ὑπάγεις…σου…σε

Even though Jesus is speaking to the crowd, he is addressing an individual situation, so you and your are singular throughout this verse. But if the singular form would not be natural in your language for someone who was speaking to a group of people, you could use the plural forms of you and your in your translation. (See: Singular Pronouns that refer to Groups)

τοῦ ἀντιδίκου σου

In the context of this story, the term adversary means specifically an opponent in a legal proceeding. You could translate it with the equivalent term in your language. Alternatively, since the next verse indicates that the adversary is trying to collect a debt, you could describe him in a way that indicates that. Alternate translation: “your opponent” or “your creditor” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἄρχοντα

Magistrate is a general term for a person in legal authority. You can translate it with the equivalent general term in your language. Alternate translation: “the official” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἀπηλλάχθαι ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “to settle the matter out of court” or “to have him forgive your debt” (See: Active or Passive)

τὸν κριτήν

The term the judge refers to the same person as the magistrate, but the term here is more specific and threatening. In your translation you can use the specific term in your language that describes someone with the power to deliver a verdict and pass sentence on a defendant. (See: Translate Unknowns)

τῷ πράκτορι

In the context of the story, the term the officer refers to a court official who was empowered to collect debts that a judge had ruled were owed and to put the debtor in prison if he did not pay. Your language may have a similar term that you can use. Alternate translation: “the bailiff” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 12:59

λέγω σοι

Jesus uses this expression to emphasize what he is about to tell his disciples and the crowd. If you translated the previous verse as a hypothetical condition, you could translate this expression as an introduction to the result of that condition. Alternate translation: “If that happens, then” (See: Hypothetical Situations)

λέγω σοι

Even though Jesus is speaking directly to the crowd, he is still addressing an individual situation, so you is singular here and in the rest of this verse. But if the singular form would not be natural in your language for someone who was speaking to a group of people, you could use the plural form of you in your translation. (See: Singular Pronouns that refer to Groups)

καὶ τὸ ἔσχατον λεπτὸν

A lepton was the smallest and least valuable coin in circulation in this place and time. It was equivalent to about a tenth of an hour’s wage. You could try to express this amount in terms of current monetary values, but that might cause your Bible translation to become outdated and inaccurate, since those values can change over time. So instead you might use the name of the least valuable coin in your culture, or a general expression. Alternate translation: “the very last penny” or “every bit of money that your creditor demands” (See: Biblical Money)

Luke 13

Luke 13 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus teaches with parables (13:1-30)
  2. Jesus speaks about Herod and Jerusalem (13:31-35)

Possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Unknown events

The people and Jesus speak about two events that they knew about, but about which no one today knows anything except what Luke has written. These events are Pilate executing some Galileans in the temple, 13:1-2, and 18 people being killed when a tower collapsed in Jerusalem, 13:4. In your translation, you should tell your readers no more than what Luke tells about what happened. Your translation should tell only what Luke tells.

Paradox

A paradox is a statement that describes two things that seem as if they cannot both be true at the same time, but which actually are both true. Jesus speaks a paradox in this chapter: “Those who are least important will be first, and those who are most important will be last” (Luke 13:30)

Luke 13:1

δέ

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what Jesus teaches next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Connect — Background Information)

παρῆσαν…τινες ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ καιρῷ, ἀπαγγέλλοντες αὐτῷ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce new characters into the story. Alternate translation: “There were some people present at that time who were telling him” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ καιρῷ

This implicitly means while Jesus was still teaching the crowds, as Luke said he was doing in 11:54. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “while he was still teaching the crowds” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ὧν τὸ αἷμα Πειλᾶτος ἔμιξεν μετὰ τῶν θυσιῶν αὐτῶν

Luke is speaking figuratively about this event to indicate that the blood of the Galileans was shed at the same time as the blood of their animal sacrifices. Alternate translation: “whom Pilate had killed while they were offering sacrifices at the temple” (See: Metaphor)

ὧν τὸ αἷμα Πειλᾶτος ἔμιξεν μετὰ τῶν θυσιῶν αὐτῶν

Luke uses the term blood figuratively to refer to the death of these Galileans. Alternate translation: “whom Pilate had killed while they were offering sacrifices at the temple” (See: Metonymy)

ὧν τὸ αἷμα Πειλᾶτος ἔμιξεν μετὰ τῶν θυσιῶν αὐτῶν

Pilate likely did not kill these Galileans personally. Rather, he ordered his soldiers to kill them. Alternate translation: “whom Pilate’s soldiers had killed as they were offering sacrifices at the temple” or “whom Pilate had ordered his soldiers to kill as they were offering sacrifices at the temple” (See: Metonymy)

Πειλᾶτος

Pilate is the name of a man; he was the Roman ruler of Judea in this time. See how you translated his name in 3:1. His name occurs many times later in the book. (See: How to Translate Names)

Luke 13:2

ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς

Together the two words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to what the people in the crowd told him. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded to them” (See: Hendiadys)

δοκεῖτε ὅτι

Jesus is using the question form to teach these people and the whole crowd. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “Do not think that” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἁμαρτωλοὶ παρὰ πάντας τοὺς Γαλιλαίους

Alternate translation: “more sinful than all the other Galileans” or “the most sinful of all Galileans”

ταῦτα πεπόνθασιν

Alternate translation: “this happened to them”

Luke 13:3

οὐχί, λέγω ὑμῖν

Jesus uses this expression to emphasize what he is about to tell these people and the crowd. Alternate translation: “That is certainly not the case”

πάντες ὁμοίως ἀπολεῖσθε

This statement seems to be similar to the one that Jesus makes in 19:41-44, in which he says that if the Jewish people reject him and instead follow violent false messiahs, this will bring them into conflict with the Romans and they will be destroyed. That seems to be the implicit meaning here as well, and you could say that in your translation. Alternate translation: “you too will be destroyed by the Romans” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 13:4

ἢ ἐκεῖνοι

Jesus is giving a second example of people who suffered. Alternate translation: “Also consider those”

ἐκεῖνοι οἱ δεκαοκτὼ

Jesus is using the adjective 18 (eighteen) as a noun in order to indicate a certain group of people. Alternate translation: “those 18 people” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

Σιλωὰμ

Siloam is the name of an area in Jerusalem. (See: How to Translate Names)

δοκεῖτε ὅτι

Jesus is using the question form to teach these the crowd. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “Do not think that” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ὀφειλέται

This is a figurative way of describing someone as a sinner. Alternate translation: “sinners” (See: Metaphor)

ἀνθρώπους

Here Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “people” (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

Luke 13:5

οὐχί, λέγω ὑμῖν

Jesus uses this expression to emphasize what he is about to tell these people and the crowd. Alternate translation: “That is certainly not the case”

πάντες ὡσαύτως ἀπολεῖσθε

See how you translated the similar statement in 13:3. In this case, the people whom Jesus is using as an example were not destroyed by the Romans, so the comparison does not include that detail. Alternate translation: “you too will be destroyed” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 13:6

ἔλεγεν δὲ ταύτην τὴν παραβολήν

Jesus now gives a brief illustration to help the crowd understand what he has been saying. Alternate translation: “Then he told them this story to help them understand what he had been saying” (See: Parables)

συκῆν εἶχέν τις πεφυτευμένην ἐν τῷ ἀμπελῶνι αὐτοῦ

This introduces a character in the parable. Alternate translation: “There was a man who owned a vineyard in which a fig tree had been planted” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

συκῆν εἶχέν τις πεφυτευμένην

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “Someone had planted a fig tree” (See: Active or Passive)

συκῆν

A fig tree is a type of fruit tree that is common in the land of Israel. If your readers would not know what a fig tree is, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “a fruit tree” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἦλθεν ζητῶν καρπὸν ἐν αὐτῇ, καὶ οὐχ εὗρεν

This is background information that helps listeners understand what happens next in the story. Alternate translation: “he went to see if there were any figs on the tree, but there were none” (See: Background Information)

ἦλθεν ζητῶν καρπὸν ἐν αὐτῇ

Here your language might use a form of “go” rather than a form of “come.” Alternate translation: “he went to see if there were any figs on the tree” (See: Go and Come)

Luke 13:7

εἶπεν…πρὸς τὸν ἀμπελουργόν, ἰδοὺ, τρία ἔτη ἀφ’ οὗ ἔρχομαι ζητῶν καρπὸν ἐν τῇ συκῇ ταύτῃ, καὶ οὐχ εὑρίσκω. ἔκκοψον αὐτήν, ἵνα τί καὶ τὴν γῆν καταργεῖ?

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “he told the gardener to pay attention, that he had been coming for three years to look for fruit on the fig tree, but he had not found any, and so the gardener should cut the tree down because it was keeping the ground from being productive” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

ἰδοὺ

The man uses the term behold to get the gardener to pay attention to what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “Pay attention” (See: Metaphor)

ἵνα τί καὶ τὴν γῆν καταργεῖ?

The man uses the question form to emphasize that the tree is useless and that the gardener should cut it down. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “Do not let it keep the ground from being productive any longer.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τὴν γῆν καταργεῖ

The man speaks figuratively of the tree as if it were keeping the ground from working, since the ground would be productive if a different tree that actually was bearing fruit were in its place. Alternate translation: “is it … keeping the ground from being productive” (See: Metaphor)

Luke 13:8

ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς λέγει αὐτῷ

To call attention to a development in the story, Jesus uses the present tense in past narration. See how you decided to approach this usage in 7:40. If it would not be natural to use the present tense in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “But he responded”

ὁ…ἀποκριθεὶς λέγει

Together the terms answering and says mean that the gardener responded to what his master told him to do. Alternate translation: “he responded” (See: Hendiadys)

ἄφες αὐτὴν καὶ τοῦτο τὸ ἔτος

Alternate translation: “wait one more year before cutting down the tree”

βάλω κόπρια

The word manure means animal dung. In some places people mix it into the ground to make the soil more fertile for plants and trees. If your readers would not be familiar with this practice, you could explain it, or you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “mix animal dung into the soil to enrich it” or “fertilize it” (See: Translate Unknowns)

Luke 13:9

κἂν μὲν ποιήσῃ καρπὸν εἰς τὸ μέλλον

The gardener does not specify what he thinks the master should do with the tree if it does bear fruit, but you can supply that information from the context. Alternate translation: “If the tree has figs on it next year, then you can allow it to keep growing” (See: Ellipsis)

εἰς τὸ μέλλον

The gardener is using the participle coming, which functions as an adjective, as a noun. ULT adds the term one to show this. In context, this means “in the coming year.” If your language does not use adjectives this way, you can use an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “next year” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

ἐκκόψεις αὐτήν

The servant is using a statement to make a suggestion. He is not giving a command in the form of a future statement, as some languages allow speakers to do. Alternate translation: “you can have me cut it down for you” (See: Statements — Other Uses)

Luke 13:10

δὲ

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: Connect — Background Information)

ἐν τοῖς Σάββασιν

Your language might use an indefinite article rather than the definite article here, since Luke does not specify which particular Sabbath day this was. Alternate translation: “on a Sabbath day”

Luke 13:11

ἰδοὺ

Luke uses the term behold to calls the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: Metaphor)

γυνὴ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was a woman there” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

πνεῦμα ἔχουσα ἀσθενείας

Alternate translation: “whom an evil spirit had been making weak”

εἰς τὸ παντελές

Luke is using the adjective complete as a noun in order to indicate the woman’s full height. Alternate translation: “to her complete height” or “completely” (See: Nominal Adjectives)

Luke 13:12

γύναι

Unlike the term man in 12:14, in this context Jesus uses the term woman gently and compassionately. Alternate translation: “My dear woman” (See: Idiom)

ἀπολέλυσαι τῆς ἀσθενείας σου

By saying this, Jesus healed the woman. You could express this in your translation with a statement that shows that Jesus was causing this to happen. Alternate translation: “I now set you free from your weakness” (See: Statements — Other Uses)

γύναι, ἀπολέλυσαι τῆς ἀσθενείας σου

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “I now set you free from your weakness” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 13:13

ἀνωρθώθη

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “she stood up straight” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 13:14

ἀποκριθεὶς…ἔλεγεν

Together the two words answering and said mean that the synagogue leader spoke in response to the healing he had just witnessed. Alternate translation: “responded” (See: Hendiadys)

ἓξ ἡμέραι εἰσὶν ἐν αἷς δεῖ ἐργάζεσθαι

Alternate translation: “You must only do work on the first six days of the week”

ἐν αὐταῖς…ἐρχόμενοι θεραπεύεσθε

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “come and have Jesus heal you on those days” (See: Active or Passive)

τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ Σαββάτου

Your language might use an indefinite article rather than the definite article here, since the synagogue ruler is not speaking of a specific Sabbath. Alternate translation: “on a Sabbath day”

Luke 13:15

ὁ Κύριος

Here Luke refers to Jesus by the respectful title the Lord. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus”

ἀπεκρίθη…αὐτῷ…καὶ εἶπεν

Together the two words answered and said mean that Jesus responded to the synagogue ruler. Alternate translation: “responded to the synagogue ruler” (See: Hendiadys)

ὑποκριταί

Jesus is speaking directly to the synagogue ruler, but the plural form indicates that he is including other religious leaders as well. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “You and your fellow religious leaders are hypocrites” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἕκαστος ὑμῶν τῷ Σαββάτῳ οὐ λύει

Jesus is using the question form as a teaching tool. He is not asking his listeners to tell him whether they would do this. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “On the Sabbath, each one of you unties” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τὸν βοῦν αὐτοῦ, ἢ τὸν ὄνον

These are domesticated animals. If your readers would not be familiar with what an ox or a donkey is, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “his farm animals” (See: Translate Unknowns)

τῷ Σαββάτῳ

Here your language might use an indefinite article rather than the definite article, since Jesus is not speaking of a specific Sabbath. Alternate translation: “even on a Sabbath day”

Luke 13:16

θυγατέρα Ἀβραὰμ

Jesus is using the word daughter figuratively to mean “descendant.” Alternate translation: “a descendant of Abraham” (See: Metaphor)

ἣν ἔδησεν ὁ Σατανᾶς

Jesus speaks figuratively of the evil spirit causing the crippling disease as if Satan had tied the woman up. Alternate translation: “whom Satan kept crippled by this illness” (See: Metaphor)

ὁ Σατανᾶς

Jesus figuratively calls the evil spirit Satan by association with the leader of the evil spirits. Alternate translation: “this evil spirit” (See: Metonymy)

ἰδοὺ, δέκα καὶ ὀκτὼ ἔτη

Jesus uses the term behold to emphasize the fact that eighteen years was a very long time for the woman to suffer. Your language may have its own way of emphasizing this. Alternate translation: “for eighteen long years” (See: Metaphor)

οὐκ ἔδει λυθῆναι ἀπὸ τοῦ δεσμοῦ τούτου τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ Σαββάτου?

Jesus is using the question form to challenge the synagogue ruler’s assertion that people should not come for healing on the Sabbath. If it would be clearer in your language, you can translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “it is right to free her” (See: Rhetorical Question)

ἀπὸ τοῦ δεσμοῦ τούτου

Jesus speaks again about the woman’s disease figuratively as if it had kept her tied up. Alternate translation: “from this crippling illness” (See: Metaphor)

τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ Σαββάτου

Here your language might use an indefinite article rather than the definite article, since Jesus is not speaking of a specific Sabbath. Alternate translation: “on a Sabbath day”

Luke 13:17

κατῃσχύνοντο

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “felt ashamed” (See: Active or Passive)

τοῖς ἐνδόξοις τοῖς γινομένοις ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the glorious things Jesus was doing” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 13:18

τίνι ὁμοία ἐστὶν ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ τίνι ὁμοιώσω αὐτήν

These two questions mean basically the same thing. Jesus uses the repetition to catch the attention of his audience. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine the questions, especially if it might be confusing for your readers if you put both of them in. Alternate translation: “What example can I use to show you what the kingdom of God is like” (See: Parallelism)

τίνι ὁμοία ἐστὶν ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ τίνι ὁμοιώσω αὐτήν?

Jesus is using the question form as teaching tool. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. It may be helpful to make this two sentences. Alternate translation: “I want to tell you what the kingdom of God is like. I am going to compare it with something” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τίνι ὁμοία ἐστὶν ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

See how you decided to translate the phrase the kingdom of God in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “What is it like when God rules” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 13:19

ὁμοία ἐστὶν κόκκῳ σινάπεως

This is a simile or comparison. Alternate translation: “The kingdom of God is like a mustard seed” (See: Simile)

ὁμοία ἐστὶν κόκκῳ σινάπεως

This comparison is also a parable, a brief illustration designed to help the people understand what Jesus is teaching. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly in your translation. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus gave the people in the synagogue this illustration to help them understand. ‘The kingdom of God is like a mustard seed’” (See: Parables)

κόκκῳ σινάπεως

A mustard seed is a very small seed that grows into a large plant. If your readers would not be familiar with it, in your translation you can use the name of another seed like it, or you can use a general phrase. Alternate translation: “a very small seed” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἄνθρωπος

This could mean: (1) This is a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “a person” (2) This refers to a man and a woman in paired examples to offer a comprehensive teaching about the kingdom of God, since Jesus speaks in his next illustration of a woman doing something. In that case, it would be appropriate to say a man here. (See: When Masculine Words Include Women)

ἔβαλεν εἰς κῆπον ἑαυτοῦ

In this culture, people planted some kinds of seeds by throwing them so that they scattered in a garden. Jesus assumes that his listeners will know this. Alternate translation: “planted in his garden” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατεσκήνωσεν ἐν τοῖς κλάδοις αὐτοῦ

In your language, it might seem that this phrase expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you could abbreviate it. However, you could also use an action clause to keep the sense of “sky.” Alternate translation: “birds built their nests in its branches” or “birds flew down and made nests in its branches” (See: Making Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information Explicit)

Luke 13:20

τίνι ὁμοιώσω τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ?

Jesus once again uses a question as a teaching tool. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am going to compare the kingdom of God to something else.” (See: Rhetorical Question)

τίνι ὁμοιώσω τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ?

See how you decided to translate the phrase the kingdom of God in 4:43. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun kingdom with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “I am going to use another comparison to show you what is it like when God rules” (See: Abstract Nouns)

Luke 13:21

ὁμοία ἐστὶν ζύμῃ

This is a simile or comparison. Alternate translation: “The kingdom of God is like yeast” (See: Simile)

ὁμοία ἐστὶν ζύμῃ

This comparison is also a parable, a brief illustration designed to help the crowds understand what Jesus is teaching. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly in your translation. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus gave them this further illustration to help them understand. ‘The kingdom of God is like yeast’” (See: Parables)

ζύμῃ

See how you translated yeast in 12:1. Alternate translation: “leaven” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ζύμῃ

Jesus assumes that his listeners will know that only a little bit of yeast is needed to make a lot of dough rise. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “a little bit of yeast” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

ἀλεύρου σάτα τρία

The term seahs is the plural of “seah,” a dry measure equivalent to nearly eight liters or two gallons. You can express this quantity in terms of a measure that your culture uses, or you can use a general expression. Alternate translation: “a large amount of flour” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἐζυμώθη ὅλον

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the yeast caused all of it to rise” (See: Active or Passive)

Luke 13:22

καὶ διεπορεύετο κατὰ πόλεις καὶ κώμας

Luke provides this background information to help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now he was traveling through cities and villages” (See: Connect — Background Information)

Luke 13:23

εἶπεν…τις αὐτῷ

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. Alternate translation: “someone in one of those places asked him” (See: Introduction of New and Old Participants)

εἰ ὀλίγοι οἱ σῳζόμενοι?

This was an idiomatic way of asking a question. Alternate translation: “is God going to save only a few people?” (See: Idiom)

εἰ ὀλίγοι οἱ σῳζόμενοι?

If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “is God going to save only a few people?” (See: Active or Passive)

ὁ…εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς

The implication is that a crowd had gathered to meet Jesus as he went through this place on his journey, and that the questioner was one person in the crowd. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus replied to this person and to the whole crowd that was there” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 13:24

ἀγωνίζεσθε εἰσελθεῖν διὰ τῆς στενῆς θύρας

Jesus is speaking about God’s kingdom as if people had to go through a small doorway with great difficulty to enter it. Alternate translation: “work hard to overcome every difficulty that would keep you from entering God’s kingdom” (See: Metaphor)

λέγω ὑμῖν

Jesus says this to emphasize what he is telling the crowd. Alternate translation: “you must understand”

λέγω ὑμῖν

Even though Jesus is answering an individual’s question, he is talking to the whole crowd, so the word you is plural. The implied you in the command to struggle earlier in this verse is also plural. (See: Forms of You)

πολλοί…ζητήσουσιν εἰσελθεῖν καὶ οὐκ ἰσχύσουσιν

The implication is that they will not be able to enter because it is so difficult. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “many of the people who try to enter the kingdom of God … will not be able to, because it is so difficult” (See: Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information)

Luke 13:25

ἀφ’ οὗ ἂν ἐγερθῇ ὁ οἰκοδεσπότης καὶ ἀποκλείσῃ τὴν θύραν

Jesus extends the metaphor of the door by speaking of God at the time of final judgment as if God were the owner of a house and the people he is addressing were outside the house trying to get in. Alternate translation: “After God has admitted everyone who is going to enter his kingdom and is not letting anyone else in” (See: Biblical Imagery — Extended Metaphors)

ἄρξησθε…ὑμῖν…ὑμᾶς

Even though Jesus is answering an individual’s question, he is talking to the whole crowd, so the word you is plural in all of these cases. (See: Forms of You)

κρούειν τὴν θύραν λέγοντες, κύριε, ἄνοιξον ἡμῖν

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “knock on the door and ask the Lord to open it for you” (See: Quotes within Quotes)

κρούειν τὴν θύραν

See how you translated the word “knock” in 11:9. Alternate translation: “call out” or “cough” or “clap” (See: Translate Unknowns)

ἡμῖν

The people knocking on the door mean themselves but not the owner of the house, so if your language distinguishes between exclusive and inclusive us, use the exclusive form here. (See: Exclusive and Inclusive ‘We’)

ἀποκριθεὶς ἐρεῖ

Together the two words answer and say mean that the owner of the house will respond to the people who are knocking on the door. Alternate translation: “will respond” (See: Hendiadys)

ἀποκριθεὶς ἐρεῖ ὑμῖν, οὐκ οἶδα ὑμᾶς, πόθεν ἐστέ

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so